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THE 



TRANSACTIONS 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



LONDON. 



THIRD SERIES. 



X 



^^^•^^ 



VOL. II. C" 

V 






LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY C. ROWORTU AND SONS, 

BELL YARD, FLEET STREET. 

SOLD AT THE SOCIETY'S APARTMENTS, 12, BEDFORD RO\V, 

AND BY LONGMAN, GREEN, LONGMAN AND ROBERTS, 

PATERNOSTER ROW. 



1864-1866. 






London: 

PRINTKD BY C. ROWORTH AND SON.- 
BELL YARD, TEMPLE BAH. 



i\^e<^'S 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



COUNCIL. 



1864. 



F. P. Pascoe, Esq , F.L.S.. &c. . . 
Rev. Hamlet Clark, ftJ.A., F.L.S.' 
H. T. Stainton, Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S. 
A. R. Wallace, Esq., F.Z.S., F.R.G.S 
Samuel Stevens, Ksq., F.L.S. 
Edwin Shepherd, Esq. .. 
J. W. Dunning, Esq., M A., F.L.S. , F 
H. VV. Batfs, Esq., F.Z.S. 
Ferdinand Grut, Esq. .. 
R. M'LAfHLAN, Esq., F.L.S, 

J. VV. Mav,Esq 

Frederick Smith, Esq. .. 
J. Jenner Willi, Esq. 



S., &:c 



Fiesident. 
Vice-Presidents. 



Treasurer. 
> Secretaries. 



Other Members 
of Council. 



1865. 

F. P. Pascoe, Esq., F.L.S., &.c 

W. W. Saunders, Esq. F.R.S., V.P.L.S.,Scc. 

Frederick Smith, Esq. .. 

H. T. Stainton, Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

Samuel Stevens, Esq., F.L.S. .. 

Edwin Shepherd, Esq. .. 

J. W. Dunning, Esq., M.A., F.L.S , F.Z.S., & 

Rev. Hamlet Clark, M.A., F.L.S. 

R. M'Laciilan, Esq. F.L.S. 

Frederic Moore, Esq. .. 

Augustus F. Sheppard, Esq. 

Edward Sheppard, Esq., F.L.S. 

J, Jenner Wtiu.Esq., F.L.S. .. 



President. 

V Vice-Presidents. 

Treasurer. 
/ Secretaries. 

[.Other Members 
( of Council , 



TRANSACTIONS 

OF 

THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF LONDON, 18.34-18f)5. 







To the Public. 


To Members 


Vol. I. 


(24 plates) . 


. Price £16 


..£100 


Vol. IF. 


(22 plates) . 


. . . 14 . 


18 


Vol. III. 


(16 plates) . 


. . . 1)0 . 


15 


Vol. IV. 


(23 plates) . 


. . . 13 0. 


. . 17 


Vol. V. 


(23 plates) . 


. . . 16 . 


10 






£6 


£4 10 











SECOND (OR NEW) SERIES. 

To the Public. 
Vol. I. (18 plates) ....£140 
Vol. II. (23 plates) . ... 180 
Vol. III. (18 plates) .... 170 
Vol. IV. (28 plates) .... 170 
Vol. V. (19 plates) .... 2 14 

£8 



To Mem 


bers 


£0 


IS 





1 


I 





1 








1 


1 





2 








£6 








.rzziz 









THIRD SERIES. VOL. I. 

To the Public. To Members. 

Vol. I. (2,5 plates) .... £2 10 ... £1 5 
Vol.11. (24 plates) . ... 1 16 ... 18 
There are also published at this date, Vol. III. Parts 1, 2; Vol. IV. 
Part 1; and Vol. V. Part 1. 

The .loiinial of Proceedings of the Society is bound up with the Trans- 
actions ; it niaj', however, be obtained separately — by Members gro<(s, and 
by the public, price Is. per sheet. 

Members and Subscribers resident more than fifteen miles from London, 
who have paid their subscription for the current year, are entitled to receive 
the Transactions without further payment, and they will be forwarded free, 
by post, to any address within the United Kingdom. 

The Council no longer undertakes to supply the First or Second Series of 
the Transactions in detached parts or portions of Volumes. All applications 
for isolated Parts must be made direct to the Secretary. 



CONTENT^S. 



P AOE 

Explanation of the Plates vii 

Errata x 

List of Members and Subscribers . . .■ xi 



MEMOIRS. 
I. A Catalogue of Luamoid Colcoptera ; with Illustrations and 
Descriptions of various new and interesting Species, By 
Major F. J. S. Parry, F.L.S I 

II. On the Formation of the Cells of Dees and Wasps. By G. R. 

Waterhousr, F.Z.S., &c 115 

III. On the Construction of Hexagonal Cells by Bees and Wasps. 

By F. Smith, late Pres. Ent. Soc 131 

IV. On the Reversion and Restoration of the Silkworm. By Captain 

T. Mutton, F.G.S 143 

V. Descriptions of some New Species of Butterflies found in Southern 

Africa. By Roland Trimen 175 

V'l. Characters of undescribed Species of Sniiera {C/ialcidiles). By 

F. Walker, F.L.S 181 

VII. Notes on the Genus Ht/dulicm: (Leach), with Descriptions of 

New Species. By the Rev. H. Clat.k, .M.A., F.L.S. . . 209 

V II r. Descriptions of uncliaracterized Genera and Species of Phylophuga, 

By J. S. Baly 223 

IX. Descriptions of New Species of Diurnal Lepidoptcra. By W. C. 

Hewitson, "F.L.S 245 

X. Further Descriptions of New Genera and Species of Phi/lopliaga. 

By J. S. Baly 251 

XI. Notes on the Genus Scheinatiza (Phj/lop/wga, Ca/lcrucidce), with 
Descriptions of New Species. By the Rev. II. Clark, 
M.A., F.L.S ' 259 

XII. Descriptions of some New Species of Coleopterous Insects 
belonging to the Eupodous Phi/lophoga, Natives of the 
Old World and Australia. By J. O. Westwood, M.A., 
F.L.S., Hopeian Prof, of Zoology 271 



VI CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

XIII, A Monograph of the Genus Ypldhima ; with Descriptions of 

Two New Genera of Diurnal Lepk/opferu. By W. C. 
Hewitson, F.L.S 281 

XIV. On the Reversion and Restoration of the Silkworm (Part 2) ; 

with Distinctive Characters of Eighteen Species of Silk- 
producing Bomhvcidff. By Captain T. Hutton, F.G.S. 295 

XV. Descriptions of New Genera and Species of Phytophagu. 

By J. S. Baly 333 

XVI, On the Species of ^Jgra of the Amazons Region. ByH. W. 

Bates, F.Z,S 359 

XVII. New Species of Agra in the Collection of Mr. W. W, 

Saunders, By H. W, Bates, F.Z.S 385 

XVIII. Descriptions of some New Species of Hymenopterous In- 
sects belonging to the P'amilies Tliynnida:, MuaariJa, and 
Apidte. By F. Smith, V. P. Ent. Soc 389 

XIX. Descriptions of New Phytophaga from Western Australia. 

By the Rev. H. Clark, M.A., F.L.S 401 

XX. Descriptions of New Species of Bomhyces from North Eastern 

India. By F. Moore 423 

XXI. Descriptions of New Genera and Species of Phytophaga. 

By J. S. Baly, F.L.S 427 

XXII. Characters of a New Genus and Species of Chulcidiles. By 

F. Walker, F.L.S 441 

XXIII. Remarks on Captain Hutton 's Paper "On the Reversion 

and Restoration of the Silkworm." By Captain J. 
Mitchell 443 

XXIV. On the British Species of Agathidiuni. By David Sharp 445 

XXV. Observations on some remarkable Varieties of Sterrha 
sacrai'ia, Linn., with general Notes on Variation in Lepi- 
doptera. By R. M'Lachlan, F.L.S 453 

XXVI. Description of Papilio Godeffroi/i., n. sp. By Geo. Semper 469 

XXVII. New Genera and Species of Galle?'ucidce. By J. S. Baly, 

F.L.S 471 

XXVIII. Descriptions of New Hesperidce. By W. C. Hewitson, 

F,L.S„ F,Z,S 479 

Journal of Proceedings for 1864 i 

,, ,, 1865 Ixxxi 

Index cliii 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate. 


Fig. 


I. 


i. 




2. 


11. 


1. 




2. 




3. 


III. 


1. 




2. 




3. 




4. 



i. Oilmtulahii Muuhotii, Parry, ^. 

,, Cflste/noi/t/i, Parry, ^ . 

,, Ludekingii, Vollenli., ,J , var. nieil. 

,, Wollastonii, VnTry,$ . 

,. $. 
,, ., >. ^ > var. max. 

Sclerostomus siguatipennis, H. Deyr., $ . 
,, lineatn s, H.Veyr.,^. 

,, fasciatus, Germain, $ . 

IV, 1. Hexarthritts De>jroUei,Psiiry,$ . 

2. Cladngvathns attenxcatus. Parry, $. 

3. Neoluamus cingulatus, Parry, $ . 

4. Cladognathus decipiens, Parry, J . 

5. ,, zebra, 01iv.,$. 
V. 1. JEgus sei-ratus, Parry, $ . 

2. Odontolabis Stevetisii, J. Thoras.,^, var. max, 

3. jEgiis impressicollis, Parry, $ . 

4. Mesotopus Taraitdus, Swed., $ . 

5. Odontolabis Stevensii, J. Thorns., $. 

\'l, 1. Cladognalhus sericens, Hope, ^ , var. max. 

2. Lucanus Hopei, Parry, ^ . 

3. Cladognathus fulvonotaliis, Parry, ^ , var. max. 

4. Odontolabis Sommeri, Parry, ^. 

5. ,. Broo/certfiiis, VolIeali,,(J' , var. max. 
\ll. 1. Cyrtorasis subtiitens, VdirTy,$ . 

2. Cladogualkus Watlacei, Parry, $ , var. max, 

3. ,, iisj^'natiis, Parry, ^ , var. mill. 

4. Leplinopterus Fi'yi, Parry, $ , var. max. 

5. Cladognathus bisignatus, Parry, $ . 

6. ,, Tragtiliis, Vollenh.,,^, var. mud. 

7. .Egus trilohutii!:, Parry, ^, 

8. Leptinopterus rotundatus, Parry, (^ . 

9. Odontolabis (craliis, Hope, $ . 

\ III. 1. ,, ro/ie«ft('Di(, Parry, ^ , var. max. 

2. Cladognathus flavidus. Parry, ^, var. max. 

3. ,, elegans, Parry, ,J. 

4. ,, (juadrinoilosus, Parry, (^, var. max. 

5. ,, /Lfl/i?r(ej, Reiche, $ . 



Ill EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate. Fig. 
IX. ]. Aholitcanus Ba/arfevn, Hope, mandib. 

2. Rheetus Westwoodii, Parry, ^, var. max.; fig. 8, antenna. 

3. Neolucanus Saimdersii, Parry, mandib. 

4. Cyclorasis Jekelii, Parry, $ . 

5. Hexaithrius BowrinoH, Parry, ^, var. max.; fig. 7, antenna. 
- 6. Cantharolelhriis Liixeiii, Buquet, ^ . 

X. 1. ^gus plutyodpn,V!irry, ^, var. max. 

2. Lucanus Smithii, Parry, ^. 

3. Chiasognathus Mniizech a, J, Thorns., $ , 

4. Hemisodorciis Passaloides, Hope, ^. 

5. Cladognalhus politus, Parry, $ . 

6. Heterochihes bracliypterus, VVestw., $ 

7. ,. .." ., $. 

8. Odonlolabis Ciiigalensis, Parry, ^ , var. max. 

9. Maciocrntes biicephalus, Burm.,,^. 

XI. 1. Helerochthes bracliypterus, Westw.,^ , var. max.; and details. 

2. „ ,, ,, ,J,var. min.; and details. 

3. ,, „ ,, $ ; and details. 

4. Cladognalhus riidis, Westw., 5 ; and details. 

5. Sclerostomtis Philippi, Westw., ^. 

6. Homoderus Miliyi, Parry, ^, var. max., anterior part of body. 
XII. 1. Cladognathiis modeslus, Parry, ^; and details. 

2. „ _/u6e'', J. Thorns ,^, var. max.; 2a, ^, var. min. 
head. 

3. Buddha, Hope, ^ , var. max.; 3 a, var. min. (C. Thibetkus 

Westw.) 

4. Cyclommalus Maitlandi, Parry, ^, var. max. 

5. ^■Egiis lahilis, Westw., ^; and details. 

6. Ditomoderus mirabilis, Parry ,^ ; and details. 
XLII. 1, la. Hornet's nest in rudimentary state. 

2. Four cells of hornet's nest. 

3. A more advanced piece from the same nest. 

4. Illustration of the mode of cell-building. 

A. Nest of an Icaria. 

B. Nest of Icaria guitatipeiinis, 

C. Comb of Vespa vulgaris. 

D. Portion of nest of Tatua Murio, 
XIV'. 1. Hydaticus BakeweUii, Clark. 

2. ,, Ussherii, Clark. 

3. ,, Bowringii, Clark. 

4. ,, decorus. King. 

5. ,, histrio, Clark. 

6. ,, vittalus, Fabr., var. 
XV. 1. Helcyra Hemina, Hewitsott. 

2. Limenitis Labotas, Hewitson. 
3,4. „ L/g-i/fs, Flewitson. , 

5,6. I.aogova r i/irn, Hewitson. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. IX 

Plate. Fig. 
XVI. 1. Gonepteryx Gobrias, Hewitson. 

2. Eteona Eu polls, Hewitson. 

3. Eueldes Eurysaces, Hewitson. 

4. Diicenna Dercyllidas, Hewitson. 

5. Lasiommata Lasxs, Hewitson. 
6, 7. ,, Leprea, Ilewilson. 

X^1I. 1,'2. CcFHV'''' ^^'^*> Crimen. 
3,4. Xois Sesiira, Hewitson. 

5. Yphthima Inica, Hewitson. 

6,7. ,, A^iifJo, Kollar. 

8, 9. ,, Aplinius, Gotlart. 

10. ,, Sepyia, Hewitson. 

XVIII. 11. ,, Hyagriva, Moore. 

12. ,, Fahdocus, Moore. 

13. ,, Itotiia, Hewitson. 
14, 15. ,, Ceylonica, Hewitson. 
16, 17. ,, Loryma, Hewitson. 

18. ,, Sakra, Moore. 

19. ,, Narasingha, iMoore. 
20,21. ,, We(/iora, Hewitson. 

XIX. 1,2. Larva of Tri7i>c/i(i u'/r/o'is, Moore. . 

3. ,, BombyxJ'oitiinatus, Hutlon. 

4. ,, ,, Huttoiii, W'estw. 

5. ,, ,, Bevgalens'n, Hutton. 

6. ,, Oriiiara Uictca, Hutton. 

7. ,, Bombyx Mori, Linn., reverted. 

8. ,, ,, ,, as cultivated. 
XX. 1. Agra occipitalis, Bates, $. 

2. ,, «i6j(i/is, Chaudoir, $. 

3. ,, Cylherea, J. Thorns, $ . 

4. ,, Sauiidersii, Bates, ^. 

5. „ dominula, Bates, J. 

6. ,, aiiguitiea, Bates, $. 

7. ,, Vdlentina, Bates, $. 

XXI. 1. Thaumatosomci Duboulaii, Sm'nh, $ ; 1 u, antenna. 

2. Telraloiiia mirabitis, Smitli, $, antenna. 

3. Lumprncolletes cladocerus, Smhh, $ ; 3 «, 3 6, antenna. 

4. Cienocerus ramosus, Smhh, ^, antenna. 

5. Nomia Kirbii, Smitli, ^ , antenna. 

6. Psanimotberma Jlabellata, Smith, antenna. 

7. Chalicodoma cwlocero, Sm'nh, (J^, antenna. 
XXII. 1. Bombyx Sheruilli, Moore. 

2. Saturnia CiJosa, Moore. 

3. „ Liiidia, Moore. 

XXIII. 1. Sterrha sacraria, lAnn., 9 > parent of the following. 

\b. Larvaj of 5. sacraria; on Polygonum oviculare. 
2 — 7. Sterrha sacraria, varieties bred from eggs laid by fig. 1. 
\XI V. 1. Papiliu Godeffroyi, .Semper, $ , upper and under side. 

2. „ „ „ , ?, 



ERRATA. 

Transactions. 
Page 79, line 16 from bottom, insert the habitat "Assam." 
„ 207, note, add at the end " at p. .370." 

Journal of Phoceedings, 
Page xvi, line 4 from bottom, for " Long, corp." read " Long, cap." 
,, xlvii, ,, 20 ,, for " Sybines" read " Sibynes." 

,, cii, ,, 17 ,, for " Limenitis" read " Leptosia." 

Plates 1, 2, 3, 4, 11 and 12, are erroneously lettered Vol. L instead of Vol. IL 



Uisf of iWlriii()«3 



THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



OF LONDON. 



FEBEXJ.A.I?,Y, 1866. 



LIST OF MEMBERS 

OF 

THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF LONDON. 



i^ottorary fWcmters. 

BoHEMAN, Carl H., Stockholm. 

Edwards, Professor H. Milne, Paris. 

Guerin-JMeneville, F. E., Paris. 

Hagen, Dr. H. A., Konigsberg. 

Lacordaire, Professor J. '1'., Liege. 

Leconte, Dr. John L., Philadelphia. 

Lefebvre, Alexandre, Bouchevilliers, pies Gisors, Departement de I'Eure. 

Pictet, Professor J. C, Geneva. 

Zeiler, Professor P. C, Meseritz. 

Zetterstedt, Professor J. VV., Ph. D., &c., Lund. 



( xiii ) 



ORDINARY MEMBERS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 



Marked * are Original Members. 

Marked t have Compounded for iheir Aiinual Subscriptions. 

Marked S. are Subset ibers. 



Date of 
Election. 

1866 Adams, Henry, F.L S., 19, Hanover Villas, Kensington Park, W. 

1858 S. AUcliin. W. H., M.P., 7, Pembridge Villas, Bayswaler, W. 

1849 S. Allis, Thomas H., York. 

1856 Armiiage, Edward, 3, Hall Road, St. John's Wood, N.W. 

1857 Atkinson, W, S., M.A., F.L.S., La ;Martiniere, Calcutta. 

• t Babington, Professor C. C, M.A., F. R.S., F.L.S,, F.G.S., St. John's 
College, Cambridge. 

1857 Bakewell, R., F.L.S., 96, St. John's Wood Terrace, N.W. 

1850 Baly, J. S., F.L.S., 4, Francis Terrace, Kentish Town, N.W. 
1849 S. Barlow, F., St. Andrew's Street, Cambridge. 

1865 S. Barton, Stephen, Rlaudlin Street. Bristol. 

1861 Bates, Henry W'aller, F.Z.S., 40, Bartholomew Road, Kentish Town, 
N.W. 

1851 Beaumont, Alfred, Greave, Mellham, HuJdersfield. 

1865 Beavan, Lieut. R. C, Bengal Revenue Survey. 
1854 Birt, Jacob, 30, Sussex Gardens, Hyde Park, W. 

1866 S. Blackburn, Thomas, Grassmeade, Southfields, Wandsworth, S.W. 

1864 Blackmore, Tiovey, 10, High Street, Wandsworth, S.W. 
1849 t Bladon, J., Albion House, Pont-y-pool. 

1841 Bond, Fred., F.Z.S., 21, Adelaide Road, Haverstock Hill, N.W. 

1860 Bonvouloir, Viiomte Henri de, 15, Rue de I'Universite, Paris. 

1865 Borrer, W., M.A., F.L.S., Cowfold, Horsham. 
1865 Borthwick, Richard, Alloa, N.B. 

• Bowerbank, J. S., Ph. D., F.R.S.. F.G.S., F.L.S. , 2, East Ascent, St. 
Leonards. 

1852 t Boyd, Thomas, 17, Clapton Squaie, N.E. 

1856 Biaikenridge, Rev. G. W., M.A., F.L.S., Clevedon, near Bristol. 

1865 S. Brewer, J. A., High Street, Reigale. 

1849 S. Brown, Edwin, Burton on-Trenf. 

1862 Browne, Rev. T. II., High Wycombe, Bucks. 
1865 S. Brunton, T., Glenarm Casile, Lame, Antrim. 

1863 Bryant, George, India Office, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W. 
1855 Burnell, E. H., 32, Bedford Row, W^C. 



XIV ORDINARY MEMBERS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 

Date of 
Election. 

1860 Candeze, Dr. E., Glain, Liege. 

1865 Carey. A. D., The Paragon. Hackney, N.E. 

1859 Chaudoir, Baron Maxinailien de, Voliiynia 

1850 Claik, Rev. Hamlet, M.A., F.L.S. 
1865 S. Clarke, C.B., M. A., Calcutta. 
1865 S. Clift, Edward, Lewisham.S.E. 

1865 Cole, VV., 123, Hemingford Road, Islington. N. 

1865 Colquhoun, Hugh, M.D., 16, Grosvenor Terrace, Glasgow. 

1865 S. Cooke, Benj., 49, Ardwick Place, Manchester. 

1853 Cox, Major C. J.. Fordwich House. Canterbury, 

1857 Croker, T. F. Dillon. 19. Pelham Place. Brompton, S.W. 
1865 Crotch, G. R., B.A., 8, Earl Street, Cambridge. 

1865 Dallas, W. S., F.L.S. , The Museum, York. 

* t Darwin, Charles, -M. A., F.R.S,, &c., Down, Bromley, S.E. 
1849 S. Dawson, John, Carron, Falkirk, Stiilingshire. 

1853 De Grey and Ripon, Earl, F.R.S., F.L.S., &c., 1, Carlton Gardens, 
S.W. 

* f Desvignes, Thomas, Fir Tree Cottage. Woodford, N.E. 

1837 Devonshire, Duke of, K.G., F.R.S., &c., Piccadilly, W. 
1855 Dohrn, Dr. C. A., Pres. E-at. Verein, Stettin. 

1865 Dorville, H., Alphington, Exeter. 

1851 Dossetor, T. P., 12, Poultry, E.G. 

* Doubleday, Henry, Epping. 

1849 t Dunning, J. W., M.A., F.L.S.. F.Z.S., Secielary, 1, Old Square, 

Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 

1865 D'Urban, W. S. M., F.L.S., Newport, Exeter. 

1851 S. Dutton, James, 2, Theresa Place, Hammersmith, W. 

1865 Eaton, A. E., Little Bridy, Dorsetshire. 

1838 Evans, W. F., 7, St. Alban's Road, Kensington, W. 
1865 S. Farren, W., 10. Rose Crescent. Cambridge. 

1858 Penning, George, Lloyds. E.G. 

1865 Fletcher, J. E., Comer Gardens, Worcester. 

1835 Fry, Alexander, F.L.S., 1. Holland Villas Road, Kensington, W. 

1865 Fust, H. J., Hill Court, Berkeley. Gloucestershire. 

1857 S. Gloyne, C, P., Jamaica. 

1865 t Godman, F. D., M.A., F.L.S., Park Hatch, Godalming. 

1865 Gorham, Rev. H. S., Ham, Ashbourne. 

* Gould, J., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 26, Charlotte Street, Bedford 

Square, W.C. 

1850 Gray, John, Wheatfield House, Bolton, Lancashire. 
1842 t Gray, John Edw., Ph. D., F.R.S., British Museum, W.C. 
1865 Greene, Rev. J , M.A., Cubley Rectory, Uttoxeter, 

1861 S. Grenfell, John G., British Museum, W.C. 

1865 Groser, W. H., B.Sc, F.G.S., 19, Claremont Square. N. 

1853 S. Groves. W., 1, Lee Place, Lee, S.E. 

1846 Grut, Ferdinand, 9, King Street. Southwark, S.E. 

1865 Guise, Sir W. V., Bart., F.L.S., Elmore Court, Gloucester. 



Date of 
Election. 
1850 t 


1861 


S, 


« 




1864 




1865 




1861 




1846 




1866 




1859 




1865 


s. 


1862 




1864 




1851 




1843 




1853 




* 




1865 


s. 


1861 


s. 


1865 




1842 




186! 




1861 


s. 


1865 




1855 




1849 


t 


1859 




1865 




1865 


s. 


1835 


t 


1865 




1865 


t 


1851 




1849 




1850 


s. 


1850 


t 


1865 


s. 


1865 




1851 


t 


1858 




1865 




1856 


t 


1865 




1860 




1865 


s, 


1865 




1864 





ORDINARY MEMBERS AND SUBSCRIBERS. XV 



Giiyon, George, Ventnor, Isle of Wight, 

Ihicks!)a\v, Robert, 29, Meilon Road, Kensington, W. 

Hanson, Samuel, 43, Upper Ilarley Street, W. 

Harper, P. H., 30, CanibriJge Street, Hjde Park Square, VV. 

Hartwright, J. H., 16a, Terrace, Kennington Park, S. 

Haward, Alfred, Eagle Cottage, Gloucester Road, Cioydon, S. 

Hewitson, W. C, F.L.S,, F.Z.S., Oatlands, Weybridge. 

Hobson, Captain Julian C, II.IM. Staff Corps, Sattara, near Bombay. 

Ilowitt, Godfrey, M.D., Collins Street East, Melbourne. 

Hudd, A. E., I.Gloucester Row, Clifton. 

Hughes, T. E., VVallfield, Reigate. 

Hume, William, 9, Giacechurch Street, E.C. 

Hunter, John, Sycamore Grove, New Maiden, S.W. 

Janson, E. W., Librarian, 2, Alma Road, Highgate Hill, N. 

Jekel, Henri, Paris. 

Jenyns, Rev.L., M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S., 1, Darlington Place, Haili. 

John, Evan, Llantrisant, Glamorganshire. 

Kiiby, W. F., 34, St. Paul's Crescent, Camden Square, N.W. 

Knox, H. Blake, 2, Ulverlon Place, Dalkey, Dublin. 

Kuper, Rev. C, M.A., Trellich, Chepstow. 

Lacerda, Antonio de, Bahia. 

Laing, James A., Paragon Road, Blackheath, S.E. 

Latham, A. G., Weaste Hall, Pendleton, Manchester. 

Lea, J. W., B.A., F.G.S., The Grange, Shepperton Green, Chertsey. 

Lee, John, Q.C., LL.D., F.R.S., &c., Hartwell House, Aylesbury. 

Lewis, Rev. Evan, B.A., Rothwell, Northamptonshire. 

Lier, H. H. H. van de. Delft. 

Lighten, Rev. SirC. R., Bart., Ellaslane, Ashbourne. 

Liugvvood, R.M., M.A., F.L.S., 1, Derby Villas, Cheltenham. 

Linnell, John, jun. Redstone, Redhill. 

Llewelyn, J. T. D., M.A., F.L.S., "i'nisygerwn, Nealh. 

Lodder, Major II. C, 47lh Infantry, 'i'oronto, Canada West. 

Logan, R.F., Hawlhornbrae, Duddingstone, near Edinburgh. 

Lowe, VV. F., M.D., Balgreen, Slateford, near Edinburgh. 

Lubbock, Sir John, Bart., F.R.S.. FJ..S., F.Z.S,, &c., President, 

High Elms, Farnborough. 
Lyddeker, Richard, Harpenden Lodge, St. Albans. 
M'Caul,S., B.C.L., Rectory House, London Bridge. E.C. 
M'Intosh, J., Matfen Hall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
M'Lachlan. Robert, F.L.S., 1. Park Road Terrace, Forest Hill. S.E. 
Marshall. Rev. T. A.. M.A.. l he College. Milford Haven. 
Marshall. William. Elm Lodge, Clay Hill, Enfield. 
IMathew, G. F., R.N., F.L.S., Raleigh House, Barnstaple. 
May. J. VV., 9, Victoria Road. Finchley Road, N.W. 
Meek, Edward, 5. King Street. Old Ford Road. N.E. 
Mercer, Albert, 24, Hemingford Road. Islington, N. 
Milnes, Rev. Herbert, ('rich, Matlock. 



XVI ORDINARY MEMBERS AND SUBSCRIBERS. 



Moore, Frederic, 1(3, Rochester Terrace, Kentish Town Road, N.W. 
Mosse, G. Staley, 12, Eldon Road, Kensington, W. 
Murray, Andrew, F.L.S., 67, Bedford Gardens, Kensington, \V. 
Newman, Edward, F.L.S., F.Z.S., M. Imp. L. C. Acad., 7, York 

Giove, Queen's Road, Peckham, S.E. 
Owen, Richard, M.D., LL.D,, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., British 

Museum, W.C. 
Parfitt, Edward, Devon and Exeter Institution, Exeter. 
Parry, Major F.J. Sidney, F.L.S., 18, Onslow Square, S.VV. 
Parry, Thomas, The Bank, Merthyr. 

Pascoe, Francis P., F.L.S., 7, Palace Garden Villas, Kensington, W. 
Pelerin, W. G., 237, Queen's Road, Dalston, N.E. 
Phillipps, William, Reigate Lodge, Reigate. 
Pickersgill, J. C, Hooley House, Coulsdon, Croydon, S. 
Preston, Rev.T. A., M.A., The College, Marlborough. 
Pryer, W. B., Shanghai. 
Ransome, Robert James, Ipswich. 
Reeks, Henry, The Manor House, Thruxton, Andover. 
Robinson, E, W., 43, Harmood Street, Kentish Town, N.W. 
Rogers, C. O., Si. George's Terrace, Lower Clapton, N.E. 
Rogers, W., Grove Cottage, Merton Road, Lower Tooting, S. 
Rooke, Col.W'illoughby S., F.L.S., Guards Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 
Ruspini, F. O., 2, Haveiock Villas, Pendleton, Manchester. 
Rylands, T. G., F.L.S., F.G.S., Heath House, Warrington. 
Saunders, Edward, Hill Field, Reigate. 
Saunders, G.S., Hill Field, Reigate. 
Saunders, S. S., H.M, Consui-General, Corfu. 
Saunders, W. F., F.L.S,, Hill Field, Reigate. 
Saunders, W. W., F.R.S., F.L.S. , &c., Hill Field, Reigate. 
Schaufuss, L. W., M. Imp. L. C. Acad , &c., Dresden. 
Scholfield, R.S., Junior Carlton Club, Waterloo Place, S.W. 
Sealy, A. F., M. A., India. 
Semper, Georg. Allona. 
Sharp, David, 12, St. Vincent St., Edinburgh. 
Shepherd, Edwin, Secretary, 176, Fleet Street, E.C. 
Sheppard, Augustus F., Rose Bank, Eltham Road, Lee, S.E. 
Sheppard, Edward, F.L.S., 18, Durham Villas, Kensington, W. 
Sichel, Dr. Jules, 50, Rue de la Chauss6e d'Antin, Paris. 
Signoret, Victor, 51, Rue de Seine, Paris. 
Smith, E. A., 27, Richmond Crescent, Islington, N. 
Smith, Frederick, 27, Richmond Crescent, Islington, N. 
Spence, W. B. 

Stainton, H.T., F.L.S., F.G.S., Mountsfield, Lewisham, S.E. 
Stevens, John S., 24, Bloomsbury Street, W.C. 
Stevens, Samuel, F.LS., Treasurer, 24, Bloomsbury Street, W.C. 
Thompson, Miss Sophia, Barn Hill, Stamford. 
Thompson, Thomas, Hull. 



Date of 


1853 




1859 




1861 




1849 


t 


1841 


t 


1863 


S. 


1840 


t 


1865 




1854 




1860 


s. 


1862 


s. 


1852 


t 


1851 




1866 


s. 


1865 


s. 


1865 




1857 


s. 


1866 




1865 


s. 


1865 




1861 


s. 


1865 




1865 


t 


1861 


t 


1849 


s. 


1849 


s. 


* 


t 


1865 




1865 




1857 




1864 




1862 




1847 




1851 




1852 




1865 




1853 




1863 




1850 




« 


t 


1848 


t 


1862 




1837 




1854 


s. 


1850 


s. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS AND SUBSCRIBERS. XVll 

Date of 
Election. 

1B56 Thomson, James, 23, Rue de I'Universite, Paris. 

1838 Tlnvaites. G. H. K.. Ph. D., F.R.S., F.L.S., Ceylon. 

1859 Tiniins, Rev. Douglas C, M.A., Avonholme, Tunbridge Wells. 

1853 S. Tompkins, H., 44, Guildford Street, Russell Square, W.C. 
1859 Trimen, Roland, Colonial Office, Cape Town, 

1854 S. Turner, J. A., Pendlebury House, Manchester. 

1849 Vdughan, P. H., Redland, near Bristol. 

1854 Wailes, George, Burglifield Grange, Gatestiead. 

1862 VValcott, W. H. L., 11, Vyvyan Terrace, Clifton, Bristol. 

1850 Walker, Francis, F.L.S., The Avenue, Church End, Finchley, N. 
1858 Wallace, Alexander, M.D., Beverley House, Colchester. 

1863 Wallace, Alfred R., F.Z.S. F.R.G.S., 9, St. Mark's Crescent, 

Regent's Park, N.W. 

1850 S. Ward, S. Neville, F.L.S., Coimbatore, Madras. 

1850 Waring, S. L., The Oaks, Norwood, S. 

• Waterhouse, G. R., V.P.Z.S., kc, British Museum, W.C. 
1845 Weir, J. Jenner. F.L.S., 6, Haddo Villas, Blackheath, S.E. 

1855 Were, R. B., 35, Osborne Terrace, Clapham Road, S. 

* Westwood, Professor J. O., M.A., F.L.S., &c., Oxford. 
1865 White, Rev. W. Farren, Slonehouse Vicarage, Gloucestershire. 
1849 Wilkinson, S. J., 7, Jeffrey's Square, St. Mary Axe, E.G. 
1863 Wix. William, Isbells, Reigate. 

1843 Wollaston, T. Vernon, M.A., F.L.S., 1, Barnepark Terrace, Teign- 
mouth, Devon. 

1865 S. Wood, H. T., The Vicarage, Harrow, N.W. 

1862 Wormald, Percy C, 6, Brondesbury Terrace, Kilburn, N.W. 

1866 Wright, E. Perceval, M.A., M.D., F.L.S., &c., 10, Clare Street, 

Dublin. 

1865 S. Young, Mori is, 7, Old Sneddon Street, Paisley. 



TRANSACTIONS 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



LONDON. 



I. A Catalogue of Lucanoid Coleoptera ; with Illustrations 
and Descriptions of various new and interesting 
Species. By Major F. J. Sidney Parry, F.L.S. 

[Read 7th Sept. 1863, 4th Jan., 4th April, 1864.] 

That portion of Coleoptera known to Entomologists as the 
Pectinicornia, and established as such by Dr. Bunneister and 
Professor Lacordaire, may be formed into two separate divisions, 
viz. Lucanoidea and Passatoidca. The want of sufficient mate- 
rial prevents me from submitting any satisfactory observations on 
the latter division ; and I must refer the reader in respect to it to 
the Monograph of M. Percheron, as also to the several pub- 
lications of Dr. Burmeister, the Rev. F. W. Hope, Professor 
Lacordaire, and other Entomologists. I may remark, however, 
that this division appears to be far from a happy one, confusion 
and disorganization reigning to a great extent. 

The niniierous new species of exotic Coleoptera that have of 
late years enriched our collections, resulting from the indefatigable 
labours of those enterprising travellers, the late lamented Madame 
Pfciffer, Count de Castelnau, Messrs. Wallace, Fortune and 
Bates, the late M. Mouhot and M. Henri Deyrolle, have enabled 
us to add considerably to our knowledge of this branch of natural 
history. Descriptions and figures of many new and interesting 

VOL. II. THIRD SERIES, PART I. — MAY, 1861. • B 



2 Major Parry's Catalogue 

species by several well known Entomologists have from time to 
time appeared in the Transactions of the Entomological Societies 
of London and of France, and among the descriptions alluded to 
I am happy to say that the interesting group of the Pecimkornia 
has not been neglected. Mr. Wilson Saunders has published, 
with plates, in the 3rd volume of the second series of our Trans- 
actions, the characters of several new and rare species from China, 
collected by Mr. Fortune in his travels through the tea districts 
of that country, previously unexplored in an entomological point 
of view ; my friend Professor Westwood, in the same volume, as 
well as in subsequent publications of our Society, has also given 
some excellent figures and descriptions of numerous new and rare 
species; and I myself have also had the pleasure of recently sub- 
mitting to the Society descriptions of several interesting novelties. 
This considerable increase during the last few years to our 
Lucanoid Coleoptera, coming chiefly from India, China and the 
Eastern and Australian Archipelagos, as well as the addition to 
our collections of various other species heretofore considered of 
extreme rarity, or known only by indifferent descriptions or still 
more indifferent figures, has enabled the Entomologist to clear up 
many points, with reference to the identity and localities of the 
Lucanoidea, and has further given him the opportunity of forming 
a more just and comprehensive view respecting the very im- 
portant point of species and variety. 

Great confusion has hitherto existed in the synonymy and 
nomenclature of the different families ; with the view, therefore, 
to its rectification, a newly revised catalogue would, I feel, prove 
not unacceptable ; and by the encouragement and assistance re- 
ceived from many entomological friends, I have been induced to 
undertake the present publication. 1 cannot refrain, whilst upon 
this point, from expressing my best thanks, especially to Count 
Mniszech, James Thomson, Esq., Dr. Gray, Professor Westwood, 
W. Wilson Saunders, Esq., A. R. Wallace, Esq., A. Fry, Esq., and 
J. C. Bowring, Esq., for having most kindly placed at my disposal 
the various species required for examination. 

It would be superfluous here to enumerate all those Ento- 
mologists, who, either by their descriptions of new genera or of 
species, have contributed to our knowledge of this interesting 
group ; such descriptions, with the names of the respective 
authors, will be duly notified in their places in the catalogue. 
But I think it desirable to allude to those distinguished authors 
who have more particularly and so conspicuously, by their several 
publications, advanced our knowledge, with reference more 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 3 

especially to its classification and general arrangement ; their 
names, already familiar to the Entomologist, are as follow : — 

Latrcille (Ciivier, Rcgne Animal, iv. 576). 

INI'Leay (Ilonv Eiitomologicae, i. 195). 

Westwood (Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. 2, i. 112(1834); Modern 
Classification of Insects, i. 185; Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 
iv. 271 ; N. S. iii. 197). 

Hope (Catalogue of Lucanoid Coleoptera, 1845). 

Burmeister (Handbuch der Entomologie, v. 305, 1817). 

Lacordaire (Genera des Coleopteres, iii. 1). 

Brulie (Ilist. Nat. des Inscctes, torn. 3). 

Leconte (Classification of Coleoptera of North America 
(Smithsonian Instit.), p. 120). 
The most important collections of the species of this division 
are to be found in the cabinets of Count Mniszech and Mr. 
Thomson at Paris (the latter especially interesting as including 
the species from the collections of Count Dejean, M. Laferte and 
M. Reiche), in the British Museum, and in the cabinets of the late 
Rev. F. W. Hope (so liberally presented to the University of 
Oxford) and Mr. W. W. Saunders; and, lastly, in my own col- 
lection, which contains, I believe, the largest number of species 
ever brought together. 

With reference to the respective families it is not my intention 
to propose any very great change in the classification; nevertheless 
I feel that much in this respect is still required, but it appears to 
me that the period for such re-organization has not yet arrived, a 
greater knowledge of species being absolutely requisite for under- 
taking such a task. Should our collections continue to be en- 
riched as they have been of recent years, this desirable object 
might then be successfully undertaken, for I am convinced tliat it 
is only by placing before the eye a sufficient series of the insect to 
be described (and this is more especially true of the Lucanoid 
Coleoptera) that a just appreciation of its general form and 
character can be arrived at. It is vain to expect to ascertain the 
true characters of a genus until the species shall themselves have 
been properly established ; and the development of species so 
peculiar in the Lucanoid Coleoptera has but too often given rise to 
great confusion, specimens having not unfrequently been mistaken 
by Entomologists as the types of distinct species, and described as 
such, when in fact they were but varieties of species previously 
known. As already stated, this, my tribute to the Society, must 
be considered simply as a rectified catalogue, including notices, 
descriptions and figures of various new and interesting species : 

B 2 



4 Major Parry's Catalogue 

as such I trust it may prove useful. Those Entomologists who 
wish more particularly to study the sectional characters of the 
various genera and sub-genera must consult the authors previously 
alluded to. The general arrangement I have adopted has been 
liased chiefly upon the publications of tlie Rev. F. W. Hope, 
])r. Burmeister, Professors Westwood and Lacordaire, combined 
with certain alterations which it seemed to me convenient to 
introduce ; but as great difference of opinion exists upon this 
point, the grouping of the various families can scarcely be yet 
regarded as definitively settled. 

Professor Westwood, in his remarks on the sectional characters 
of the Lucanoid Coleoptera (Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. iv. 273), 
says, " the number of joints in the club of the antennae at first 
suggested itself, and indeed it had been already proposed by 
M'Leay, as a primary sectional character ; but this, in addition to 
the difficulty of its employment, owing to the greater or less 
development of the joint preceding the clava, was shown to be 
inefficient, by separating species which agreed together in their 
entire habitus." And I may upon this point further remark, 
tliat not only this funiculus, but even the very joints of the clava, 
are variable ; instances occurring (especially in the well-known 
European species Lucanus cervus) where, in the same individual, 
the clava is found to be both four and five-jointed. 

Professor Westwood then refers to the tibial spines as bringing 
together in the most natural manner the great majority of the 
species, stating that by the employment of this character the 
genus Lucanus may be divided into three great groups — 

1. Those species with two or three spines on the outside of the 

posterior and intermediate tibiae ; this group comprises 
some of the largest species of the family. 

2. Those with only one spine in the middle of the four posterior 

tibiae in both sexes ; comprising the gigantic species of 
Dorcus from the eastern hemisphere, as well as the small 
typical Dorci of moderate climes, and the group of JEgus, 
of which no Entomologist has been able to establish suffi- 
cient characters to separate it from other sections of the 
LucanidcB, 

3. An extensive group of species which either possess no spines 

on the four posterior tibiae, or have one small spine de- 
veloped in the middle of those tibiae in the ? only. 
This character again is, I think, very unsatisfactory, these 
spines being often found very aberrant, and, like the claval joints 
of the antennae, not always to be relied upon ; an arrangement 



of Lucanoid Coleoplera. 5 

based upon it is equally at variance with the natural grouping of 
species ; for we occasionally find individuals of the same species 
both with and without their proper complement of spines. Where 
two species in every respect assimilate to each other except in 
regard to the spines on the tibiae, the absence or presence of these 
ought not, I think, to separate them. 

There are two very remarkable characters of this group hitherto 
but slightly noticed by Entomologists, which, although not avail" 
able for the purpose of generical or sectional division, are yet, for 
the purpose of specific determination, of very great interest. I 
refer to the development of the mandibles and to the punctuation. 
The extraordinary diflference in the development of the mandibles 
is not easily to be accounted for ; under what circumstances the 
larger insect is provided with small undeveloped mandibles, and a 
smaller specimen of the same species with those organs fully 
developed, must always remain a mystery. But of this I feel 
certain, that the whole character of numerous species varies (with 
reference to their punctuation) in accordance with the development 
of the mandibles. When these have obtained their full growth the 
sculpture of the species has entirely changed, and in fact frequently 
disappears altogether ; and when the development is but small or 
moderate the sculpture becomes more definite, often resembling 
that of the females, in which it is almost invariably stronger ; in 
fact, these small undeveloped males approximate so closely to 
their females that I could name well-known Entomologists who 
have been even led into the error of describing them as such. Is 
it possible that these small males may be found upon closer 
anatomical examination to be neuters? It is a point of great 
interest, and well worthy of deeper investigation. 

With these facts before me, I have been much perplexed, and 
have, therefore, abstained for the present from suggesting any 
decided characters of those new sections. I feel the necessity of 
such characters being pointed out, but on this occasion my aim is 
only to present the student with a revised catalogue of the various 
species, and although errors will doubtless occur, still I trust that 
my labour may not prove altogether in vain. 

Descriptions of New, and Notes on some of the rarer, Species. 

The descriptions of some of the species hereafter mentioned 
have already been published in the " Proceedings of the Ento- 
mological Society" for December, 1862, with a view to their in- 
corporation in the present catalogue ; to these are joined others of 
new and rare species, of which several have been lately added to 



6 Major Parry's Catalogue 

our collections, and most of these are illustrated by figures. 
Having lately returned from visiting the several collections at 
Leyden, Amsterdam, Halle, Berlin, Stettin and Paris, I have 
ascertained some interesting points with reference to the synonymy 
of certain species, and have acquired the knowledge of others 
previously unknown to me. I take this opportunity of thanking 
tlie gentlemen connected with the museums already alluded to for 
the great kindness and courtesy they respectively evinced towards 
me when visiting the collections placed under their charge. 

Chiasognathus Latreillei 2, Solier. 
Reichii $, Thomson, 
imberh'is, Dohrn, MS. 

I have no doubt as to the identity of the above (already re- 
ferred to in my Remarks on Mr. Thomson's Catalogue o{ Lucanidce, 
Tr. Ent. Soc. 3rd Series, vol. i. p. 444). Although my collection 
does not contain this species, I have been able to examine speci- 
mens of it in the collections of Count Mniszech and Herr Dohrn, 
at the Jardin des Plantes (Solier's type) and the Leyden Museum ; 
all of which accord so entirely with the excellent figure in my 
possession by M. Migneaux, that I have now no hesitation in unit- 
ing them. 

Chiasognathus Mniszechii $, Thomson. {V\, X. fig. 3.) 

1 Jousselinii, Reiche. 
Of the identity (although very probable) of these species I am 
not quite so certain. Single specimens of C. Mniszecliii are in 
the collections of Mr. Thomson, Count Mniszech and M. Ger- 
main ; the unique type specimen of C. Jousselinii is in the collec- 
tion of M. Jousselin at Versailles. According to a recent com- 
munication from M. Reiche, the two are to be considered as 
distinct. 

Cantharolethrus Luxerii $ , Buquet. (PI. IX. fig. 6.) 
Whether this unique species is to be placed with the Chiasog- 
nathidfB or the Liicanidce is problematical ; both Mr. Thomson 
and Count Mniszech have considered it as belonging to the latter 
family ; the $ being as yet unknown, it is difficult to assign its 
true position. The second species mentioned by Mr. Thomson 
in his Catalogue, C. Reichii $ , was originally described by the 
Rev. F. W. Hope (Trans. Ent. Soc, vol. iv. p. 182, pi. xiii. fig. 3), 
and placed with PhoUdoius ; the two species may possibly here- 
after prove identical. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 7 

Lamprima sumptuosa $ , Hope, Cat. p. 28. 

L. supra tota flamineo-rufescens, punctata ; tnandibulis vakle 
curvatis, apice nigris, elevatis et auriculatis ; sterni processu 
apice nigro et suboblique truncate ; elytris irregulariter sub- 
striolatis ; tibiis anticis extus 6 vel 7-spinosis ; calcare 
gracili, cultriformi ; pedibus 4 posticis gracilibus, tibiis in 
medio bidentatis ; corpora infra cupreo et aeneo, nitidissimo. 

Long. corp. (mandib. inclus.) lin. 9. 

Hab. Swan Kiver. 

A good species belonging to the second section of Lamprima. 
A single specimen only in the Hopeian collection at Oxford. 

Gen. Colophon, Westw. Ann. Sc. Nat. i., ser. 2, p. 113. 

The general form of the species of this genus exhibits such a 
remarkable difference from the insects pertaining to the family 
Dorcklce, in which it has been hitherto located, that after a careful 
comparison with various genera, more especially with Lampr'ima 
and Streptocerus (to which the only two species of the genus 
Colophon, viz. C Westwoodii and C. Thunbergii, in the form of 
the profhorax and of the head as well as in the structure of the 
mandibles, bear, I think, a somewhat striking resemblance), I 
liave been induced to place it in the same family, Chiasognat/iidce, 
of which it may be regarded as the African representative. I 
})lace it in juxtaposition with Streptocerus, which it further 
resembles in possessing four joints to the clava of the antennae, 
and thus affords a connecting link with the Lucanidce. 

Mesotopus Tarandus 5 . (PI. V. fig. 4.) 

Lucanus Tarandus $ , Swed. in Act. Holm. 1787, iii. 186, 
tab. viii. fig. 2. 

M. ebenina nigra, nitidissima; capita subrugoso-punctato, an- 
tice excavato, bispinoso, postice Isevi, politissimo ; mandibulis 
brevibus, trigonis, intus bidentatis ; elytris subovalibus ; tibiis 
extus ut in maribus 3-dentatis. 
Long. corp. (mandib. inch) unc. 1, lin. G. 
Hab. Afric. Occ. 

The female, now for the first time figured, has hitherto been of 
extreme rarity. The only specimens of that sex with which I am 
acquainted are in the cabinets of the late Rev. F. W. Hope, 
Count Mniszcch and my own. 



8 Major Parry's Catalogue 

LucANUs CERVUS, Linnasus. 

The earliest figure representing this species with which I am 
acquainted is to be met with in Gesner's History of Foor-footed 
Beasts, Serpents and Insects, published by Edward Topsel, in 
London, 1658. The description is so quaint that I have deemed 
it not uninteresting to republish it m extcnso. 

" Beetles are some greater, some less, the great ones some 
have horns, others without horns. Those that have horns some 
are like Hartshorns, other have Buls horns, some have horns 
in their noses : we shall speak of them all in order. The 
nXam/cepwc, or Hartshorn beetle, is called Lucanus by Nigidius ; 
as Pliny witnesseth. Some call it the Bull, others the Flying 
Stag ; Hesychius cals it aKavQoQy because it lays hold on things in 
its way with thorny horns. Cardanus calls it (7i^apajj£\a(poQ, a 
word composed of Greek and Latin ; Gaza calls it Kapa[3oQ ; the 
Italians call it Cereti, and vulgarly Polupeso; the French, Cerf 
volant; the English, Stag fly or Flying fly; the Hollander, 
Fliegende Hert ; the Illyrians, Gelui ; the Poles and Sclavonians, 
Krowha Wielk. 

" Amongst all the horned beetles for the shape of its body, 
length and magnitude, it may challenge the first place, and is the 
most noted. It is blackish, of a dark red, especially about the 
outward cover and the breast ; it hath two whole horns without 
joynts, and with branches like a stag as long as ones little finger 
in such as are grown up, but they are less and shorter in the 
young ones, (or as Pliny saith) it has long and moveable horns 
nicked with cloven pincers, and when it will, can bite or nip with 
them, for it will close them wonderfully, and useth its horns for 
that end for which crabs and lobsters do their claws ; the eyes are 
hard putting forth and whitish, it hath foreyards on both sides of 
them, one pair that are branched between the horns and eyes, the 
joynt whereof makes almost a right angle, and two more breaking 
forth in the midst of the forehead straight and plain, ending as it 
were in a little smooth knot. 

" It goes upon six feet ; the fore feet are longer and greater 
than the rest. Lonicerus makes this to be the male; but I (if 
there be any distinction between the male and the female) shall 
no doubt to call it the female : both because the other kindes of 
beetles are less (for, as Aristotle observes, the males in insects 
are far less than the females), an also in copulation the females 
receive from the lesser as experience confirms it. The male is 
altogether like it, but is less both for body and in horns : which 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera, 9 

though they be not branched on both sides ; yet pressed together 
they do more sharply prick ones finger than the female doth." 

In the Berlin Museum, I lately saw a most interesting variety 
of this species, the right mandible and the right fore tibia being 
those of a ? , the remainder of the insect exhibiting the usual 
appearance of the $ ; such an interesting specimen of a herma- 
phrodite insect is seldom to be met with. In the same rich col- 
lection I also saw the type specimen of Lucanus armlger, Herbst, 
tab. St, fig. 1 (var. cervus), the mandibles of which show a very 
singular case of malformation. 

With regard to the various modifications of form exhibited by 
L. cervus and other allied species of Europe and Asia Minor, see Dr. 
Kraatz's paper, with figures, in the Berlin Entom. Zeitsch. 1860. 

Lucanus laticornis $ , H. Deyrolle, MS. 
A description of this new species from Asia Minor will be 
published during the ensuing year by M. Henri Deyrolle in the 
Ann. Soc. Ent. de France; it is allied to L. oricntal'is of Kraatz, 
differing, however, in having the 6-jointed clava of the antennae 
strongly developed, and the mandibles considerably more slender. 

Lucanus Hopei $ , Parry ( ? ignota). (PI. VI. fig. 2.) 

L. nigro-brunneus, politus ; mandibulis elongatis, intus quinque- 
dentatis ; capite supra singulariter coronato, lobato ; femo- 
ribus subtus stria longa latiuscula fulvo-notatis, in pedibus 
anticis fere obsoleta ; tibiis anticis et intermediis irregu- 
lariter 4 aut 5 denticulatis, posticis 3-dentatis, 

Long. Corp. fere unc. 2 ; mandib. unc. 1. 

Hab. Ind. Or., aut Archipel. Malay. Coll. Parry. 

Head wider than the thorax, both of a brownish-black colour. 
Clypeus of a long triangular form, placed nearly perpendicularly. 
Fore margin of the crown of the head with a singular elevated pro- 
cess, forming two great lobes, separated by an arcuate line. The 
mandibles are strong and bent somewhat downwards, armed in- 
teriorily with five teeth, the one near the tip forming with it a 
fork ; the largest, near the base, blunt and nodose at the tip ; the 
three others equidistant between the centre and apex. Prothorax 
longitudinally impressed down the centre; the punctuation of the 
head and prothorax not very strong. The elytra smooth and 
polished. The antennae of this fine species are unfortunately 
wanting, but I have little doubt of the insect being a true Lucanus. 
I have named it in memory of a gentleman whose services ren- 
dered to Entomology stand preeminent. 



10 Major Parry's Catalogue 

LucANUS Smithii S , Parry ( ? ignota). (PI. X. fig. 2.) 

L. nigro-fuscus, subtus dense villosus ; elytris rufo-ferrugineis, 
nitidis, villosulis ; mandibulis apicibus furcatis, intus ante 
medium lobo tridentato armatis. 

Long. Corp. unc. 1, lin. 7. 

Hab. Ind. Sept. Coll. Parry. 

Allied to L. villosus, Hope. Mandibles subquadrate, outer 
margin sinuate ; beyond the middle a tridentate lobe ; the tip of 
each mandible furcate. Clypeus triangular, slightly excavated. 
Base of mandibles, head, thorax and elytra (when in good con- 
dition) with short scattered hairs. Head with ridges and crest 
much as in L. villosus, but the lateral ridges not so elevated. 
Femora and tibiae with a ferruginous vitta, widely separated, the 
posterior wiih two teeth. I have dedicated this new species to 
F. Smith, Esq., the well-known Hymenopterist, and President of 
the Entomological Society. 

LucANUs MAcuLiFEMORATUs, Motschulsky, Etudcs Ent. 1861. 
? sericans (De Haan, MS.), Voll. Tijd. v. Ent. iv. 103. 

Specimens of this new and rare species from Japan are in the 
museums of Leyden and the Zool. Soc. Amsterdam, ^ , ? , and 
in the collections of Count Mniszech and myself. The habitat 
Java, ascribed to L. sericans by M. van Vollenhoven, appears to be 
erroneous ; the latter insect is probably the var. minor of Lucanus 
macidifefuoratus. 

With reference to Lucanus Hircus, Sturm, Cat. (Java), I have 
not been able to obtain any information. 

Gen. Rh.etus, Parry (gen. nov.). 
Caput transversum, angustum, antice depressum. Mandibulas 
falcatse, maxirase, ad basin fortiter dilatatae. Antennae 
clava mediocri quadri-articulata. Prothorax lateribus in 
medio armatis. Corpus elongatum, subparallelum. Tibiae 
posticae inerraes. 
Hexarthrio affine genus. Nomen a gigante Rhaeto, uno e 

Titanis, derivatum. 
The principal distinctive characters above given of this genus 
present an interesting connecting link between Lucanus and Hex- 
arthrius ; on the one hand, the moderately developed clava of its 
antennae, the flat and generally depressed form of its head, and 
its unarmed posterior tibiae, separate it from Lucanus ; whilst on 
the other hand it is distinguished from Hexarthrius by the 4-jointed 
clavse of the antennae, and its laterally-armed prothorax. 



of Lucanoid Coleopiera, 1 1 

Rh^tus Westwoodii S , Parry (var. max., ? ignota). (PI. IX. 

figs. 2 & 8.) 
Hexarthrius (1.) Westwoodii, Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 18G2, p. 108. 
R. nigerrimus, nitidus, sublente tenuissime granulosus; mandi- 
bulis elongatis,falcatis, apiccm versus parum deflexis, singula- 
riter ad basin excavatis et supra infraque dente magno armatis, 
ante medium dente acuto instructis, apicibus furcatis; capite 
brevissimo, prothorace angustiori, clypeo transverse baud pro- 
minulo, concavo, antice in medio angulato ; protborace trans- 
verso, latcribus sinuatis dente parvo acuto armatis ; elytris 
elongatis, subparallelis ; tibiis anticis 4 aut 5-spinosis, inter- 
mediis extus in medio dente acuto armatis, posticis simplicibus. 
Long. Corp. unc. 2, lin. 3 ; mandib. unc. 1, lin. 3. 
Ilab. Ind. Or., aut Arcbip. Ind.(?) 

I am indebted to J. C. Bowring, Esq., for tbe possession of this 
magnificent and unique species. It is one of the largest of the 
Lucanoid Coleoptera, measuring 5\ inches. 

Hexarthkius Deyrollei $ , Parry (var. max., $ ignota). 
(PI. IV. fig. 1.) 

H. niger ; mandibulis exsertis, supra et intus denticulatis, ad 
basin singulariter excavatis ; capite supra bituberculato ; 
elytris plaga posticd castanea. 

Long. corp. fere unc. 2 ; mandib. lin. 9. 

Hab. Siam. Specimen unicum in Coll. Mniszech. 

Closely allied to H. Parry i, Hope, but of a more elongate and 
slender form. Mandibles straighter, with the interior portion of 
their base deeply excavated. The binodose elevations on the 
head of //. Parriji are replaced by two elevated conical tubercles. 
The prothorax is narrower and longer, with the anterior tuber- 
cular angle more prominent. The apical yellow plaga of the 
elytra does not extend so far towards the base ; and the punctua- 
tion of the mandibles, head and prothorax is infinitely stronger ; 
the legs are more slender. 

I am indebted to M. Henri Deyrolle for the characters of this 
species, at present unique in the museum of Count Mniszech, and 
received from Count de Castelnau. 

Hexartiirius Ciiaudoirii, H. Deyrolle, MS. 
This new species from Sumatra, allied to //. Rhinoceros, is in 
the collection of Count Mniszech. M. Henri Deyrolle proposes 
to describe it in the Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. for ISG-i. 



12 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Hexarthrius BowRiNGii $ , Parry (var. max., ? ignota). 

(PI. IX. figs. 5 & 7.) 
H, nigro-fuscus, nitidus ; antennarum clava 6-articulata, mandi- 
bulis apice subrecurvis, intus 3-dentatis, dente lo et Sdopone 
medium, tertio ad basin subfurcato ; tibiis anticis serratis, 
intermediis unidentatis, posticis simplicibus. 
Long. Corp. unc. 2 ; mandib. lin. 9. 
Hab. Ind. Or. 

Black. Elytra of a polished ferruginous brown. Mandibles 
somewhat flattened, more especially at the base, strongly punc- 
tured ; tips acute and bending upwards ; a sharp prominent tooth 
behind the tip, succeeded by a smaller one, and at the base a broad 
obtusely bifid and slightly elevated process. Head closely punc- 
tured, with the hind margin highly polished, and two small round 
anterior depressions on the vertex, very slightly emarginate; 
clypeus small, deflexed and triangular. The prothorax is about 
the width of the body ; like the head closely punctured, with a 
slightly impressed central line ; the posterior angles slightly emar- 
ginate. Elytra polished, ferruginous brown, darkest on the 
suture and at the sides. Legs ferruginous, margined and varied 
with black. Tarsi black ; anterior tibiae serrated externally with 
three or four small irregularly disposed spines, the apical tooth 
very prominent and much curved. 

Gen. Odontolabis, Hope. 
Anoplocnemus, Id. 

The genus Anoplocnevms, Hope (vid. Tr. Ent. Soc. lii. 279), 
was founded on and included only a single species, viz., A. Bur- 
mehteri (Hope, Cat, pp. 5 and 16), a gigantic species from the 
Mysore district, Northern India, at present in the Hopeian Coll. 
at Oxford (and which may possibly hereafter prove to be only an 
extreme variety of Odontolahis Cuvera). The principal character 
assigned to the genus is the absence of spines from all the tibias. 
As in every other respect there is nothing to distinguish it from 
the ordinary form and character of the several species belonging 
to Odontolahis, which, when fully developed, have almost invariably 
their fore tibiae unarmed, I have incorporated Anoplocnemus with 
Odonlolahis, of which genus numerous species have lately been 
added to our collections. 

I am at a loss to imagine why Dr. Burmeister preferred es\.aL- 
h\\%\\\n^ Anoplocnemus as a genus in preference to Odontolahis, Mr, 
Hope having notified only one species of the former to fourteen 
of the latter. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 13 

Odontolabis Volleniiovii $ , Parry (var. max., ? ignota). 
(PI. VIII. fig. 1.) 
Lacordairei, Id., MS. olim. 
O.atro-fiiscus; clytris lacvissimis, flavis,angustenigro-marginatis, 
sutura latins nigra ; capite magno, lateribus supra dcnsissime 
rugosis, margine antice reflexo emarginato, plagu magna rufa 
notato, mandibulis capite fere duplo longioribus, rugoso- 
punctatis, apicibus furcatis interne denticulatis, et dente forti 
ante medium instructis ; tibiis anticis in medio obsolete uni- 
dentatis, posticis quatuor inermibus. 
Long. Corp. (mandib. incl.) unc. 2, lin. 9. 
Hab. Borneo. Specimen unicum in Coll. Parry. 
I had originally named the above species after my distinguished 
friend Professor Lacordaire, whose reputation as an Entomologist 
is so universal that I need scarcely allude to it. M. Snellen van 
Vollenhoven, having received from Sumatra a closely-allied species, 
and being under the impression that it was identical with the above, 
courteously retained my MS. name in his description of the 
Sumatran species (vid. Tijd. v. Ent. iv. 104, tab. v. fig. 1.) 

The two are, however, totally distinct, and I have great pleasure 
in dedicating this fine species to a gentleman who has rendered 
such important services to science as Director of the museum of 
Leyden, and to whom I feel grateful for his kind attention when 
recently there. 

O. Vollenhovii has the facies of the preceding genus Hexar- 
thr'nis, forming the connecting link between the two genera. It 
differs from O. Lacordairei in the following particulars — the 
mandibles are more robust, more convex, and more strongly 
punctuated ; the head is in proportion larger, with the anterior 
elevated margin slightly sinuated in the centre, and the angle 
behind the eye is more obtuse; but the principal difference is to 
be found in the prothorax, which is considerably narrower, with 
the sides rectangular instead of being dilated, and the posterior 
angles strongly emarginate ; the body is also somewhat shorter. 

Odontolabis Ludekingii, Voll. (PI. II. fig. 1.) 
Lucanus Ludekingii, Voll. I'ijd. v. Ent. iv. lOi, tab. v. f. 2. 
O. atcr ; capite latissimo, in lateribus punctatissimo, fronte 

transversim carinata; clytris la3vissimis testaccis, sutura latius 

et limbo externo anguste nigris. 
Long. Corp. (mandib. incl.) 2^ unc. 
Hab. Sumatra. Coll. Mus. Lugdun., de Castelnau, Mniszech 

et Parry. 



14 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Odontolabis Wollastonii, Parry. (PI. II. figs. S & 3, ij, $ ; 
PI. III. fig. 1, var. max.) 
O. niger; capite margine antico fortiter eraarginato, fronte 
depresso poneoculos exciso, spino acuto armato ; mandibulis 
(var. minor) capite brevioribus, intus fortiter et irregulariter 
dentatis ; prothorace angnsto, lateribus fere parallelis, pone 
medium spina magna acuta armatis, angulis posticis acutis; 
elytrisaurantiacis, limbo externo tenuissime nigro-marginato, 
plaga magna triangulari nigra literam V formante a basi fere ad 
apicem descendente ; tibiis anticis extus trispinosis, quatuor 
posticis inermibus. 
Long. corp. (mandib. incl.) unc. 2. 

Hab. Malacca. Coll. de Castelnau, Mniszech et Parry. 
Another rare species from the Malay peninsula, recently dis- 
covered by Count de Castelnau, allied to O.Ludek'mgii, but 
abundantly distinct ; the head is smaller and less coarsely punc- 
tured, whilst the body, of a deeper orange colour, is marked by a 
large black plaga, extending from the base to near the apex ; 
whereas in 0, Ludekingii there exists only a broad sutural black line. 
I have dedicated it to my friend T. V. Wollaston, Esq., the well- 
known author of " Insecta Maderensia." 

Odontolabis Mouhotii $, Parry (var. med., $ ignota). 
(PI. I. fig. 1.) 
O. niger, nitidus ; capite magno antice emarginato, angulis 
anticis rotundatis, lateribus pone oculos spino acuto instructis; 
mandibulis brevibus, intus irregulariter et fortiter dentatis ; 
prothorace transverso, angulis anticis rotundatis, posticis 
acutis, lateribus pone medium spina acuta armatis ; elytris 
laevissimis,aurantiacis, basi prope scutellum suturaqueanguste 
nigris ; tibiis anticis 5-spinosis, quatuor posticis inermibus. 
Long. Corp. unc. 2 ; mandib. lin. 6. 

Hab. Cambodia, Siam. Specimen unicum in Coll. Castelnau. 
This species is dedicated to the memory of the late M. Mouhot, 
to whom we are indebted for many new and rare species from the 
same locality : whilst attempting to explore the unhealthy districts 
of Cochin China he fell a victim to the climate. 

Odontolabis Castelnaudi $, Parry ($ ignota). (PI. I. fig. 2.) 

O. giganteus, niger, glaberrimus ; mandibulis capite parum 

longioribus, valde exsertis, interne ad basin dente magno 

obtuse armatis, et ante basin apicem versus plurimis denticulis 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 15 

nodosis irregulariter instructis, apicibus subfurcatis ; capite 
magno, antice depresso, margine subelevato, angulis anticis 
oblique rotuiidatis, et infra oculos spina magna obtusa in- 
structo ; protborace transverse, capite latiori, lateribus an- 
tice obliquis, angulis posticis emarginatis ; elytris subova- 
libus, brunneo-testaceis, liEvissirais, latitudine prothoracis, 
marginibus externe suturaque tenuiter nigris ; tibiis anticis 
curvatis, et prope apicem spina minuta armatis, quatuor 
posticis inermibus. 
Long. Corp. unc. 2, lin. 5 ; mandib. lin. 9. 
Hab. Sumatra. Coll. Castelnau. 

For the opportunity of placing this magnificent new species of 
Odonlolahis, as well as the three preceding, in the present publi- 
cation, I am indebted to Count Mniszech, who, through the kind- 
ness of Count de Castelnau, was enabled to obtain the accompanying 
faithful figures, executed by M. Migneaux. The above species 
belongs to the section of Odonlolahis having (like 0. bicolor, O. 
Dejeanu, and other species) the prothorax broad, with the sides 
dilated, and the fore tibiae curved ; it is one of the largest species 
of Lucanoid Coleoptera, and, when found with the mandibles fully 
developed, must indeed be gigantic. It is dedicated to Count de 
Castelnau, to whom Entomologists are much indebted for many 
interesting novelties. 

Odontolaeis striatus, $ , $, H. Deyrolle, MS. 

A new and interesting species from Malacca, in the collection of 
Count jVLiiszech, the description of which will appear in the Ann. 
Soc. Ent. Fr. for 18G4. Both the $ and $ are strongly pubescent, 
and in this respect the species assimilates somewhat to O. Dalmani, 
Hope ; but in its general form it approximates more nearly to 
0. platynotits, Hope, with which I have for the present located it. 

Odontolabis Brookeanus $, $, Voll. Tijd. v. Ent. iv. 107, 
tab. vi. fig. 1. (PI. VL fig. 5, var. max.) 

O. fuscus, nitidus ; elytris pallide testaceis, sutura tenui nigra; 
mandibulis dilatatis depressis, capite parum brevioribus, 
arcuatis, interne denticulatis ; prothorace plagd nigra, ma- 
culato, angulis posticis valde emarginatis ; tibiis anticis 
curvatis supra sulcatis, extus 2 aut 3 spinis minutis armatis, 
quatuor posticis inermibus. 

(Var. max. ^) difTert mandibulis longioribus gracilibus falcatis 
apicibus acutis, prope basin uuideutatis et intus pone medium 



16 Major Parry's Catalogue 

spina magna fiircata instructis ; clypeo producto, vix eraargi- 
nato. 
Teem. — Mandibulis brevibus, punctatis, interne bidentatis, labro 
parvo transverse ; capite parvo, nigro-brunneo, rugose punc- 
tate ; prothorace plaga nigra maculato, angulis posticis emar- 
ginatis ; elytris litera V basi descendente nigro-signatis ; 
pedibus nigris ; tibiis anticis dilatatis, extus spinis tribus 
obtusis instructis, posticis intermediisque inermibus. 
Long. Corp. $ (mandib. incl.) unc. 2 ; mandib. (var. max.) 

5 lin. 
Hab. Borneo. 

A description and figure (of the var. minor) of this species have 
been ah-eady pubhshed by M. van Vollenhoven (loc. cit.) ; a second 
description of it, accompanied by a figure of the var. max., will 
probably not prove uninteresting. Numerous specimens of this 
insect were sent to England by Mr. Wallace and distributed 
among various collections. I may remark, that the black plagae, 
both on the prothorax and body, are very variable, and in some 
specimens totally wanting. Of males with fully developed man- 
dibles but two or three were to be found, one of which is now 
figured. 

Odontolabis Sommeri $, Parry (var. max., ? ignota). 
(PI. VI. fig. 4.) 

O. capite pronoto pedibusque brunneo-testaceis ; capite magno, 
antice emarginato, pone oculos supra et infra angulato ; man- 
dibulis gracilibus, falcatis, capite paulo brevioribus, apicibus 
acutis, intus bidentatis ; prothorace antice acute angulato, 
postice valde emarginato ; tibiis anticis curvatis, extus spinis 
duabus aut tribus armatis, posticis inermibus. 

Long Corp. unc. 1, lin. 5; mandib. circa lin. 5. 

Hab. Manilla. Mus. Dom. Sommer (Altonse). 

I am indebted to Count Mniszech for the description and figure 
of the above ; it appears to be allied to the Bornean species 
0. Brooheanus. 

Odontolabis Cingalensis $, Parry, var. max. (PI. X. fig. 8.) 

O. niger, nitidus ; capite magno, subquadrato, margine antico 
elevato, pone oculos inflato ; mandibulis capite protho- 
raceque longioribus, subdepressis, arcuatis, intus ad apicem 
dente obtuso bifido armatis, apicibus furcatis ; prothorace 
transverse, angulis posticis emarginatis ; elytris laevissimis. 



of Liicanoid Coleoptcra. 1 7 

attenuatis ; tibiis anticis curvatis, ad apicem spina minuta 
extus instructis, quatuor posticis inermibus. 

Long. Corp. unc. 1, lin. 8 ; mandib. lin. 9. 

Hab. Ins. Taprobana. 

The above insect seems to be rather abundant in Ceylon, 
numerous specimens liaving fallen imder my notice, but those 
with highly-developed mandibles appear to be scarce. In Sir 
Emerson Tcnnant's History of Ceylon, i. 27, Cat. of Coleop., the 
name C'lngalcnsis is misprinted Beurralcnsis : in the same work, the 
genus S'nighala (sp. tenella, Blanchard), belonging to the family 
of the Rntelidcs (vid. Cat. Coll. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, part 2,' 
p. 198), is erroneously placed with the Lucaiiidce. 

Odontolabis nigrita, H. DeyroUe, MS. 
A new species from Ceylon, in the collection of Count Mniszech. 
According to M. Henri Deyrolle, closely allied to O. Clngalensis ; 
a description will shortly appear in the Ann. Soc. Ent. de France. 
It will form, together with O. Clngalensis and 0. csralus, the third 
section of the genus Odontulahis, having elongate mandibles, but 
the head, instead of being armed with a spine behind the eyes, 
is only slightly inflated, the body depressed and highly polished, 
and the anterior tibiae are curved. The sub-genus Calcodes of 
Westwood (vide Hope's Catalogue) is incorporated with this sec- 
tion, the metallic colour oi Calcodes aratus forming only one of its 
chief characters. 

[Gen. Heterociithes, Westw.* 

Genus (vel sub-genus) novum inter Anoplocnemum et Odontola- 

bidem coUocandum. Caput maribus magnum, transverso- 

quadratum, lateribus pone oculos baud tuberculatum, margine 

antico fere recto, clypeo in tuberculum parvum porrecto. 

Antennae clava tripartita. Mandibulae maribus dente parvo 

sub-apicali intus armatte. Maxilla; in utroque sexu inermes. 

Prothorax transversus, lateribus inermibus, parallelis, angulis 

posticis rotundatis. Tibias anticae extus 4-dentatac, mediae et 

posticee inermes. Elytra brevia, ovata, hand striata. 

This new and interesting sub-genus approaches most nearly to 

Odonlolah'is, but the insects in that group have the head deeply 

emarginate in the middle of the anterior margin, as well as armed 

w ith a strong spine on each side of the head behind the eyes ; and (he 

• I am indebted to my friend Prof. Westwood for this description, togetiier 
with otliers hereafter mentioned; it foimed part of an inieresting paper on Luca- 
noid Colcopteia read by him before the Society on the 4th January, 1864. 

VOL. 11. THIRD SERIES, PART I. — MAY, 18G4. C 



18 Major Parry's Catalogue 

tarsi are here iitiuch shorter. The female has much the appearance 
of Odontolabis glabratus, De Haan, but the sides of the prothorax 
are regularly rounded. From Macrognathus, Burm., as well as from 
Platyjn-osopits, Hope, Helerochthes differs in having the middle tibiae 
without a central spine, and in the form of the head and prothorax. 

This new form affords a proof of the advantage afforded in the 
classification of the Lucanidce by the number of the spines upon the 
tibice, especially of the middle and hind legs, as an examination of 
this character at once leads us to the true affinities of the insect. 
Instances may indeed occur in which the tibial spurs are liable to 
be almost obsolete, but the finger will often detect them when the 
eye cannot clearly perceive them ; besides which, of course, this 
character, like every other, is liable to modification, and is not to 
be depended upon with absolute certainty, but in a very large 
majority of cases it truly indicates natural groups. 

I am much indebted to Major Parry for affording me the oppor- 
tunity of examining, describing and figuring this new Lucanoid 
form, rendered as it is the more interesting by the possession of 
both sexes, as well as of the minor development of the male sex. 

Heterociitiies braciiypterus, Westw. (PL X. fig. 6, ?, 
fig. 7, $ ; PI. XI. fig. 1, 2, 3.) 

CladognalJius hrachijpterus, Parry, MS, 
H. niger, piceo vix tinctus ; disco supra laevi nitido et fere 
impunctato, lateribus elytrorum punctatis exceptis ; femori- 
bus tibiisque castaneis. 
$ maj. Long, mandib. lin. 5\ ; capitis, lin. 3| ; prothor. lin. 
9,\ ; elytr. lin. 5| = long. tot. lin. 17;^. Latit. capitis, lin. 5| ; 
prothor. lin. 5 ; elytr. lin. 5. 
$ min. Long, mandib. lin. 1 ; capitis, lin. 2| ; prothor. lin. 2 5 
elytr. lin. 5 = long. tot. lin. 10|. Latit. prothor. lin. 4 ; 
elytr. lin. 4^. 
2 Long, mandib. lin. 1|; capitis, lin. \^ \ prothor. lin. 2; 
elytr. lin. 4 = long. tot. lin. 8|. Latit. capitis, lin. 2f ; 
prothor. lin. 2 ; elytr. lin. 4. 
Habitat in Cambodia. D. Mouhot. Mus. Parry et Saunders. 
The male has the head much larger than the prothorax, flattened, 
transverse-quadrate, the fore-margin nearly straight, the front 
vertical, slightly concave, with the upper edge acute ; the centre 
of the clypeus produced into a rounded tubercle ; the sides behind 
the eyes (which are entirely divided by the canthus) very finely 
and distantly punctured and slightly sinuated, but not produced 
into a decided tubercle or spine. The mandibles in the larger 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera, ] 9 

specimens are longer than the head, flattened, curved at the base, 
and strongly incurved at the apex, the middle part being nearly 
straight, with a small conical point at a short distance from the 
apex on the inner edge. The antennae are small, with a three- 
jointed clava; the maxillae have the outer lobe of moderate length, 
and strongly ciliated; the palpi have the terminal joint somewhat 
sabre-shaped; the mentum is very short and broad, with the 
anterior angles rounded off. The prothorax has the sides straight 
and nearly parallel, the anterior angles acute, and the hind ones 
rounded off without any spine or lateral conical point. The elytra 
are short and ovate, without any longitudinal striae. Tlie fore 
tibiaj are rather long, with two teeth on the outer edge, exckisive 
of the two strong ones at the apex. The four posterior tibiae are 
destitute of a spine in the middle. The prosternum terminates 
in a slightly dilated and convex ridge between the base of the 
fore legs. The tarsi are very short. The mesosternum is slightly 
channelled along the middle. 

The small variety of the male has the head smaller than the 
prothorax, and the latter comparatively smaller than in the larger 
individuals, with its sides rather more rounded ; the front margin 
of the head is somewhat emarginate, and the sides behind tlie eyes 
are marked with large punctures; the mandibles are shorter than 
the head, strongly curved, with a large conical tooth near the base 
on the inner edge, and the apex obtusely bifid ; the mesosternum 
has also a rather deeply impressed, narrow, punctate channel. 

The female has a much smaller head, the canthus forming an 
angle at the sides in front of the eyes ; the front of the head is 
slightly emarginate, and the clypeus produced into a small quadrate 
setose lobe ; the sides of the head are very strongly punctured. 
The prothorax has the sides also punctured, and the lateral 
margin is more rounded than in the male, especially at the pos- 
terior lateral angles. The elytra have the sides and extremity 
punctured. The palpi are rather shorter and stronger than in the 
male, but the tibiae of all the legs are spined, as in the other sex. 

Plate XI. Fig. 1. The large male somewhat magnified, la, outline of portion 
of the head ; lb, front of the head seen from the front; 
Ir, maxilla ; Irf, meutum ; le, mentum seen from within, 
wilh the labium and palpus ; 1/', antenna ; '[g, pro- 
sternum seen from beneath ; 1/i, ditto, seen sideways. 

Fig. 2. The small-sized male. 2a, outline of the side of the head ; 
2 b, mandible. 

Fig. 3. The female. 3a, the head; 3/^ the eye, divided by the canthus; 
3c, antenna; Zd, maxilla; 3e, mentum j 3/', labium and 
palpus.— J. O. VV.] 
C 2 



20 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Gen. Neolucanus, Thomson, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1862, p. 415. 

Odontolabis, Hope, Cat. 

Anodonlolahis, Parry, MS. (vid. Tr. Ent. Soc. ser. 3, vol. i. 
p. 447). 
The species, now amounting to eight in number, which compose 
this genus, belong to the second section of the genus Odonto- 
labis of Hope. One of its chief characters is the absence of the 
spine behind the eyes ; it also differs essentially in the size of the 
mandibles, which never attain to any considerable development, 
and seldom exceed the length of the head. The species are from 
East India, China, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. 

Neolucanus Saundersii $ , Parry. (PI. IX. fig. 3.) 
N. fusco-brunneus, nitidus ; mandibulis capite paulo longioribus, 
curvatis, intus excavatis, versus apicem irregulariter serrate 
dentatis, dentibusque duobus robustis, suberectis ; capite 
antice emarginato, angulis ante oculos acutis ; prothorace 
lateribus antice rotundatis, angulis posticis emarginatis ; 
elytris glabris, extus marginatis ; tibiis anticis irregulariter 
spinis 4 vel 5 instructis, quatuor posticis inermibus. 
Long. Corp. unc. 2 ; mandib. lin. G. 
Hab. Ind. Or. Coll. Parry (spec, unicum). 
The totally different form of the mandibles, and especially the 
two very singular sub-erect teeth with which each of them is 
armed, sufficiently distinguish this insect from 0. Baladeva, Hope, 
to which in its general form it has a remarkable similarity. 

Neolucanus cingulatus ? , Parry. (PI. IV. fig. 3.) 
N. nigro-castaneus, nitidus, subparallelus ; elytris singulis vitta 

obliqua flava ab humero ad apicem notatis. 
Long. corp. unc. 1, lin. 3. 

Hab. Malacca. Coll. Castelnau (spec, unicum). 
I am indebted for my acquaintance with this species, and also for 
the drawing from the pencil of M. Migneaux, to Count Mniszech. 
It is allied to 0. caslanopterus, Hope, from northern India. 

Neolucanus Championi $, Parry. 

L. niger, sub-opacus ; prothoracis elytrorumque lateribus pau- 
lulum explanatis ; mandibulis brevibus, apicibus subfurcatis, 
lateribus intus excavatis, sex-denticulatis ; capite prothorace- 
que granulosis. 

Long. Corp. (mandib. inch) lin. 14. 

Hab. China. 

This species is similar both in form and character to N, Sinicus, 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 21 

(lesciibccl and figured by Mr. W. Saunders in Trans. Ent. Soc. 
N. S. iii. '18, |)1. iv. figs. 2 & 3 ; the colour of the latter is dark 
chestnut, whilst L. Championi is dull black ; it was taken by the 
late Major Champion at Hong Kong, but specimens have subse- 
quently leen received from the interior of China, collected by Mr. 
Fortune. 



Gen. Cladoonatiius, Burm. Handb. d. Ent. v. SG^. 
Macrognalhus, Hope, Cat. p. 5. 
Blelopodontus, Id. p. 4. 
Prosopocoilus, Id. p. 4. 

This genus, to which Dr. Burmeister united Hexarthrius and 

Ci/clophthalmus of Hope, includes a larger proportion of species 
than any other belonging to the Lucanoid Coleoptera, comprising 
nearly sixty in number ; which, with the exception of a few from 
the eastern and western coasts of Africa, are all either from 
India and China, or the islands of the Indian Ocean. It includes 
also the sub-genera Mctopodontus and Prosopocoilus of the same 
author, both established with reference to the number of spines 
upon the tibiae as well as upon the bimucronated and excavated 
anterior part of the head. 

First, with regard to the tibial spines : these are often found 
to be most variable, and as generic characteristics are, I think, 
unworthy of the importance which has been attributed to them, 
especially as a rigid adherence to such a system necessitates the 
wide separation of species in all other respects intimately related. 

Secondly, with regard to the biuodose or strongly excavated 
character of the anterior portion of the head : this formation is so 
entirely dependent upon the development of the individual, that 
it cannot be regarded even as a specific, much less a generic 
character. I have, therefore, deemed it advisable to unite both 
Mctopodontus and Prosopocoilus with the genus Cladognathus of 
Dr. Burmeister, which must only be considered after all as a 
temporary refuge for a vast number of species, forming a peculiar 
group in this family, and sufficiently aberrant in form and 
character to justify perhaps their separation into several genera, 
but our present knowledge of the species is too limited to warrant 
more than a sectional arrangement. 

Cladognathus politus $, Parry (2 ignota). (PI. X. fig. 5.) 
C. castaneo-fuscus, nitidus ; mandibulis brevibus, curvatis, 
dcntibus tribus armatis ; capite supra oculos angulato ; 



22 Major Parry's Catalogue 

elylris glaberrimis, sutura late nigro-fusca ; tibiis anticis 
denticulatis, quatuor posticis imispinosis. 

Long. Corp. unc. 1, lin, 4; mandib. lin. 4. 

Hab. Ind. Or. Coll. Parry (spec, unicum). 

Head with the vertex smooth, punctured, more thickly so on 
the sides. Mandibles scarcely longer than the head, depressed, 
gradually curved, with a strong prominent tooth near the base, 
and two smaller ones before the tip ; clypeus faintly trilobed. 
Head deeply emarginate in front, anterior angles bisinuate, deeply 
and coarsely punctured on the sides, slightly depressed on the 
vertex. Prothorax wider than the elytra, closely punctured in 
front and at the sides. Posterior angles armed with a small 
spine. Scutellum punctured. Elytra smooth, of a ferruginous 
brown, the sutural portion nearly black, minutely and sparsely 
punctate, more especially at the sides ; humeral angles prominent. 

Cladognathus quadrinodosus $, Parry (2 ignota). 
(PI. VIII. fig. 4.) 
C. ferrugineo-fuscus ; capitis vertice minute quadrituberculato ; 
mandibulis gracilibus, porrectis, apicibus acutis, intus spinis 
8 vel 9 minimis irregulariter dentatis ; tibiis intermediis 
denticulo minimo instructis, posticis inerraibus ; tarsis sub- 
setosis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 9 ; mandib. lin. 5. 
Hab. Ind. Or. Coll. Parry, etiam Mus. Brit. 

Above ferruginous -brown, beneath lighter. Head deeply 
punctured, with four minute tubercles arranged transversely on 
the vertex. Mandibles elongate, narrowband acute at the tips, of 
the same length as the body, and armed with 8 or 9 minute teeth 
and tubercles. The sides of the thorax almost straight. Body 
convex. Outer edge of front tibiae minutely crenulated. 

Cladognathus cinctus, Montrousier, Faune de I'lle de Wood- 
lark, p. 27. 
This species is also, according to Mr. Wallace, found in the 
Islands of New Guinea, Ki and Arou, and must be considered as 
very questionably distinct from C. Bison, differing in having the 
four posterior femora entirely black beneath, and the anterior with 
a small rufous spot, whereas in C. Bison the rufous patch exists 
on all the femora ; in other respects they appear to be closely allied. 
I am not acquainted w ith a fully developed specimen ; those in 
the collection of Mr. Wallace, and my own, being medium varieties. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 23 

Cladoonathus Wallacei $, Parry (var. max., ? ignota). 
(PI. VII. fig. 2.) 

C. niger ; elytris dorso fusco-castaneo, lateribus nigro-margi- 
natis, vitta flava latiuscula notatis ; lubro producto, trigono- 
conico ; mandibulis porrectis, liaud arcuatis, irregulariter 
denticulatis, et intra basin versus fortiter emarginatis ; 
tibiis anticis extus irregulariter denticulatis, quatuor pos- 
ticis inermibus. 

Long, Corp. fere unc. 2 ; mandib. lin. 8. 

Hab. Ins. Gilolo. Coll. Wallace. 

Mandibles nearly straight, slightly curved from the base to the 
apex, which is bifurcate, the general surface flattened ; internally 
at the base deeply emarginate, with one strong tooth just before 
the middle, and two smaller ones behind and before it. 

Head with a large oblique flattened space on the crown, emar- 
ginate in front, anterior angles obliquely truncate, sides slightly 
swollen behind the eyes; labrum short, subtriangular, general 
surface shining, but very delicately shagreened, covered beneath 
with ferruginous hairs. Prothorax considerably wider than the 
head, smooth, anterior angles somewhat produced, and truncate ; 
anterior and posterior margins bisinuate, sides slightly waved, 
posterior angles obliquely truncate. Elytra widest just below 
the humeral angle, deep chestnut brown, narrowly margined with 
black, with a widish yellow vitta extending from the shoulder 
nearly to the apex, the vitta narrowest at the humeral angle. 
Legs black, anterior tibiae armed externally with two teeth and 
a few slight crenulations, intermediate and posterior tibiae unarmed ; 
femora and trochanters of intermediate and hind legs furnished 
behind with a narrow line of brownish hairs. 

This unique and fine species is named after A. R. Wallace, Esq., 
to whose indefatigable exertions natural history in general is so 
much indebted. Although somewhat approaching in general 
appearance the gigantic species of the genus Odontolabis, it bears 
nevertheless, I think, a nearer affinity to tl.e species of that section 
of the genus Cladognathus which Mr. Hope in his Catalogue 
designated as Prosopocoilus, and of which Cladognathus Lafertei 
may be considered the representative. 

Cladognathus Lafertei $ . (PI. VIII. fig. 5.) 
C Lafertei $ , Reiche, Revue Zool. 1S52. 
Fccm. — C. fuscus ; capite rugoso-punctato, poslice lasvigato ; 
mandibulis brevibus, rugosis, unidentatis; elytris pallide ferru- 



24 Major Parry's Catalogue 

gineis, inaequaliter punctatis, sutura ad basin marginibusque 
nigro-fuscatis. 

Long. corp. (mandib. incl.) unc. 1. 

Hab. N. Hebrides. 

Female witb the head rather coarsely punctured, except on 
the vertex, which is smooth. Mandibles short, punctured, the left 
with a tooth a little before the apex, the right with one near the 
base. Prothorax coarsely punctate, especially at the sides and 
in front ; elytra punctate, having some of the punctures disposed 
in lines ; the external margin of the front tibiae crenulated, of the 
intermediate and posterior armed with a single spine. 

This species was found rather abundantly at New Hebrides, by 
Mr. M'Gilleray, the naturalist to the expedition of H. M. S. 
Herald. 

The locality of New Holland assigned to it by Mons. Reiche 
appears to be erroneous. 

Cladognathus Tragulus, Vol). (PI. Vn. fig. 6). 
$ C. Tragulus, Voll. Tijd. v. Ent. iv. 113, tab. vii. fig. 4, 5, 6 
(1861). 
C. froductus, Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc, 1862, p. 109. 
Fcem. — C. niger, subnitidus ; clypeo parvo, rotundato; mandi- 
bulis brevibus, arcuatis, unidentatis, rugoso-punctatis; capite 
rugoso-punctato, postice Icevi ; prothorace antice angustato, 
lateribus rotundatis, fusco-cinnamomeis, plaga obliqua nigra 
notatis; tibiis quatuor posticis denticulo parvo arirtatis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 11 — 12. 
Hab. Ternate (nee Sumatra). 

On my recent visit to Leyden, having an opportunity of con- 
sulting the specimens described by M. van Vollenhoven in his 
interesting memoir above referred to, I ascertained that the insect 
described and figured by him, fig. 6, as the $ of Tragulus is in 
fact the ? of D. imrpurascens (var. Saiga ? ); vid. tab. vii. fig. 1. 
Tiiere are several specimens in the collection, and M. van Vol- 
lenhoven kindly presented me with the one from which the 
present diagnosis is drawn up. With reference to my description 
of C. productus $ , as having the intermediate tibiae unarmed, I 
find, having subsequently examined numerous fully developed 
specimens, that this is an error, and upon again referring to the 
type specimen in Mr. Wallace's cabinet the rudiment of a very 
minute tubercle, but scarcely visible to the naked eye, is found to 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 25 

exist ; this tubercle ought to have been represented in PI. VII. 
fig. 6. 

Cladognathus assimilis $ , Parry ( $ ignotus). 

froductus $, Parry, Proc. Ent. See, 
18G2, p. 109. 
Fcem. — C. niger, subnitidus ; clypeo parvo, rotundato ; mandi- 
bulis brevibus, unidentatis ; capite antice rugoso, punctulato, 
postice laeviusculo ; prothorace antice angustato, lateribus 
oblique rotundatis, fulvo-brunneis, in medio nigro-maculatis ; 
elytris fulvo-cinnamomeis, marginibus externe et sutura 
tenuiter nigris ; pedibus rugoso-punctatis, nigris ; tibiis inter- 
mediis denticulo minuto armatis, posticis inermibus. 
Long. Corp. (mandib. inch) unc. 1. 

Hab. Ins. Waigiou. Coll. Wallace. Specimen unicum. 
The above description was originally given as that of the $ of 
C. productus (but which species has now proved to be identical 
with C. Tragulus, Voll.). I have, however, since my recent visit 
to Leyden, ascertained, as already previously stated, that it is 
not the $ of C. Tragulus, from which it differs in the uniform 
colour of the elytra and in the posterior tibiae being unarmed. 
Unfortunately the $ of this new species is at present unknown. 

Cladognathus Zebra $, Oliv. Ent. i. 24', 20, tab. v. fig. 17. 
Thunb. Mem. Nat. de Moscou, i. 206. 
Voll. Tijd. V. Ent. iv. 108. 
(PI. IV. fig. 5, $.) 

Lucanus Zebra. Mandibulis porrectis, versus apicem denticu- 

latis ; thorace elytrisque testaceis, nigro-maculatis. 
Lucano suturali paulo major. Mandibulae porrectae, longitudine 
capitis, denticulatse, nigrse. Caput nigrum, fulvo-pubescens. 
Thorax laevis, testaceus, macula magna dorsali, macula ob- 
longa utrinque punctoque marginali nigris. Elytra testacea, 
maculd baseos vittaque media lata abbreviatd nigris. 
The above is Olivier's description of this rare species ; the type 
specimen {$) described from the cabinet of M. Raye is now in 
the Museum of Leyden, with the locality of " Birman Empire" 
attached to it, although Olivier makes no mention of its habitat. 
The ? , a single specimen of which is in the collection of Count 
Mniszech, is now figured PI. IV. fig. 5. 

Cladognathus suturalis $, Oliv. Ent. i. 16, tab. iv. fig. 12. 
Lucano iiaralh lip I pedo paulomajor. Antennae nigrse. Mandibuloe 



26 Major Parry's Catalogue 

exsevta?, apice acutae, intus basi denticulatae, nigro-testacese, 
longitudine capitis. Caput supra testaceum, marginibus vitta- 
que media bifurcata nigris. Thorax testaceus, elytris capite- 
que latior, marginibus tenuissim^ puncto utrinque vittaque 
media nigris. Scutellura nigrum. Elytra testacea, marginibus 
tenuissime suturaque nigris. Corpus subtus pedesque nigro- 
brunnea. 
Long. unc. 1, Hn. S. 
Hab. Siam aut Malacca. 

Another rare species to which Olivier assigns no locality ; the 
only specimen I am acquainted with is in my own collection ; it 
is either from Siam or Malacca. Closely allied to O. occipitalis, 
Hope, from which the unarmed posterior angles of its head, in- 
dependent of its coloration, amply suffice to distinguish it. 

Cladognathus perplexus $, Parry (var. minor, $ ignota). 
C. rufo-castaneus, sublente minute punctatus, marginibus sutura- 
que nigrescentibus ; mandibulis brevibus, apicibus acutis, 
marginibus internis intus sex-dentatis ; tibiis intermediis 
minute tuberculatis, posticis inermibus. 
Long. Corp. (mandib. incl.) unc. 1. 
Hab. Ind. Or. Coll. Parry. 

A single specimen only of the above is in my collection ; it 
most resembles in general appearance and colour the var. minor 
of C. dorsalis, Erichson, differing however in having the inter- 
mediate tibiee slightly armed and in the colour of the elytra 
being uniform, whereas in C. dorsalis the disk of the elytra is 
remarkable for its shiny polished character, whilst the sides are 
sub-opaque. 

Cladognathus attenuatus $, Parry ($ ignota). (PI. IV. Fig. 2.) 
C. fulvo-testaceus ; mandibulis, antennis, pedibusque luteo-squa- 
mosis ; mandibulis arcuatis, capite parum brevioribus, intus 
irregulariter serratis ; prothorace capite latiori, lateribus 
fere rectis, angulis posticis emarginatis; elytris angustis, 
versus apicem attenuatis ; tibiis anticis extus quadridenticu- 
latis, quatuor posticis inermibus ; tarsis subtus setosis. 
Long. corp. (mandib. incl.) lin. ]1. 
Hab. Malacca. Coll. Castelnau et Mniszech. 

Cladognathus squamilateris $ , Parry (var. minor). 
C. fusco-niger, nitens, subparallelus ; mandibulis brevibus, ir- 



of Lucanoid Coleopiera. 27 

regulariter minute dentatis ; elytrorum prothoracisque mar- 
ginibus lateralibus pilis cinereis tectis ; tibiis quatuor posticis 
inermibus. 
Long. Corp. (mandib. incl.) nnc. 1. 

Hab. Borneo, Malacca. Coll. Parry, Wallace et Saunders. 
Since my notice of this species in the Proc. Ent. Soc, 18G2, 
p. 110, specimens of both sexes have been received from Malacca; 
the female is also characterized by having the sides of the prothorax 
and elytra covered with a thick greyish pubescence, whilst the re- 
mainder of the body is of a highly polished character. 

Cladognathus ELEGANS (J , Parry ( $ ignota). (PI. VIII. fig. 3.) 

C, cinnaniomeus, gracilis ; mandibulis capite paulo longioribus, 
arcuatis, depressis, ante apicem dente truncate instructis ; 
capite antice fortiter emarginato ; elytris punctatis, subtiliter 
striatis, sutura fuscata. 

Long. Corp. (mandib. incl.) lin. 8. 

Hab. Ind. Or. Coll. Parry. 

Of a cinnamon-brown ; mandibles flattened, gradually bent to 
the apex, which is very acute, externally before the tip is a broad, 
flat, truncate tooth, separated from the apex by a deep longitudinal 
fissure; sides of the prothorax with numerous scattered punctures, 
the middle smooth except on the dorsal line, where it is sparsely 
punctate ; above the posterior angle is a slight blackish tubercle ; 
the anterior and posterior margins are somewhat fuscous. Elytra 
with the suture very smooth, polished and brown, the rest cin- 
namon-coloured, rather thickly punctured and striated, the striae 
disappearing before the tip. Anterior tibiae armed externally at 
the apex with three teeth, and with a minute one about the 
middle ; posterior tibiae simple, with lines of punctures. Abdomen 
beneath with the segments narrowly margined with brown. 

Cladognathus flavidus $ , Parry (var. max., 2 ignota). 
(PI. Vin. fig. 2.) 
C. castaneus ; mandibulis, capite, thorace, suturaque nigro- 
marginatis ; mandibulis elongatis, subdepressis, intus quadri- 
dentatis, dente ante apicem obtuso, dente medio elongato 
subtrigono ; tibiis inermibus. 
Long. Corp. unc. 1, lin. 6 ; mandib. lin. 5. 
Hab. Ind. Or. Coll. Parry. 

Yellowish-chestnut, margined with black. Head broader than 
long, rather narrower than the prothorax ; sides behind the eyes 



28 Major Parry's Catalogue 

slightly arcuate, in front notched. Mandibles as long as the 
head and prothorax together, depressed, a small tooth near the 
base, a smaller blunt tooth behind the middle, closely followed by 
another rather large and triangular ; close to the apex is an 
obtuse tooth, separated from the preceding by a rounded sinus. 
Prothorax chestnut, narrowly margined with black, considerably 
wider than the elytra at the base, sides slightly rounded, obliquely 
emarginate behind, the emargination with a tooth in front, and 
above the posterior angles a fovea. The elytra of a pale chestnut- 
brown, finely and closely punctured, shining, the suture somewhat 
darker, the humeral angles prominent. The tibiae are all entirely 
without teeth. 

Cladognathus fulvonotatus $ , Parry (var. max., ? ignota). 
(PI. VI. fig. 3.) 
C. nigro-brunneus, seneo-tinctus ; prothorace lateribus fulvo- 
bimaculatis ; elytris dorso valde politis, linea fulva pone 
humerum fere ad apicem ducta notatis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 10; mandib. lin. 4. 
Hab. Ind. Or. (Cherra Pounga, Ponjee ?) Coll. Parry. 

Head smooth, dark brown, with a slight greenish hue ; man- 
dibles elongate, narrow, sides nearly parallel, apex slightly forked, 
with a w-ide, somewhat truncate bifid tooth just beneath ; clypeus 
sliglitly sinuate. Prothorax of the colour of the head, anterior 
and lateral margins passing into ferruginous brown ; on each side 
are two fulvous spots, nearly parallel with the lateral margin, the 
posterior the largest, ovate ; scutellum slightly punctured. Elytra 
with the disc flattened and highly polished ; from behind each 
shoulder a fulvous line proceeds nearly parallel with the sides, 
curves towards the suture near the apex, and is dilated towards 
the end. Underside of body and sides of mandibles ferruginous; 
all the femora have a broad fulvous ring ; the fore tibiae are irre- 
gularly serrated on the outer edge, the intermediate with one 
small tooth about the middle, and the posterior unarmed. 

Cladognathus eisignatus. Parry. (PI. VII. fig. 3 $ ,5 ? ). 

C. niger, subseneus, glaberrimus ; mandibulis brevibus, in medio 
unidentatis ; elytris singulis ad apicem macula ($) aut 
striga (^) fulva notatis; femoribus intermediis et posticis 
fulvo-maculatis. 

Long. Corp. (mandib. inch) lin, 10. 

Ilab, Ind, Or. (Cherra Pounga, Ponjee ?). Coll. Parry. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 29 

Head of $ smootli, with a few scattered punctures near tlie eye; 
mandibles of the same length as the head, acute at the apex, in 
the middle with a projecting lobe, the edge of which is crenulated ; 
the clypeus wider than in the 2, slightly emarginate ; the pro- 
thorax is smooth, darker than the elytra, slightly convex, pos- 
terior angles rounded ; elytra smooth, seneous, with a row of 
minute punctures near the suture, and parallel with it an oblique 
yellow line near the apex ; the femora of the four posterior legs 
on the underside with a small yellow patch ; the anterior tibiae 
irregularly crenulated externally with four or five prominent 
tubercles ; the intermediate are armed with a small spine, the pos- 
terior unarmed. The $ is broader and more convex than the $, 
the head is distinctly punctured, with two slight elevations on its 
surface ; mandibles short and acute, with a distinct tooth in the 
middle ; the prothorax is very smooth on the disc, distinctly 
punctured on the sides as well as upon the anterior and posterior 
margins, with the hinder angles rounded. Scutellum with a few 
scattered punctures ; elytra more convex than in the $ , with the 
sides parallel, smooth in the centre, but punctured at the base, 
lateral margins and apex, and with a small, yellow, nearly round 
spot near the apex. The fore tibiae are crenulated, with four or 
five small proininent tubercles, the four posterior are armed with 
a small spine near the centre, and as in the $ the four posterior 
femora Irave a small fulvous patch on the underside. 

Cladognatiius modestus $, Parry ($ ignota). 
(PI. XII. fig. 1.) 

C. brunneo-castaneus vel nigro-piceus, prothoracis et elytrorum 
lateribus fulvis ; capite, mandibulis, tarsis, antennisque 
nigris ; capite transverso, parvo, tenuissime granuloso, antice 
depresso, paulo emarginato, pone oculos obtuse angulato ; 
mandibulis gracilibus, capite paulo longioribus, curvatis, 
rugoso-punctatis, ante medium dente interno obtuso sub- 
erecto armatis, apicibus dilatatis, bidentatis ; prothorace 
angulis anticis rotundatis posticisque obliquis, minute gra- 
nuloso, disco nitido ; elytris castaneis, nitidis, marginibus 
latis luteis, subopacis ; corpore infra nigro-rufcscente ; tibiis 
anticis extus serrulatis, 4 posticis inermibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. 10; mandib. lin. 2. 

Ilab. in Africa occ. tropicali. Coll, Parry. Specimen unicum. 

The general appearance of this new species allies it closely to 
C.faber, Thomson, from which, however, it may readily be dis- 



30 Major Parry's Catalogue 

tinguished by the short obtuse posterior angles of the head, the 
oblique posterior angles of its prothorax, and the well-defined 
luteoLis margin of the elytra. 

For the figure of this species, and the following description 
and remarks, I am indebted to Prof. Westwood.* 

[This species somewhat closely resembles L.faber, Dej., from 
Guinea, especially in the toothing of the mandibles, but that 
species possesses a spine in the middle of the intermediate tibi^. 
It is most nearly allied to CI. picipennis, Hope, Cat. Lucan., from 
Cape Palmas, but the head of that species has the lateral margins 
behind the eyes only slightly dilated, and the mandibles of the 
large variety of the male are differently toothed : it has also a 
triangular point in the middle of the clypeus. The upper surface 
of the head is opaque, and entirely covered with extremely minute 
granules (as is also that of the prothorax), the space behind the 
eyes being strongly punctate. Tlie anterior lateral angles of the 
head are obliquely truncate, posteriorly produced, somewhat 
rounded and extending half across the eye : in front of the eye is 
a moderately raised obtuse tubercle. The anterior margin of the 
head is bisinuated, the clypeus being transverse, short, with the 
anterior rounded. The lateral margin of the head, behind each 
of the eyes, is produced into a rounded lobe. The mandibles are 
rather longer than the head, somewhat slender, regularly curved, 
strongly punctured, with an obtuse spine directed inwards beyond 
the middle of the inner margin ; the apex somewhat digitated, 
with a small subapical tooth, between which and the spine is a 
broad obtuse tooth. The mentum is of moderate width and very 
rudely punctured. The prothorax is rather broader and more 
glossy than the head, with the anterior angles rounded, the sides 
but slightly oblique and the hind lateral angles obliquely truncate; 
the sides are broadly dark fulvous, with a very slender raised 
black margin also extending along the bisinuated hind margin 
of the prothorax : near the hind angles is a dark lateral spot on 
each side ; the scutellum is very finely punctured, as is also the 
base of the elytra. The latter are very glossy, almost quite 
smooth, very dark chestnut down the middle, with a broad lateral 
border of fulvous, the extreme lateral margin being raised and 
black. The legs are pitchy black, with the femora castaneous, 
the fore tibiae are serrulated along the outer edge and armed with 
three stronger teeth at the apex, the four posterior Uh\se are des- 
titute of a spine in the middle of the outer margin. The body 

* See note *, ante, p. 17. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 31 

beneath is dark castaneous, glossy, almost impunctate, vviih the 
abdomen black. 

PI. XII. fig. 1. The insect somewhat magnified; la, the left side of the head 
with the clypeus; 16, the extremity of the right mandible j Ic, the 
menlum, with the four palpi in situ. — J. O. W.j 

Cladognathus decipiens ? , Parry. (PI. IV. fig. 4.) 
C. niger, nitidus ; elytris fusco-castaneis, marginibus vitta 
flava latiuscula notatis ; capite parvo, antice impresso, tenuis- 
sime punctato ; prothorace lateribus rotundatis, dorso postice 
utrinque foveolato ; elytris laevibus ; tibiis anticis angustis, 
extus crenulatis, quatuor posticis unidentatis, tarsis subtus 
setosis. 
Long. Corp. unc. 1. 
Hab. Malabar. 

The only example of this species with which I am acquainted is 
in the cabinet of Count Mniszech. In the rich collection of the 
Leyden Museum there exists an undescribed $ specimen, the 
general sculpture of which induces me to refer it to the present 
species ; but the habitat not being given, and the fact that the head 
affixed to the specimen has the appearance of belonging to a 
different species, prevent me from speaking with greater certainty 
as to their identity. 

Cladognathus dorsalis, Erichson, Act. Acad. Caesar. 
Leopold. V. 16, Suppl. tab. 37, fig. 6. 

$ (var. max). C. castaneus, plagd magna laevissimd prope 
suturam ; corpore subtus, antennis, mandibuiis, pedibusque 
nigro-piceis. 

Rufo-castaneus, nitidus ; capite magno, antice emarginato, mar- 
gine elevato ; mandibuiis capite cum prothorace paulo lon- 
gioribus, falcatis, depressis, intus irregulariter armatis, apici- 
bus curvatis ; prothorace lateribus fere rectis, subopacis, 
angulis posticis paulo emarginatis, macidd utrinque nigra 
indistincta versus angulos posticos, dorso nitido ; elytris dorso 
Icevissimo, lateribus subopacis ; tibiis anticis rectis, denticulis 
4 vel 5 parvis instructis, posticis quatuor inermibus. 

Long. corp. unc. 1, lin. 5 ; mandib. lin. 7. 

Ericlison (1. c.) described the female only, the male being appa- 
rently unknown to him. Dr. Burmeister, Haiidb. d. Ent. v. 370, 
has referred- Z. cavifrons (Curm. MS.), Hope, Cat. p. 13, to the 
above described species ; this is undoubtedly an error. Neither 



32 Major Parry's Catalogue 

the Rev. F. W. Hope nor Dr. Burmeister was acquainted with the 
veritable male of Erichson's species, which is now described for 
the first time, and which differs essentially from C. cavifrons (var. 
max.), Hope, by its broader and more convex form, the highly 
polished dorsal patch on the elytra, and in the structure of the 
mandibles, which in the insect now under consideration are some- 
what broader, strongly curved at the apex, destitute of the flat 
basal tooth, and instead of the group of subapical teeth only, as 
in C. cavifrons, are armed with a stout tooth placed a little above 
their centre, with four or five smaller ones between it and the 
apical tip ; some of these teeth, however, may be more properly 
called nodose elevations. The anterior tibiae moreover are straight, 
and not curved as in C. cavifrons. 

The female is equally to be distinguished from that of C. cavi- 
frons by its more robust and convex form ; the anterior tibiae are 
considerably more dilated, their outer edge also strongly denti- 
culated ; the four posterior tibiae, like all the females of this genus 
(with the exception of C. cavifrons), are armed with a single 
spine. 



Cladognathus cavifrons, Hope. 
$ Lucanus cavifrons, Hope, Cat. p. 13 (var. max.). 
J L, tetiuipes, Id. Cat. p. 18. 

Odonlolabis tenuipes, Id. Cat. p. 5. 
The only two specimens of L. tenuipes^ Hope, with which I am 
acquainted are in the Hopeian Collection and the British Museum, 
and w^ere obtained by Mr. Cuming during his visit to the Philip- 
pines ; after careful examination, I have satisfied myself, from the 
general sculpture of the head and the short strongly-punctate 
mandibles, that both these specimens are females ; but from the 
remarkable slenderness of the anterior tibiae, and from the absence 
of spines on those of the four posterior legs, they have somewhat 
the appearance of males with short undeveloped mandibles. The 
specimen described by Mr. Hope is somewhat darker than that of 
the British Museum, assimilating more in colour with the male, 
which is chestnut-brown. While, on the one hand, the unarmed 
tibiae of the four posterior legs would assign lemiipes to the genus 
Odontolabis, in which Mr. Hope placed it, its slender fore tibiae 
and general structure of body place it indubitably with those in- 
sects which belong to the genus Cladognathus, and I am strongly 
inclined to believe that it is the J of C. cavfrons. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 33 

Cladognathus approximatus ^, Parry (var. max.). 

C. nigro-castaneus, nitidiis ; capite subquadrato, antice deprcsso, 
emarginato, subopaco, confertissime piinctulato ; maiidil)ulis 
gracilibus, capiti cum prothorace longitiidine agqualibus, fere 
rectis, intiis spinis 3 — 5 armatis, apicibus furcatis ; pro- 
thorace transverso, elytris latiori, lateribus fere rectis, angulis 
posticis obtusis, dorso subla}vigato, tenuissime granuloso ; 
elytris nitidis, sublente minute punctulatis, apicem versus 
attenuatis ; tibiis anticis extus irregulariter denticulatis, 
quatuor posticis simplicibus. 

Long. Corp. unc. 1 ; mandib. lin. 7. 

Hab. Cochin Ciiina, Laos. Mus. Saunders et Parry ^, $. 

Collected by the late M. Mouhot, and allied to C. Pyudd/ia, 
Hope (Trans. Linn. Soc. xix. 107), the type specimen of which 
is in my own collection, but differs in the form and armature 
of the mandibles, in the head being wider and much less emargi- 
nate in front, and in the narrow and more attenuated form of the 
elytra. 

Cladognathus eximius. Parry. 

C. castaneus, nitidus ($ var. med.) ; mandibulis nigris, capitis 
longitudine, subtrigonis, supra crebre punctatis, intus obtuse 
denticulatis ; capite magno, nigro-piceo, depresso, late semi- 
circulariter emarginato, margiue antice leviter elevato ; pro- 
thorace transverso, capite elytrisque latiori, confertissime 

"^ granuloso, angulis anticis rotundatis, posticis obtusis, late- 
ribus utrinque macula nigra notatis ; elytris tenuissime punc- 
tatis, sutuia late nigro-marginata ; subtus fusco-ferrugincus ; 
antennis pedibusque piceis ; tibiis anticis extus serratis, inter- 
mediis spina acuta armatis, posticis tuberculo parvo instructis. 

Long. Corp. (mandib. incl.) unc. 1, lin. 4. 

$ Mandibulis brevibus, intus unidentatis; capite rugoso-punctato; 
prothorace lateribus rotundatis, parce fortiterque punciato, 
disco nigro-piceo ; elytris crebre irregulariterque punctatis. 

Long. Corp. unc. 1. 

Hab. Afric. Occ. Coll. Parry. 

This species is allied both to C. Senegnknsis, Klug, and C. 
quadridens, Hope, from which, however, its rich chestnut colour, 
similar to that of C. Savagei, Hope, at once distinguishes it. 

VOL. n. THIRD SERILS, PART I. MAY, ISGl. D 



34 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Cladognathus Senegalensis, King. 
Lucatius Senegalensis $ , King, Erm. Reis. Atl. 38, 103. 

Dr. Burmeister in his Handbuch der Entomologie, v. 371, 
gives this insect as synonymous with Lucanus Antilopus $ , 
Swedeius (Act. Holm. 1787, iii. 18G, tab. viii. fig. 3); in this 
I do not feel disposed to agree, since Swederus describes the 
prothorax of his species as " lateribus subrotundatis," and figures 
the four posterior tibiae as being unarmed — characters quite at 
variance with the true Lucanus Senegalensis of Dr. Klug, a spe- 
cimen of which from my own collection I have recently compared 
with the typical insect in the Berlin Museum. This species is 
readily distinguished in having the posterior angle of the pro- 
thorax strongly emarginate, as well as the anterior angle of this 
emargination being armed with a small acute spine ; hence Mons. 
Gory applied the specific epithet of bispinosys to the female 
(according to a specimen so ticketed in the Oxford Museum). 
The mandibles are nearly straight in all their diflPerent developments, 
and the four posterior tibiae are armed each with a single spine. 
As regards the veritable L. Antilopus of Swederus, I am inclined, 
from the description as well as from the figure, to refer it to 
Lucanus quadridens , Hope (var. minor), with which it agrees in 
the form of the mandibles (representing evidently those of an 
undeveloped male, and characterized as such by the description 
" raandibulis capite vix longioribus"), in the posterior angles of 
the thorax being rounded, and in the absence of the spines from 
the four posterior tibiae ; although I must remark that in fully 
developed individuals a minute tubercle is occasionally seen on 
the intermediate tibiae. These spines or tubercles on the tibiae, 
however, are, as I have already had occasion to state, most 
capricious, depending considerably, as to their size, and even for 
their very existence, on the maturity of growth the insect may 
arrive at, and can in no way be relied upon either specifically or 
generically. 

In respect to the L. Atitilopus, Burm., Hand, der Ent. v. 371, 
this insect may possibly be identical with L. Senegalensis, Klug, 
but as no mention is made of the posterior angles of the prothorax 
being rounded or emarginate, or of the existence or non-existence 
of the spine alluded to by Dr. Klug, it is difficult to fix exactly 
the species to which it ought to be referred. If identical with 
Senegalensis, Klug, it certainly is not the Antilopus of Swederus; 
and should it be a more fully developed specimen of Antilogous, Swed., 
(as the mandibles are described as being as long as the head and 



of Lucanoid Colcoptera. 35 

body together) it will then, I think, prove, as intimated above, to 
be synonymous with L. quadridens, Hope, a specimen of the 
latter in my own collection corresponding so exactly with both 
the description and figure of Swederus that it makes me very 
much disposed to unite them together. 

Cladognathus curvipes, Hope, Cat. p. 25 ( ? ). 

$ C. subconvexus, niger, nitidus, tenue punctatus ; capita 
magno, antice emarginato, crebre punctato, medio triangu- 
lariter impresso, lateribus pone oculos inflatis ; mandibulis 
capite vix longioribus, suberectis, apicibus acutis, intus pro- 
funda excavatis et irregulariter denticulatis ; prothorace 
lateribus (ut in 2 ) subserratis, angulis anticis rotundatis, 
posticis obtusis, spina minuta armatis; elytris angulis humera- 
libus acutis ; tibiis anticis irregulariter serratis, intermediis 
spina minuta instructis, posticis simplicibus. 

Long. Corp. (mandib. inch) lin. 9. 

Hab. Ind. Or. Coll. Parry. 

In the female, which sex alone was known to Mr. Hope, the 
anterior tibiae are curved exteriorly, whence the specific name ; 
those of the male however are but very slightly curved. The small 
lateral spine existing on the prothorax of the male is often very 
indistinct in the female; the rudiment however of it is mostly to 
be traced. The peculiar formation of the mandibles in the 
present insect, and its small size, render it one of the most con- 
spicuous species of the genus in which, for the present, I have 
placed it. 

Cladognathus rudis $, Westw.* (PI. XI. fig. 4.) 
\_Dorcus {ProsopocoUusI) rudis, Westw. 
Fcemina. — Tota nigra, rude punctata ; elytris costatis, inter- 
stitiis punctatissimis, capitis angulis anticis lateralibus 
obliquis, oculis septo dimidiatim incisis ; prothoracis an- 
gulis posticis oblique emarginatis, elytris angulo humerali 
prominenti notatis. 
Long. Corp. (cum mandib.) lin. 10. 
Hab. India vel Insulis Indicis ? In Mus. D. Parry, 

The unique insect on which this species is here proposed is 

a female of a glossy black colour, distinguished from the majority 

of the females of the genus Dorcus by the oblique emargination of 

* See note * ante, p. 17. 

D 2 



36 Major Parry's Catalogue 

the posterior nngles of the prothorax, in which respect it agrees 
with Luc. punctiger, Hope (Cat. Lucan. p. 24; Linn. Trans, xviii. 
p. 592), but which differs from the present species in the elytra 
being destitute of costae, and in its much less strongly punctured 
prothorax. The type specimens of the last-mentioned species 
are females, and are regarded with considerable probability by 
Major Parry as the other sex of L. biilbosus, Hope, which, with 
other African and Indian species, constitutes Mr. Thomson's 
second section oi Prosopoco'dus. 

The head is very rudely punctured on the upper side ; the 
anterior lateral angles are obliquely rounded off; the clypeus forms 
a bilobed projection ; the mandibles are rather small, acute at the 
tips, with a tooth beyond the middle of the inner margin ; on the 
middle of the crown are two irregular smooth patches, and there is 
a somewhat elevated space between each eye and the base of the 
antennae ; the eye is divided through its anterior half by the sharp 
curved canihus. The mentum is short, almost semicircular, and 
rudely punctured. The maxillae are short, the inner lobe termi- 
nating in a sharp, hooked spine (a character also found in the 
female of Pr. Martini, Hope, an African species of this sub-genus). 
The labium is terminated by two elongated, strongly-setose lobes, 
and the labial palpi are rather long, slender, and with the terminal 
joint thick and ovate. The prothorax is strongly punctured, the 
sides are rounded and slightly serrulated, the posterior lateral 
angles are obliquely emarginate. The elytra are elongate, some- 
what parallel, each with three strong costae, the middle one 
interrupted near the shoulder ; between the raised suture and 
the first costa are two slender lines edged with punctures, and 
the interstices between the costae are very closely and finely 
punctured. The extremity of the elytra is also very thickly 
punctured. The body beneath is but slightly punctured, except 
at the sides of the metasternum and apical segment of the abdo- 
men. The fore tibiae are armed with five teeth, of which the two 
at the apex are the largest, and the four posterior tibiae have a 
spine in the middle of the outer edge of each. 

PI. XI. fig. 4. 'J'he insect magnified. 4a, the head with one of the antennse ; 
46, the eye half divided by the canthus ; 4c, maxilla ; 4<Z, mentum ; 4e, 
labium and palpi; 4/, prosternum; 4g, the same sideways. — J. O. W.] 

Cladognathus Natalensis S (var. max.), Parry. 

Cpiceo-castaneus; elytris castaneis, sutura tenuissime nigricanti; 
mandibulis capitis prothoracisque fere longitudine, falcatis, 
apicibus dilatatis, furcatis, interne spina minima obtusa 
armatis ; clypeo parvo, binodoso ; capite transverso, cum pro- 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera, 37 

thorace tenuissime grnniiloso, margine antico deflexo, vix 
emarginato, pone oculos spina obtusa armato ; prolhorace 
capite latioii, angiilis posticis ohliquis ; elytiis prothorace an- 
gustioribus, sublcnte minute punctulatis; pedibus, mandibulis, 
antennisqne nigris ; tibiis anticis irregulariter crenulatis, inter- 
mediis unidentatis, posticis tul)erculo minimo instructis. 

Long. Corp. line. 1, lin. 5 ; mandib. lin. 5. 

Hab. Port Natal. 

Allied to Cfabcff Thomson, but is at once distinguished by 
its larger size and less glabrous character ; it differs further in 
having the mandibles somewhat less curved, the sides of the pro- 
thorax straighter, and the absence of the small spine at the pos- 
terior angle. It belongs to that section of the African species of 
Cladngnathus remarkable for the falcate form of the mandibles 
(which in fully-developed males are only armed at the apex), and 
in having the head furnished behind the eyes with a small obtuse 
tooth. 

The female, as is frequently the case in other allied species of 
this genus, is more polished than the male, and has considerable 
aflinity to the ? of C. quadridens, Hope, Cat. p. 14. 

With the exception of a small species of Dorcus, D. adsperstis, 
Boheman, recently described and figured by Professor Westwood 
(Trans. Ent. Soc, 3rd Ser., i. 435, pi. xvi. fig. 6), this is the 
only species of Lucanoid Coleoptera received in the numerous 
collections that have of late been transmitted to us from that 
rich entomological district of Africa, Port Natal. It appears in 
some of the continental cabinets under the manuscript name of 
C. Vescoi. 



Cladognathus Spencii $, var. max., Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. 

xviii. 589. 
Macrognathus Spencii, Hope, Cat., p. 6. 

bulbosus S, var. min., Hope. 

The above insect, unique in the Ilopeian Cabinet, was captured 
with other interesting species by W. Griflith, Esq., F.L.S., in the 
Assam district, and placed by the Rev. F. W. Hope in his Cata- 
logue together with Lucanus bulbosus (also described in Tr. Linn. 
Soc. xviii. 589), in the sub-genus Macrognathus^ immediately 
preceding the sub-genus Plali/prosopus, both of which sub-genera 
appertain to the family Dorcidcv, and are respectively identical 
with the genera Hemisodorcus and Eurytrachelus of Mr. Thomson's 
" Catalogue of the Lucanidae." L. bulbosus, Hope, a not very 



38 Major Parry's Catalogue 

uncommon species, has very properly been removed by Mr. Thom- 
son to the genus Claclognathus, to which, from its general structure, 
it has evidently a much nearer affinity, and, as regards the other 
species, L. Spencii, the typical example of which is now before 
me, there appears to be but little doubt as to its being the var. 
max. of L. hulbosus, its chief characteristic consisting in a greater 
development of the mandibles and head, the former being con- 
siderably longer than the latter, arcuate, forked at the tip, and 
exhibiting in a slight degree only at their base the peculiar bulbose 
structure of the minor form, but still sufficiently apparent to trace 
the affinity. 

Individuals of the var. max., or those presenting an extreme 
development of the mandibles, are but of rare occurrence among 
their respective species ; and as regards C. bulbosus, of which 
numerous specimens have fallen under my notice, the present 
case is the only one I have met with. The name of one of our 
most celebrated Entomologists has been maintained, not only in 
right of priority of publication, but also in deference to his 
memory. 

Gen. HoMODERus, Parry. 

Corpus subrotundatum, robustum. Clypeus transversus, biden- 
tatus, antice leviter emarginatus. Mandibular capite vix 
longiores, falcate. Caput magnum, transversum, antice 
depressum, infra oculos armatum. Antennarum clava 4-ar- 
ticulata, scaphus elongatus. Prothorax lateribus pone me- 
dium (in utroque sexu) sinuatis et spina acuta aimatis ; 
angulis anticis rotundatis, posticis emarginatis. Pedes gra- 
ciles. Tibiee posticae in maribus inermes. 

HoMODERUs Mellyi, Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 107 ; Trans. 
Ent. Soc. 3rd Ser. i. 437, pi. xvi. f. 7 & 8. (PI. XI. fig. 6.) 

Mas. — H. fulvo-testaceus ; mandibulis gracilibus, intus ad basin 
unidentatis et supra pone medium spinis nodosis tribus aut 
quatuor irregulariter armatis ; capite sublente confertissime 
granuloso, supra oculos plaga nigra notato ; pi-othorace 
maculis quatuor nigris, transversim positis, in medio sub- 
tiliter longitudinaliter canaliculato ; elytris laevissimis. 

Long. corp. (mandib. incl.) fere unc. 2. 

Hab. Afric. Occ. (Guinea, Old Calabar). In Mus. Parry, 
Mniszech et Murray. 

Fcem. — H. nigro-fuscus; mandibulis gracilibus, brevibus, ru- 
goso-punctatis, et dente parvo apicem versus instructis ; capite 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 39 

irregiilariter et fortiter rugoso-punctato ; clypeo parvo, ro- 
tiindato ; protliorace luteo, maculis quatuor nigris transver- 
sim positis, duabiis medianis magnis, antice connexis, late- 
ralibus parvis, rotundatis ; elytris singulis vitta lutescenti 
flava ab humeris ad apicem notatis; pedibus nigris, femo- 
ribus supra flavo-rufo maculatis; tibiis anticis paulo cur- 
vatis, extus irregidariter tribus vel quatuor spinis minimis 
instructis, intermediis posticisque unidentatis. 
Long. Corp. (mandib. incl.) unc. 1. 

In a former communication to the Society, I mentioned the 
affinity of this insect with Mesotopus Tarandus : subsequent inves- 
tigation, however, leads me to place it near Cladognathus, and to 
refer it more particularly to the African species C.fabcr, CNa- 
talensis and C viodcslus. It resembles these in having the head 
broad and armed behind the eyes ; the mandibles slender and 
falcate ; the legs likewise slender ; the anterior tibiee of the 
females slightly curved and not dilated as in Mesotopus, and the 
posterior tibiae of the males unarmed. 

Nevertheless, the wide and strongly produced emarginate 
clypeus, the short, broad form and polished fulvous colour of the 
elytra, as well as the sinuated character of the sides of the pro- 
thorax in both sexes, amply justify the creation of the genus pro- 
posed, which may be placed after Cladognathus. 

This new and interesting insect was kindly presented to me by 
Mrs. jNIelly, and was unique in the magnificent collection of the 
late Andrew Melly, Esq., of Liverpool, to whose memory I have 
dedicated it. Another specimen has recently been received by 
Andrew Murray, Esq., from Old Calabar. 

Cyclommatus metallifer, Boisd. 

I-iUcanus metallifer, Boisd. Voy. Astrolabe, pi. vi. fig. 20. 
Cyclommatus ceneomicans. Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc, 18G2, p. 111. 

Mas. — C. glabratus, fulvo-aeneo nitens, sublente punctatus ; 
clypeo concavo, triangulari ; capite emarginato, sub vertice 
depresso, supra oculos angulato ; mandibulis falcatis, sub- 
depressis, capite thoraceque paulo longioribus, denticulis 
parvis phirimis subapicalibus intus armatis ; elytris sub- 
parallelis ; femoribus supra fulvo-striatis ; tibiis inermibus. 

Long. Corp. unc. 1 ; mandib. lin. 4J. 

Fccm. — C. fusco-brunneus, rugoso-punctatus, seneo-tinctus, sub- 
tus aeneus ; mandibulis brevibus, infra et supra unidentatis ; 
clypeo parvo, rotundato ; prothorace transverso, lateribus 



40 Major Parry's Catalogue 

posticis emarginatis ; elytris elongatis, subparallelis ; femo- 
ribus supra ut in maribus fulvo-striatis ; tibiis quatuor pos- 
ticis unidentatis. 

Long. Corp. (mandib. incl.) lin. 10. 

Hab, Batchian $ , ^. Coll. Wallace. 

Since the publication of my description above referred to, I 
have ascertained that C. ceneomicans is but a minor variety of 
L. metallifer, Boisd. (loc. cit.), the type specimen of which is in 
the Museum of the Jardin des Plantes ; the female, however, had 
not previously been described. With reference to the armature of 
the tibiae of the females in this genus, Mr. Hope was evidently in 
error in characterizing them as having the four posterior unarmed 
(vid. Cat. p. 5) ; the contrary is found to be invariably the case, 
each of them being provided with a single spine. 

Cyclommatus Maitlandi $, Parry (2 ignota). 
(PI. XII. fig. 4.) 

C. purpureo-aeneus, sparse cinereo-squamosus ; capite maximo ; 
antennis pedibusque nigris ; mandibulis incurvatis, ad basira 
unidentatis, apicibus furcatis, denticulis 3 vel 4 instructis. 

Long. Corp. unc. 1, lin. 2 ; mandib. lin. 7. 

Hab. Ins. Nias, (Sumatrae occid.) 

Specimen unicum. Mus. Soc. Zool. Amstelod. 

The extraordinary size of the head of this species, in com- 
parison with the prothorax and body, is most remarkable ; in this 
respect it somewhat resembles C. faunicolor, Hope (vid. Tr. Ent. 
Soc. iv. 273), but differs from it and all the other species of the 
genus by its rich dark purple colour. 

For the description and figure of this new species I am in- 
debted to Mr. Maitland, the obliging Curator of the Zoological 
Society's establishment at Amsterdam ; it forms part of a very 
interesting collection of Coleoptera I recently had the pleasure of 
inspecting under his kind auspices. 

CvcLOMMATUs AFFiNis $ , Parry (var. med., 2 ignota). 

C, aeneo-rufescens, squamulis griseis sparsim tectus ; elytris 
pedibusque fulvescentibus ; capite magno, antice depresso, 
emarginato ; mandibulis capite dimidio longioribus, falcatis, 
apicibus serratis, basi intus dilatatis, processu quadrinodoso 
armatis, dente minuto medio alioque raajori acuto ante 
apicem instructis ; prothorace lateribus pone medium angu- 



of Lncanoid Coleopiera. 41 

latis ; tibiis siniplicibus, femoribus piceis ; antennis tarsisque 
nigris ; corpore subtus purpureo-seneo-tincto. 

Long. Corp. line. 1 ; mandib. lin. 5. 

riab. Borneo et Ins. Pbilippinis. 

Allied to both C. Tarandus, Thunb., and C. Mniszechu, Thorns, 
(comparing specimens of similar development) ; from the former 
it is at once distinguished by the pale chestnut and non-£eneous 
colour of the elytra, which are somewhat broader and shorter, 
and, further, by the totally different armature of the mandibles ; 
from the latter by its larger head, and shorter and less convex 
elytra; and, finally, from both by being clothed with griseous 
scales, in wliich it assimilates with C DeJiaanii, Westw. I must, 
however, remark that the sparse distribution of the scales in the 
specimen described is probably attributable to attrition. There 
is an insect in the British Museum from the Philippine Islands 
to be referred to this species. 

Cyclommatus insignis $ , Parry (var. med., 9 ignota), Proc. 

Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 111. 
C. fusco- vel rufo-seneus, supra et infra griseo-squamosus ; 
capite supra triangulariter depresso, margine antico deflexo ; 
clypeo parvo, conico ; mandibulis capite paulo longioribus, 
denticulis parvis subapicalibus intus armatis, et prope basin 
denticulo binodoso instructis ; prothorace capite angustiori, 
lateribus infra in medio angulatis ; elytris subparallelis, re- 
gulariter quadricostatis, humeris subproductis ; tibiis anticis 
obsolete unidentatis, posticis inerraibus. 
Long. Corp. lin. 10 ; mandib. lin. 4. 
Hab. Oriente. 

This insect belongs to the second section of the genus, which 
may be characterized as " griseo-squamose ;" it approximates 
somewhat in general appearance to C. Dehaanu, Westwood, from 
which, however, the peculiar sculpture of the elytra, as well as 
the armature of the mandibles, readily distinguish it. 

Cyclorasis Jekelii $ , Parry (var. max.). (PI. IX. fig. 4.) 
C. subparallelus, supra olivaceo-viridis, subtus nigro-piceo- 
aeneus, dense punctulatus ; mandibulis porrectis, capite paulo 
longioribus, lateribus interne excavatis, serrato-dentatis, api- 
cibus recurvis, acute bifurcatis ; capite antice emarginato, 
ante oculos angulato, acuto, producto ; prothorace transverso- 
quadrato, lateribus fere rectis, angulis posticis fortiter emar- 
ginatis; elytris prothorace paulo angustioribus ; antennis 



42 Major Parry's Catalogue 

pedibusque piceo-aeneis ; tibiis anticis 4-5-clentatis, inter- 
tnediis medio dente acuto armatis, posticis inermibus. 

Long. corp. unc. 1 ; mandib. lin. 3. 

Hab. Chowsan (Corea). 

This interesting new species is allied to C. platycephalus, Flope 
(vid. Westw. Or. Ent. p. 17, pi. viii. fig. 2), but is abundantly 
distinct ; it differs in the form of its mandibles (which in C. pla- 
tycephalus are of a peculiar structure, and described by Professor 
Westwood as being short and palmated), and in its elongate nar- 
row elytra, which are also more strongly punctured. The $, as 
in C. platycephalus, is of a darker colour than the $, and, com- 
pared with the same sex of tliat species, presents the following 
differences : the head is broader, with the vertex depressed, more 
sparsely punctuate, the angle in front of the eye more produced, 
the two nodose elevations on the centre being entirely wanting ; 
the prothorax is also wider and less punctate, and the elytra longer 
and less convex. The Rev. F. W. Hope in his Catalogue refers 
C. platycephalus to his sub-genus Cyclophlhalmus ; Mr. Thomson 
has, hovvever, appropriately made it the type of his new genus 
Cyclorasis, whereof we are now acquainted with three distinct 
species. The above insect originally formed part of Mr. J. C. 
Bowring's rich collection, and has been named after M. Jekel, 
the well known author of a Catalogue of the Curculionidce, 

Cyclorasis subnitens $, Parry ( ? ignota), Proc. Ent. Soc. 
1862, p. 112. (PI. VII. fig. 1.) 

C. glaberrimus, cinnamomeus, minute punctulatus; mandibulis 
brevibus, subrecurvis, intus obtuse 6 vel 7-denticulatis, api- 
cibus subfurcatis ; capite supra oculos angulato. 

Long. Corp. (mandib. incl.) lin. 9. 

Hab. Ind. Or. Coll. Parry. 

Of an elongate form, the elytra being much longer than the 
head, thorax and mandibles taken together; shining, of a polished 
cinnamon brown, with a faint brassy tinge. Mandibles short, 
recurved, forked at the tip with from 6 to 7 minute teeth on the 
inner edge. Head, thorax and elytra minutely punctured, lateral 
margins of prothorax slightly reflexed ; scutellum blackish-brown. 
Tibiae of fore legs crenulated externally, the four posterior un- 
armed. 

Allied to C. platycephalus, but differs in the form of the man- 
dibles, and in the anterior angles of the head being much less 
acute. The elytra are also narrower and more elongate. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 43 

Leptinopterus Fryi $, Parry (var. max., J ignota). (PI. VII. 

fig. 4.) 
Psalidoslomiis Fryi, Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 18G2, p. 112. 

L. niger ; thorace elytrisque pilis cinereis brevibiis adspersis ; 
capite antice subcmarginato et elevato, supra oculos oblique 
truncate ; mandibulis gracilibus, porrectis, leviter falcatis, 
intus irregulariter dentatis ; prothorace transverse, antice 
angusto et dense aureo-fulvo ciliato, angulis posticis valde 
acutis ; scutello pilis aureo-fulvis tecto ; tibiis anticis tri- 
dentatis, posticis inermibus. 

Long. corp. unc. I, lin. 2; mandib. lin. 7. 

Hab. Braz. Prov. Cantagallo (specimen unicum). Coll. Dom. 
Fry olim, nunc in Coll. Parry. 

Black. Mandibles, head and prothorax somewhat shining; elytra 
dull, the left mandible with four teeth, the tips gradually incurved 
and pointed, the right mandible with three teeth only. Prothorax 
with two slight foveas near the front margin and a slighter one 
behind on the median line, wider than the elytra, the sides ex- 
tending obliquely outwards to the posterior angle, which is very 
prominent, the whole of the anterior margin and the middle of the 
posterior fringed with tawny golden hairs, extending in the latter 
over nearly the whole of the scutellum, the surface minutely 
punctured, more or less covered with short grey hairs. Elytra 
dull, minutely punctured, and also covered with short grey hairs ; 
tip of elytra depressed, humeral angles prominent, and armed 
with an obtuse spine. Tibiae with longitudinal lines of points, 
the anterior short, and armed Avith three teeth externally, and 
minutely serrulated towards the apex ; the tarsi clothed beneath 
with golden hairs ; the under-side of the prothorax fringed in front 
and behind with short, yellowish -rufous hairs. 

In the great width and dilatation of the posterior angles of the 
prothorax, this insect approaches somewhat to the genus Ch'iusog- 
nalhus. I am indebted to A. Fry, Esq., the possessor of a fine 
collection of Brazilian Coleoptera, for being enabled to give the 
description of it, and through his kindness it now forms part 
of my own collection. 

Leptinopterus rotundatus $ , Parry ( ? ignota), (PI. VII. fig. 8.) 
Psalidostomus rotundatus, Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 18G2, p. 112. 
Dorcus packi/gnathus, MS. Mas. Berol. 

L, ferrugineus, nigro-marginatus ; capite magno, lateribus pone 
oculos unituberculatis ; mandibulis brevibus, curvatis, api- 



44 Major Parry's Catalogue 

cibus furcatis, medio supra dente valido armatis ; prothorace 
capite latiori, angulis posticis obliquls ; elytris brevibus, 
paulo convexis ; tibiis anticis extus serrulatis, intermediis 
spina minuta armatis, posticis inermibus. 

Long. Corp. lin. G ; mandib. lin. fere 2. 

Hab. Amer. merid. (Braz. ?). Coll. Mus. Berol. et Parry. 

Of a dark ferruginous brown. Head, prothorax, lateral margins 
and suture of the elytra blackish ; head wide, emarginate in front, 
armed behind the eyes with a small spine ; mandibles short, but 
thick, hollowed on the inside, a little longer than the head, rounded 
on the underside, forked at the tip, and furnished in the centre, 
above, with a stout erect tooth. Elytra minutely punctate, 
narrowly black at the base, very convex. Scutellum blackish- 
brown ; femora pale ferruginous, tips black, tibiae also blackish, 
those of the fore legs toothed and denticulated ; the intermediate 
tibiae with a single spine, the posterior unarmed. 

I am indebted to the late Dr. Klug for the specimen I possess. 
The insect is in the Museum of Berlin under the MS. name of 
Dorcus pachygnathus. 

Macrocrates Bucephalus $ , Burm. (PI. X. fig. 9.) 
2 Dohrn, Ent. Zeit. 1S62, p. 135. 

A description of the 2 of the above species has only lately been 
published by the well-known Entomologist Herr Dohrn of Stettin ; 
there is a single specimen (the only one, I believe, in this country) 
in the Hopeian Collection at Oxford, with the name of (^nigripes, 
Dej. Cat.) attached to it. This specimen having belonged to the 
collection of Mons. Gory, it is reasonable to suppose the synonymy 
to be correct, more especially as Count Dejean places the species 
in the genus Psalicerus, a genus closely allied to Macrocrates. 
Mr. Thomson, in his Catalogue, refers however P. nigripes, Dej., 
to P. morio, Burm. 

Hemisodorcus Passaloides, Hope. (PI. X. fig. 4: $ .) 
Dorcus -passaloldes, Hope, Cat. pp. C, 24 $ . 

H. (var. minor c?) angustus, subparallelus, rufo-piceo obscurus ; 
mandibulis capitis longitudine, interne regulariter 4-dentatis, 
apicibus acutis ; clypeo transverso, 4-dentato ; capite pro- 
thoraceque sparse et grosse punctatis ; prothorace lateribus 
rectis, nee sinuatis, angulis anticis rotundatis, posticis ob- 
liquis ; elytris angustis, subparallelis, crebre fortiterque punc- 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 45 

talis ; libiis anticis extus 4 vel 5-dentatis, quatuor posticis 
spina minuta instructis. 

Long Corp. (mandil). incl.) lin. 9^. 

Hab. Borneo et Java, 

Altliongh no mention of the sex is made in the Rev. Mr. Hope's 
description of tliis species, it proves upon examination of the type- 
specimen to represent the female. Whether tlie given habitat of 
Java is correct admits perhaps of some doubt, as specimens of 
both sexes have hitely been received from Borneo, and no other 
specimen from Java has ever fallen under my notice ; it may, 
however, notwithstanding be indigenous to both islands. The 
male is now for the first time described and figured. 

In general form and structure of its mandibles, this species 
assimilates somewhat to Eurytrachelus, differing however in its 
narrow subparallcl form, and in having the lateral margins non- 
sinuate; in tins respect being more in accordance with Hem'iso- 
dorcus, Thoms., in which for the present it is located, with {Cladog- 
naihus) gracilis, Saund., and piceipennis, Westw. 

Gen. DiTOMODERUs,* Parry. 

Corpus latum, depressum, elytris politis. Caput transversum, 
antice late emarginatum, in medio tuberculo conico armatum, 
lateribus pone oculos baud rotundato-dilatatis. Oculi cantho 
dimidiatim incisi. Clypeus parvus, deflexus, subquadratus, 
antice rotundatus, leviter concavus. Antennae breves, clava 
4-articulata. Mandibulae elongatae depressae, ad basin for- 
titer dilatatae ; dente valido obtuso prope basin marginis 
interni, tuberculo parvo pone medium, alteroque subapicali, 
apice ipso intus subito curvato. Prothorax latus, lateribus 
rotundato-dilatatis, suprk profunde longitudinaliter sulcatis, 
marginibus simplicibus. Tibiae anticae extus multi-serratae ; 
quatuor posticae in medio denticulo unico armatse. 

Genus Eurytrachelo affine. 

DiTOMODERus MiRABiLis $, Parry. (PI. XII. fig. 6.) 
D. niger ; capite, prothorace, mandibulisque tenuissime granu- 
losis, subopacis ; elytris nigro-castaneis, glabris, nitidis, late- 
ribus punctatissimis, punctis rufo-setulosis ; jugulo prope 
basin menti punctis duobus profundis impresso ; mandibulis 
porrectis, depressis, capitis protlioracisque longitudine, in- 
terne ad basin dente magno obtuso reflexo armatis, ante 

* Ak, to^o;, U^^ ; in allusioa to the two deep loDgiludiaal iocisions ou the 
lateral margins of the prothorax. 



46 Major Parry's Catalogue 

medium spina minima alteraque pone apicem instructis ; 
clypeo angusto, deflexo ; capita magno, iransverso, antice 
emarginato, clypeo in medio supra tuberculato ; prothorace 
transverse, capite elytrisque multo latiori, lateribus profiinde 
sulcatis, angulis anticis rotundatis (nee sinuatis ut in gen. 
Eurytrachelo), posticis obliquis, medio leviter longitudinaliter 
canaliculatis ; elytris subtiliter punctulatis, lateribus squamulis 
cinereis tectis ; tibiis anticis irregulariter denticulatis, 4 pos- 
ticis spina minima instructis ; corpore subtus, femoribus, 
tibiis, tarsisque plus minusve squamulosis. 
Long. corp. unc. 1, lin. 7 ; mandib. lin. 8. 
Hab. Borneo. Coll. Wallace et Parry. 

For the figure of this species, and the following remarks, I am 
indebted to Prof. Westwood.* 

[This curious insect differs so much from the other groups of 
Lucanidce as to have rendered necessary the establishment of a 
new genus (a sub-genus) for its reception. Whilst in general 
aspect it bears a strong resemblance to the large flat Indian 
Plalyprosopi, &c., it differs from them all in the 4-jointed clava of 
its antennae and dilated sides of the protliorax ; from P. Antceus, 
Hope, &c., it is distinguished by the structure of the anterior 
emarginate part of the head, and the peculiar denticulation of the 
flattened mandibles. From Odontolah'is {L. Rafflesii, Hope, &c.) 
it differs in having a spine in the middle of each of the middle 
and posterior tibiae. 

PI. XII. fig. 6. The insect of the natural size ; Qa, the clypeus and central 
tubercle of the front of the head ; 66, the eye lialf divided by the 
canthus ; 6c, terminal joints of the antennae j Qd, maxilla j Qe, 
mentum and palpi. — J. 0. VV.] 

EuRYTRACHELus TiTYUs, Hope, Tr. Ent. Soc. iv. 74. 
E. Chevrolatii, Thoms. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1862, p. 308. 
seminigosus (var. minor), ib. 422. 

The present species was described from a specimen then 
unique in iny own collection by the Rev. F. W. Hope, in a paper 
read to the Society in the year 1842, upon several new species of 
Coleoptera from the Kasyah Hills collected by Dr. Cantor, and 
until a very recent period did not form part of the Hopeian Col- 
lection ; hence the species was not recorded in Mr. Hope's Cata- 
logue of LucaniJae. It has, however, been received of later years 
somewhat abundantly in collections forwarded from the above- 
named district of India. 

* See note *, ante, p. 17. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 47 

Upon a recent visit to several of the chief collections of Cole- 
optera on the continent, I ascertained that Dorcus Tityus was 
tliere represented as being the D. C/ievrolatti, Hope, Ann. Nat. 
Hist. xii. 304, and Cat. pp. 20 and 6; this is evidently erroneous, 
the type of D. ChevralatU, which is now before me, proving to 
be a var. max. o^ Dorcus Saiga, Olivier. There ought to be no 
mistaking the two species, according to the description of the 
mandibles of D. Chevrolalii, " arcuatis, in medio intus lato dente 
armatis, et pone hunc setosis" (vid. Cat. p. 20). This last cha- 
racter is not alluded to in the description of D. Tityus; it inost 
decidedly does not exist in the insect itself, and is peculiar to D. 
Saiga, D. cribriceps, Chevr., and D. purpurascens, Volh, all three 
species belonging to the genus Eurytrachelus of Mr. Thomson. 

Having examined the type specimen of E. semirugosus, Thom- 
son, Cat. p. 422, I have no hesitation in regarding it as the var. 
min. of E. Tityus. 

Eurytrachelus Thomsoni $ , Parry. 
E. niger, tenuiter granulatus, subopacus, depressus ; capita 
lato transverso, antice depresso, emarginato, tenuissime gra- 
nuloso, pone oculos inflato ; niandibulis intus ad basin excisis, 
capite duplo longioribus, gracilibus, leviter curvatis, spinis 
duabus parvis obtusis, una ad basin alteraque prope medium 
instructis ; clypeo prominulo, transverso, antice emarginato, 
obtuse bidentato ; prothorace transverso, capite latiori, lateri- 
bus pone angulos anticos sinuatis, angulis posticis obtusis, 
linea media longitudinali laevi notato ; elytris dorso laevissimo, 
prothorace angustioribus, disco nitido, sublente punctulato, 
lateribus subtilissime coriaceis, subopacis, angulis humeralibus 
productis ; tibiis brevibus, anticis extus irregulariter den- 
ticulatis, quatuor posticis inermibus. 
Long. Corp. lin. 13 ; mandib. lin. 6. 
Hab. Ins. Molucc. 

The present species was collected by Mr. Wallace, and is allied 
to E. Cerumensis, Thomson (vid. Cat. p. 424), but which is pro- 
bably identical with D. concotor, Blanchard. The general colour 
of E. Thomsoni is of a somewhat polished black (and not, as in 
Ceramensis and concolor, rufo-piceous), with the disc of the elytra 
remarkably shining, contrasting strongly with the remainder of the 
insect ; wiiereas, in the allied species alluded to, the colour of the 
insect is uniform, the sculpture being granulosa and opaque. The 
tibiae appear also to be shorter, with the tarsi more slender ; the 



48 Major Parry's Catalogue 

clypeus is of a totally different form, being considerably broader 
and more deeply emarginate ; and, finally, the mandibles interiorly 
are strongly excised at their base. I have much pleasure in 
dedicating this species to James Thomson, Esq., of Paris, the 
weli-known American entomologist. 

EuRYTRACHELUs (DoRcus) Axis $ , Dej. Cat. p. 193 (var. minor). 

Lucanus Bucephalus i , Perty, Col. Ind. Or. SQ, pi. i. fig. 5. (var. 

max.) 

Through the kindness of Mr. James Thomson, who has placed 
at my disposal for examination several interesting types of species 
belonging to the late Count Dejean's Collection, as well as of 
others lately described by himself in the Catalogue of Lucanidse 
and forming part of his own rich collection, I am enabled to 
clear up many points of interest with reference to the synonymy 
of certain species. As regards D. Axis $ , there can be no doubt, 
as already noted by Dr. Burmeister (vid. Handb. v. 385), that it 
is the var. minor of D. Bucephalus $ , Perty, also from Java; but 
I do not feel disposed to agree with M. Reiche (vid. Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Fr. Ser. 3, i. 79) as to its identity with D. eurycephalus, Burm. 
Handb. v. 387, the description of the following characters in the 
latter species exhibiting such a marked difference from D. Axis as 
to render the identity of the two species most improbable. They 
are as follows : — the mandibles are described as forked at the 
apex, and armed interiorly with two to three teeth placed at sepa- 
rate intervals, the interior sides clothed partially with a thick silky 
pubescence (as in E. Saiga), and the antenna? want the two slender 
hairy filaments preceding the clava, which are prominently to be 
recognized in D. Axis, Titan, Saiga and other species of this group. 

M. Reiche {ubi sup.) is probably correct in regarding D. eury- 
cephalus, Burm., as identical with L. Buhalus, Perty. This latter 
species is referred to by Burmeister as the var. min. both of 
D. Bucephalus and of D. Saiga (vid. Handb. v. 385, 388). I have 
not seen the type specimens of either Buhalus, Perty, or Euryce- 
phalus, Burm., and feel doubtful whether they are a distinct species, 
or only the var. min. of one of the allied species. 

M. Reiche further states the $ of D. Axis to be D. exaratus, 
Dej. Coll. Count Dejean's specimen of the latter now belongs 
to Mr. Thomson's Collection, and was lately described by that 
gentleman in his Catalogue of Lucanidse, p. 426 ; it is now before 
me, and is clearly identical with Dorcus lineatopunctatus $ 
of Mr. Hope's Collection, described in his Catalogue, p. 23 ; 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 49 

but whctlier it may be regarded as a distinet or as tbe minor 
variety of an allied species appears to me uncertain, not being 
acquainted with a sudicient number of specimens to enable me to 
form any decided opinion for the present. 1 incline to regard it 
as the var. mln. of E. Tityus, Hope. 

EuRYTRACIIELUS SaIGA. 

Liicavus Saiga, Oliv. Ins. I. i. 29, 19, tab. v. fig. 18 {$). 
Dorcus Saiga, Burm. Handb. v. 387. 

Lucainis inermis, Fab. Syst. El. ii. 251, 17 ( ? ? sec. Burm. 1. c). 
Dorcus inermis, Hope, Cat. p. 6 ( ? ). 

In reference to the citation of the L. inermis of Fabricius as sy- 
nonymous with the present species, I would offer the following 
remarks, prefacing them with that author's description. 

L. mandibulis exsertis, inermibus, capitis thoracisque lateribus 
punctatis. 

Hab. Sumatra. 

Statura et summa affinitas L. parallelepipedi, at mandibulse in- 
ermes ; caput punctatum ; thorax dorso laevi nitido, lateribus 
punctatis ; elytra subpunctata ; corpus nigrum. 

Dr. Burmeister is evidently of opinion that the species in 
question is a female, and belongs to the family Dorcidce. The 
mandibles, however, are so distinctly described as "exsertis 
inermibus," and such a structure is so utterly at variance with the 
general character of the females of this family, which are in- 
variably found to be provided with a small internal tooth on their 
mandibles, that considerable doubt arises whether Dr. Burmeister's 
opinion that the Fabrician inermis is the female of D. Saiga, 
Oliv., is correct. M. Reiche, in his critique upon Dr. Burmeis- 
ter's work (vid. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. vol. i. Ser. 3, p. 80), holds a 
contrary opinion. The specimen in the Hopeian Collection was 
received from Mr. Westermann of Copenhagen as inermis. Fab., 
and proves upon examination to be identical with the female of 
D. Saiga, thus supporting Dr. Burmeister's conclusion. If the 
determination of the species by Mr. Westermann were founded 
upon an actual comparison with a specimen of it in the old Fa- 
brician Collection (still existing, I believe, in the Museum at 
Copenliagen), it is manifest that the original description would 
be erroneous, as a small tooth is unquestionably present in the 
insect received from Copenhagen, It must, however, be remem- 
bered that Mr. M'Leay, in his Hor. Ent., cites Luc. inermis, 
Fab., as belonging to the genus JEgus, although no allusion to it 

VOL. II. THIRD SERIES, PART I.— MAY, 186 !•. E 



50 Major Parry's Catalogue 

is made by Messrs. Hope, Burmeister or Reiche. In this re- 
spect I feel disposed to agree with Mr. M'Leay ; and, altliough 
unable to determine the species, have placed it in the catalogue 
with the genus Mgus. 

DoRCUs Ki-UGii $ , Thomson, Cat. p. 424. 
After a careful examination of a series of specimens of the 
above insect from Assam, I feel satisfied that it must be con- 
sidered as the var. max. of D. Dehaanii, the $ and ? of which 
species were originally described by Mr. Hope in the Trans. 
Linn. Sec. vol. xix. p. 106; the latter name will therefore be 
retained. The punctate-striate character of the elytra in the 
females of the genus, of which the small undeveloped males par- 
take, is strongly illustrated in D. Dehaanii. Some faint traces of 
this character are to be remarked in the var. max., described for 
the first time by Mr. J. Thomson. 

DoRCUs DERELiCTUS ( $ ?), Parry. 

D. elongatus, niger, niiidus ; capite inter oculos bituberculato; 
mandibulis obsolete unidentatis ; elytris laevissimis, sub- 
parallelis ; tibiis posterioribus extus subcurvatis, inermibus, 
intermediis unidentatis. 

Long. Corp. (mandib. incl.) unc. 1, lin. 5. 

Hab. Ind. Or. Himalaya. Coll. Parry. 

Elongate and narrow ; mandibles shorter than the head, slightly 
curved, grooved above with a small tooih within near the apex. 
Head excavated and punctured in front, smooth behind ; between 
the eyes are two very prominent conical tubercles. Clypeus 
prominent, triangularly emarginate. Prothorax and elytra of the 
same width, indistinctly but coarsely punctured on the sides. 
ScutcUum triangular, sparsely punctate. The anterior and pos- 
terior tibiae slightly curved, the latter unarmed. 

While, on the one hand, the general form and tuberculated head 
of the only specimen of the present species which has hitherto 
come under my notice are almost essentially characteristic of the 
female sex appertaining to this genus, on the other hand, the 
slender anterior, and the unarmed posterior, tibiae are so utterly 
anomalous, as to leave some doubt whether it be really a female, 
or a male with short undeveloped mandibles ; an acquaintance 
with both sexes might perhaps remove it to the genus Euri/tra- 
chelus ; for the present I have placed it with Dorcus. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 61 

DoKcus MAZAMA $, Leconte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Science, 

Philadelp. 1861, p. 345. 

Lucanus mazama, Id., Classification Coleopt. N. America, p. 120. 

Z). vmzama $, nigro-piceus ; capite punctato, thorace vix 
angustiore ; mandibulis apice acutis, dente parvo medio 
armatis, thorace latitudine plus duplo breviore, postice an- 
gustiore, lateribus medio obtuse angulatis, angulis posticis 
rectis, disco modice versus latera sat dense punctato ; 
elytris modice punctatis, subtiliter rugosis ; tibiis anticis 
4-dentatis, et dente superiori obsolete munitis, tibiis pos- 
terioribus dentibus 3 lateralibus apicalique acutis armatis. 

Long, (mandib. excl.) unc. 1*20. 

Hab. N. Mexico. In Mus. Dom. Leconte. 

DoRcus? LUTEUs, Westw., Tr. Ent. Soc, N. S., iii. 218, pi. xii. 

fig. 4. 
The above named insect was described by Professor Westvvood 
from the collection of the Rev. F. W. Hope, who obtained it from 
that of M. Gory, with the habitat of New Holland. If the speci- 
men I lately inspected in the Hopeian iNIuseum at Oxford is the 
insect in question, and I have but little doubt of its being the 
original type, it must be quite evident that some confusion has 
arisen with reference to the locality, as I believe it to be iden- 
tical with Mgus cicatrosHs 2, of Wiedemann, a not uncommon 
insect from Java, which is the female of ^Egus acuminatiis of 
Fabricius. 

Gnapiialoryx dilaticoi.lis $ , Parry. 

G. nigro-piceus, opacus, squamulis griseo-luteis vestitus ; capite 
magno, transverso, lateribus pone oculos dente obtuso armatis ; 
clypeo transverso, late emarginato ; mandibulis capitis longitu- 
dine, gracilibus, leviter curvatis, pone medium tuberculo ob- 
tuso suberecto, et denticulo minuto deflexo armatis, apicibus 
acutis ; prothorace transverso, capite elytrisque multo latiori, 
basim versus angustato, medio longitudinaliter canaliculato, 
angulis anticis prominulis, rotundatis, posticisque oblique 
truncatis, lateribus fere rectis ; elytris elongatis, subcon- 
vexis, costis 10 elevatis, interstitiis planis ; corpore subtus 
squamoso ; tibiis anticis minute tuberculatis, quatuor posticis 
inermibus. 

Hab. Archip. Ind. ? 

Long. corp. (mandib. incl.)lin. 11. Coll. Parry. Specimen unicum. 

E 2 



52 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Allied to G. squalidus, Hope, but readily distinguished from 
that species by its more elongate and convex form, its broader 
prothorax, with the anterior angles more produced, and by the 
strongly marked costate sculpture of its elytra. Its true habitat 
is uncertain, but I believe it to be from the Indian Archipelago. 

Gnaphaloryx sculptipennis $, Parry. 

G. niger, opacus, squamulis griseis erecds dense vestitus ; capita 
transverso, prothorace paulo angustiori, angulis posticis 
acutis ; mandibulis capite paulo brevioribus, inermibus, apice 
falcatis, intus ad basin dilatatis, edentatis ; prothorace trans- 
verso, medio obsolete longitudinaliter canaliculato, lateribus 
fere rectis, angulis posticis oblique truncatis ; elytris brevibus, 
apicem versus convexis, fortius sed irregulariter costatis, 
interstitiis dense et minute punctatis ; corpora subtus nigro, 
leviter squamuloso ; pedibus piceis, hirsutis; tibiis inermibus. 
Long. corp. (mandib. inch) lin. 8. 
Hab. N. Guinea. Coll. Mus. Lugdun. et Parry. 
From the short unarmed mandibles, the above species may 
possibly represent only a var. minor ; in more fully developed 
individuals, the mandibles, as in all the species of this genus, 
will probably be found to be denticulated ; in all other characters 
it evidently belongs to this genus. I am indebted to Professor 
Dehaan, of Leyden, for its possession, 

,^GUS cicATRicosus, Wiedemann, Zool. Mag. II. i. 108 {Liicanus). 

From the description of this species there is no doubt (although 
no allusion is made to the sex) of its representing a $, and there 
is further every reason to suppose that Dr. Burmeister is correct 
in referring it to ,^g. acumiiialus, Fabricius. Count Dejean, in 
his Catalogue, regards it as a distinct species, and M. Reiche 
takes the same view (vid. Ann. Soc. Ent. Ser. 3, vol. i. p. 82), 
stating both sexes to be in Count Dejean's Collection, but I am 
not aware upon what ground M. Reiche supposes the S to which 
he alludes to be that o{ cicatricosus of Wiedemann, considering that 
one sex only is described by that author, and that, as already 
stated, is evidently the $. 

I have now before me the typical specimen of Count Dejean's 
Collection (belonging to Mr. James Thomson) ; it is the var. 
minor of J^gus chelifer, M'Leay, from the Malay Peninsula. 

The locality of Java assigned to Count Dejean's specimen is, I 
I have no doubt, erroneous ; I am acquainted with many large 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 63 

collections possessing long series of the various species of /Egus 
from Java, but I have never yet detected /Egus chd'tfer of M'Leay 
as coming from that island. 

iEcus LUNATus, Weber, Obs. Ent. i. 83, 1. (Luc). Sumatra. 
Fab. Syst. El. ii. 252, 19. Sumatra. 
Burm. Handb. dcr Ent. v. 400. Sumatra and 
Java. 
As regards the descriptions of Weber and Fabricius of this 
insect, their extreme conciseness precludes the possibility of re- 
cognizing with any certainty tlie species alluded to, the habitat 
Sumatra being given by both authors; Dr. Burmeister, 1. c, 
records the species as distinct, from Java as well as from Sumatra, 
placing it next acumhiatus of Fabricius, which belongs to that sec- 
tion of yEgus having the head in front (in fully developed males) 
armed with a tubercle ; according to Dr. Burmeisier's description, 
this character does not exist, and the insect in question must be 
considered as an undeveloped male, but whether to be referred to 
^giis acuminatus of Fabricius or to be considered as a distinct 
species is, I think, somewhat problematical. The extraordinary 
variation of character exhibited in a series of specimens of the 
same species in this genus renders it most perplexing to recognize 
with any certitude their identity from description only. 

^Gus Kandiensis, Hope, Cat. p. 6. 
The type specimen in the Hopeian Collection {$ var. minor) is 
referred by Mr. Hope in his Catalogue as a variety o? /E. cica- 
iricosus, Wiedemann. (The insect in Mr. Hope's Collection under 
the name of cicalricosus, Wiedemann, appears to be only the 
var. minor of acuminalus, Fabricius.) Having examined a nu- 
merous series of the various developments of this insect from 
Ceylon, as well as others closely allied to it from the Philippines 
and Borneo, I find so much affinity existing in general character 
with such a perplexing variability of sculpture, that it is almost 
impossible to arrive at any definite conclusion as to whether the 
specimens from Ceylon, Borneo and the Philippines are to be 
considered as geographical varieties of /Eg. acuminatus of Fa- 
bricius, or to be regarded as distinct to be united under the name 
of Kandiensis. There is certainly one character to be remarked 
in the numerous specimens examined, viz., that the interior tooth 
of the mandibles (which appears to exist in all fully developed 
males of this section of the genus) is placed slightly above the 
centre and not near the base as in /Eg. acuminatus ; in this respect 



54 ^ Major Parry's Catalogue 

it accords with Mg. chelifer (var. max.), but is readily distinguished 
from this species by the strong and coarsely punctured lateral 
margins of the elytra. Under the circumstances I have united 
the Ceylon, Philippine and Bornean insects under the name of 
Kandiensis, Hope. 

^Gus CHELIFER, M'Leay, Hor. Ent. i. 113. 

A specimen of this insect is in the British Museum, received 
from Mr. M'Leay, with the habitat of Australia on the label ; I 
have always had considerable doubt as to the locality, no other 
recorded specimen from that continent having ever fallen under 
my notice; and I am now convinced that the habitat given is 
erroneous, for the insect has recently been received with its various 
developments by Count Mniszech and myself, both from Cambodia 
and the Malay Peninsula,* and proves upon comparison to be 
identical with Mr. M'Leay's species in the British Museum. 

The insect described by Mr. M'Leay evidently represents the 
var. minor of the species, but specimens of the var. max. have 
been received from the localities above stated, possessing the 
tuberculated front to the head as noticed in ^g. acuminotus (in 
minor developed specimens this process totally disappears), the 
mandibles being also armed in their interior with a tooth, but 
placed invariably slightly above the centre and not near the base 
as in acuminotus ; the sides of the elytra are also apparently 
smooth, whereas in the var. max. of acuniinalus they are strongly 
punctate. Allusion has been already made {ante, p. 52) to the 
identity of this species with jEgus cicatricosus S of Mr. Thom- 
son's Collection (olitn Dejean), and to the uncertainty, as men- 
tioned in Dejean's Catalogue, of Java being its true locality. 

The insect in the Faune de I'lle de Woodlark, p. 27, under the 
name of jEgus chelifer 1, M'Leay, probably represents the var. 
minor either of JBg. insipidus, Thomson, or of platyodon, Parry, 
both species having been recently received rather abundantly 
from New Guinea and Celebes. 

iEcus LABiLis, Westw. (PI. XIL fig. 5.) 
[Doixus labdis, Westw. -|- 

IE. latus, depressus, niger, capite et pronoto subopacis, elytris 
glabris, striato-punctatis ; capite antice in medio emarginato, 

* 'Nigidius comutus, M'Leay, stated to be from Australia, has been received 
also from the now mentioned localities. Vide post, p. 63. 
t See note* ante, p. 17. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 65 

angulis acutis ; mandibulis capite dimidio longioribus, dente 
parvo interno basali, altero magno paulo pone medium 
oblique ponecto, armatis ; capitis disco versus angulos 
anticos obtuse bituberculato, maxillarum lobo valde elon- 
gate. 
Long. Corp. lin. 15J ; mandib. lin. 6 ; prothoracis latitudo, lin. 7. 
Habitat in India orient, septenlr., Darjeeling. Mus. Parry. 
The general colour is black, the elytra alone having a slightly 
pitchy tinge. The head and pronotum are very delicately granu- 
lose, and consequently subopaque ; the elytra glossy, with rather 
deep striae formed of confluent punctures. Tlie head and pro- 
notum especially are much flattened. The fore margin of the 
former is rather deeply emarginate in the middle, the emargi- 
nation terminating in a produced point at each end, beyond which 
the front of the head is nearly straight, the lateral angles rounded 
oflT, the canthus cutting the eye into two parts (fig. 5a), and the 
sides of the head behind the eyes slightly produced into a rounded 
tubercle ; between the eye and the frontal spine is, on each side, 
a small rounded but very slightly raised tubercle on the disc of 
the head. The clypeus is quite simple in the middle ; the man- 
dibles are half an inch in length, they are armed near the base on 
the inner edge with a small conical tooth, and rather beyond the 
middle with a strong tooth porrected obliquely forwards. The 
mentum is very broad and short, deeply emarginate in the middle, 
where it is depressed so as to meet the depressed centre of the 
clypeus and close the mouth in front ; the sides, however, are suffi- 
ciently open to allow the extraordinarily developed outer flattened 
lobe of the maxillae to lie exposed on the imderside of the base of 
the mandibles, figure 5 c representing the mentum with the exposed 
lobes of the two maxilla?, the maxillary palpi and the terminal 
joint of the labial p dpi in situ ; whilst fig. 5d represents the 
labium and labial palpi detached from the inner side of the 
mennim, the palpi even here being of unusual elongation. This 
structure I have observed in no other Lucanideous insect to such 
an extent as here occurs. The antennae have the 7th joint pro- 
duced into a point on the inner edge and armed with a bristle; 
the three terminal joints are short and broad. The disc of the 
head behind the eyes and along the posterior margin is finely 
punctured ; the prothorax is wider than the head, the lateral mar- 
gins nearly parallel, armed near the anterior angles with a small 
prominent angular projection ; the sides, as well as the anterior 
and posterior margins, are strongly punctured ; in the middle is a 
slightly impressed and punctured space, and within each of the 



56 Major Parry's Catalogue 

posterior angles is an oval polished patch. The elytra and scu- 
tellunfi are punctured at the base; the former are punctate-striate, 
the 2nd and 7th, 3rd and 4th, and also the 5th and 6th striae 
being united at their extremities. The anterior tibiae are serrated 
along the outer margin, with two strong teeth at the apex ; the 
middle tibiae are armed with two spines, and the posterior ones 
with a single spine in the middle of the outer edge. 

This species is most nearly allied to Dorcus capltatus,* Westw. 
(Trans. Ent. Soc. iv. 275), but differs from the large males of 
that species in the much-advanced position of the strong tooth of 
the mandibles, and in the very slight development of the tubercle 
on each side of the disc of the head before the eyes ; agreeing in 
this respect with D. parollelus, Hope (Cat. Lucan.), from the 
Khasyah Hills, whilst Major Parry's insect is from Darjeeling. 
The D. parallelus is indeed considered by Major Parry to be a 
small variety of D. capilaliis ; but the latter is from Malacca 
and Prince of Wales' Island, and I should be inclined to regard 
D. parallelus rather as the varietas minor of D. labilis. D. sinister 
(Hope, Cat. Lucan.), also from Prince of Wales' Island, is, doubt- 
less, the female of D. capitatus, as Major Parry suggests. 1 have 
also scarcely any doubt that the female insect named D. Malaba- 
ricus (Hope, MS. ; Westw. Trans. Ent. Soc. iv. 276) is identical 
with/), sinister ; and in like manner I also consider that D, cequalis 
(Hope, MS. ; Westw. Trans. Ent. Soc. iv. 276) is most probably 
identical with D. parallelus, 

D. labilis is also closely allied to D. Eschscholtzii, Hope, but 
that is a considerably smaller insect, with a more polished upper 
surface, the anterior lateral angles of the head destitute of 
tubercles, and the pronotum destitute of the punctured impression 
in the middle. 

PI. XII. fig. 5. The insect of ihe natural size ; ba, the eye entirely divided by 
the canthus ; hh, maxilla ; 5c, the mentum, lobes of maxillae and 
palpi ; bd, labium and its palpi. — J. O. W.] 

tEgus platyodon $, Parry (var. max.) (PI. X. fig. 1.) 

IE. niger, parum nitidus ; mandibulis falcatis, ad basin dente 
magno trifido armatis ; capite magno, transverso, antice in 
medio profunde emarginato ; elytris punctato-striatis ; scutello 
sparsim et fortiter punctato ; tibiis anticis serratis denticulis 

* In the description and figure of this species in the 4th volume of these 
Transactions, the middle tib ;© are described as possessing only a single spine on 
the outer edge. They, however, agree in this respect with D. lahilii. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 57 

6 ant 7 aimatis, intermediis 4 — 5, posticisque 2 spinis mini- 
mis instructis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 13 ; mandib. lin. 4. 

Hab. Ins. Gilolo. Coll. Wallace, Saunders, Parry. 

Mandibles falcate, broad at the base, within which is a large 
tridentate process, and thence gradually narrowed to the tip. 
Head broad, slightly depressed, deeply emarginate in front; the 
angles of the emargination acute and obliquely prominent, and, 
like the mandibles, delicately shagreened, with indistinct scattered 
punctures, which are somewhat coarser on the sides and behind 
the eyes. Prothorax smooth anteriorly ; the sides and hinder 
margin with coarse punctures ; lateral margins straight ; posterior 
angles much rounded. Scutellum shining, with a few deep punc- 
tures. Elytra with the shoulders acutely angular ; base and 
lateral margins with deep punctures ; dorsal surface depressed, 
each with eight deep, longitudinal, punctate striae ; the interstices 
sparsely and obsoletely punctate. Head, prothorax and abdomen 
coarsely punctured beneath. 

This species, like all others of this genus, varies considerably 
in size, and the remarkable tridentate process at the base of the 
mandibles is entirely waning in those of a minor development. 

iEcus BLANDUs $, Parry. 
JE. subparallelus, niger ; labro parvo, bidentato ; capite magno, 
antice emarginato, subtilissime granulato, opaco, postice 
nitido, pone oculos in spina obtusa producto, et fortius conflu- 
enter punctato ; mandibulis capite brevioribus, arcuatis, spina 
obtusa prope basin armatis ; prothorace transverso, nitido, 
sub disco sparse punctulato, lateribus rectis, ruguloso-punc- 
tatis, angulis posticis obliquis ; elytris nitidis, striatis, inter- 
stitiis planis, lateribus punctulatis ad apicem attenuatis; tibiis 
anticis 4 vel 5 spinis armatis, intermediis unidentatis, posticis 
inermibus ; corpora subtus punctulatis ; pedibus tarsisque 
infra plus minusve ciliatis. 
Long. corp. lin. 10; mandib. lin. 2j. 
Hab. Ins. Salwatty, N. Guinea. 

There is but little doubt, from the shortness of the mandibles 
in comparison with the size and general appearance of the insect, 
that the former have not in the present instance attained their full 
development, and that in other specimens they will probably be 
found to be of a diflerent character. In the female the mandibles 
are armed in the middle with a triangular tooth ; the head and 
prothorax deeply and coarsely punctured, the anterior tibiae being 
strongly dilated towards the apex. 



58 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Mghs, punctipennis $ , Parry (var. max.) 
M. nitidus, capite magno, depresso, parce fortiterque punctato, 
antice emarginato ; mandibulis falcatis, capite baud longiori- 
bus, intus prope basin dente valido armatis ; protborace 
transverse, nitido, tenuissime punctulato, in medio longitudina- 
liter impresso ; elytris striatis, crebre profundeque punctatis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 13 ; mandib. lin. 3. 
Hab. Borneo. Coll. Wallace et Parry. 

Tbe above new^ species is allied to /Egus platyodon (ante, p. 56), 
differing, bowever, in the head being much more depressed in 
front, and in the elytra being strongly and coarsely punctate. It 
appears somewhat rare, the only specimens I am acquainted with 
being in the collections alluded to. 

J^GUs SKRRATus $, Parry (var. max.) (PI. V. fig. 1.) 
JE. niger, nitidus, subdepressus, capite antice emarginato, bitu- 
berculato, subtiliter punctulato ; mandibulis capite paulo 
loiigioribus, falcatis, intus ad basin dente magno deflexo 
armatis, paulo pone medium tuberculis duobus armatis ; pro- 
tborace fere laevigato ; elytris punctato-striatis. 
Long. corp. (mandib. inch) lin. 11. 
Hab. Ins. Morty. Coll. Wallace et Parry. 

Black and shining. Head deeply emarginate in front, minutely 
and sparsely punctate, with a deepish fovea in front of the eye. 
Mandibles slender, armed at the base with a strong obtuse de- 
flexed tooth, followed by two small tubercles; in front of these is 
a deep sinus. The prothorax is somewhat broader than the head, 
shining, very minutely punctured, the punctures more apparent 
towards the sides, which are straight, the posterior angles being 
obliquely truncate. The elytra scarcely as broad as the pro- 
thorax, with 6 — 7 longitudinal striae, faintly punctate, the inter- 
slices being smooth ; humeral angles very prominent. Anterior 
tibias armed with 5 spines, intermediate with 2, posterior un- 
armed. Body beneath thickly and coarsely punctate. 

.^Gus iMPRESsicoLLis ^ , ? , Parry. (PI. V. fig. 3.) 

JE. piceo-brunneus, depressns ; protborace elytrorumque late- 
ribus et sutura squamulis cinereis tectis ; mandibulis graci- 
libus, falcatis, supra sulcatis, rugulosis, grosse punctatis, ad 
basin processu emarginato, et prope apicem dente minute 
armatis ; capite transverso, confertim ruguloso, antice leviter 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 59 

emarginato, lateribus pone oculos productis, punctatis ; cly- 
tris prothorace angustioribus, lapvibus, punctato-striatis ad 
basin, suturd lateribusque punctatis ; tibiis anticis extus irre- 
gulaiiter denticulatis, qiiatuor posticis unispinosis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 7 ; mandib. lin. 3. 

Ilab, Malacca et Borneo. Coll. Mniszecli et Parry. 

The female, wliicli in colour and depressed form resembles the 
male, differs from that sex in having the interstices of the elytra 
thickly and strongly punctate. As is the case in the other species 
o£ this genus, the armature of the mandibles is subject to con- 
siderable variation ; in small male specimens the subapical tooth 
is entirely wanting. 

iEcus GLAEER $, Parry (var. minor?). 

JE. angustus, rufo-piceus, nitidus ; capite antice vix emarginato, 
depresso, parce subtiliterque punctulato ; mandibulis capite 
paulo longioribus, arcuatis, apicibus acutis, intus ad basin 
dente parvo armatis ; prothorace transverso, lateribus cum 
angulis posticis rotundatis, subtilissime punctato ; elytris 
prothorace triplo fere longioribus, leviter punctato-striatis, 
interstitiis planis, lateribus dense punctatis, parce pilosis ; 
pedibus rufo-castaneis ; tibiis anticis dilatatis, extus 3 vel 4- 
denticulatis, quatuor posticis inermibus. 

Long. Corp. (mandib. inch) lin. 5^. 

Hab. N. Guinea. Coll. Parry. 

One of the minor species of the genus, remarkable for its 
smooth and polished appearance, and allied to jEgus myrmidon, 
Thomson, from which species it differs, however, in its more 
parallel and convex form, in the anterior part of the head being 
scarcely emarginate, in the rounded sides of the prothorax, and 
in the more delicate striation of its elytra. 

^Gus? TRiLOBATUS $, Parry. (PI. VII. fig. 7.) 

JE. nigro-fuscus ; capite, prothorace, elytrorumque marginibus, 
fusco-ferrugineis, hirsutis ; mandibulis brevibus, gracilibus, 
intus ad basin unidentatis ; capite obscure punctato, lateribus 
pone oculos emarginatis ; prothorace capite latiori, rude 
punctato, lateribus singularitcr trilobatis ; elytris ovalibus, in 
medio latioribus, nitidis, profunde striatis, apice subproducto; 
pedibus hirsutis ; tibiis anticis minute denticulatis, posticisque 
inermibus. 

Long. Corp. (mandib. inch) lin. 6. 

Hab. Borneo. Coll, Parry. 



60 Major Parry's Catalogue 

A single $ specimen of this interesting new species was re- 
ceived from Sarawak, Borneo, and is provisionally placed with 
the genus ^Egus, differing, however, in the short convex character 
of the elytra, and more especially in the singular trilobate lateral 
margins of the prothorax. A knowledge of the other sex of this 
species might possibly throw some light as to whether it might be 
regarded as the type of a new genus. 

Platycerus Caucasicus $, Parry. 

P. cseruleus, nitidus ; capite parcius punctato, antrorsum pro- 
funde emarginato, impresso ; mandibulis elongatis, capitis 
fere longitudine, curvatis, supra sulcatis, extus prope basin 
anguiatis, intus ad basin dente obtuso parvo instructis ; pro- 
thorace transverse, angulis anticis prominulis, deflexis, late- 
ribus sinuatis, angulis posticis obtusis, parcius sat fortiter punc- 
tato ; elytris elongatis, parallelis, punctatis, leviter lineatis; 
corpore subtus nigro ; tibiis anticis minute denticulatis, 
quatuor posticis inermibus. 

Long. Corp. (mandib. inch) lin. 6|. 

Hab. in Caucaso. Coll. Mniszech et Parry. 

Readily distinguished from its European ally, P. Caraboides, 
by its narrower and more convex form, its prominent and more 
slender mandibles, its impressed and sparsely punctate head, the 
sinuate lateral margins of the prothorax, the obtuse posterior 
angles and punctuation of that segment, and, finally, by its more 
parallel and sparsely punctate elytra, the interstices being smooth. 

Platycerus c^erulescens $, Leconte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Science, 
Philadelph. 1861, p. 2^5. 

P, c<srulescens $ , niger ; capite thoraceque parce grosse punc- 
tatis, hoc transverso, lateribus antice rectis, paulo convergenti- 
bus, pone medium inflexis, angulis posticis obtusis, baud 
rotundatis ; elytris nigro-cyaneis, punctis striatim digestis, 
interstitiis irregulariter subseriatim punctatis ; mandibulis 
sursum incurvis, dente interno pone apicem alteroque superno 
armatis. 

Long, (mandib. inch) unc. '48. 

Hab. California. In Mus. Dom. Leconte. 

Platycerus Agassii ?, Leconte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Science, 

Philadelph. 1861, p. U5. 
P. Agassii ? , elongato-ovalis, supra obscure aeneus ; capite 
thoraceque sat dense punctatis^ hoc linea dorsali laevi, latitu- 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 61 

dine duplo breviori, lateribus fortiter marginatis, valde rotun- 
datis, angulis posticis rectis.. ])roniinulis ; elyiris obsolete 
striatis, striis punctatis, interstitiis riigosis, confuse punctatis; 
tibiis posticis denticulo externo ad medium armatis. 
Long. unc. "SS. 

Hab. California. Dom. Agassiz. 

In tbe publication above alluded to the author states this species 
to be closely related to Platycerus depressus, Leconte, with which 
species P. Oregonens'is, Westwood, is perhaps identical. 

ScLERosTOMUs Fairmairii $, $, Parry. 
S. depressus, supra atro-coeruleus, parum nitidus ; prothorace 
elytrisque vitta lutescente marginatis, parce grosseque punc- 
tatis ; mandibulis nigris, capitis fere longitudine, ad basin pro- 
cessu quadrinodoso productis ; capite pone oculos minute 
tuberculato ; prothorace disco in medio impressione magna 
ovali, lateribus depressis ; elytris apice acutis, sparse grosse- 
que punctatis, humeris productis ; pedibus nigris ; tibiis 
anticis irregulariter dcnticulatis, 4 posticis in medio uni- 
spinosis ; tarsis subtus setosis ; corpore infra nigro, crebre 
punctato. 
Long. corp. (mandib. inch) lin. 9. 
Hab. Chili. 

I am indebted to M. Fairmaire for the addition of this new 
species (of which I have also seen a specimen in the collection of 
Alexander Fry, Esq.) to my cabinet ; it is allied to ii. femoralis, 
Gui-rin, but at once distinguished from it by its more depressed 
and less punctate elytra and less rounded apex of those organs, 
the more clearly defined and narrower longitudinal pale yellow 
lateral vitta above mentioned, and, finally, by the legs being black 
instead of rufous. The female, as is usual in this genus, differs 
in having short, coarsely punctate mandibles (which, in the pre- 
sent instance, appear to be totally iniarmed), and in the minute 
size and strong punctuation of the head. 

[ScLEROSTOMUS PuiLiPn S ,2 (Parry,MS.)\Vestvv.*(Pl.XI.fig.5.) 
S. niger ; pronoto et elytris subnitidis fasciaque pallide flavo- 
squamosa marginatis; capite antice concavo, utrinque inter 
et ante oculos carina modice elevata obliqua instructo ; man- 
dibulis {S ) capitis longitudine, lunatis, apice ovato-dilatatis, 
denteque magno piano trifido intus versus basin armatis ; 

• See note *, ante, p. 17. 



62 Major Parry's Catalogue 

prothorace lateribus parallelis, margine laterali ad basin 
oblique punctato ; clypeo transverse, disco late impresso (et 
in medio punctato), antice tuberculo conico medio armato ; 
elytris modice convexis, punctatis, et obsolete longitudinaliter 
canaliculatis. 
$ mari simillima, at mandibulis parvis simplicibus et protho- 
race parum minori distincta. 
Long. corp. maris cum mandibulis lin. 7. 
Habitat in Chili. In Mus. D. Parry. 

This new species differs from Scl. Lessonn, Buquet f Ann. Soc. 
Ent. Fr. = Pycnos'iphorus mandibularis, Solier, Gay Nat. Hist. 
Chili), in its uniform black colour, in the elytra being destitute of 
the numerous elevated polished spots between the punctures, the 
prothorax not widened in front, the head narrower, the clypeus 
not porrected into a rounded lobe in the middle, the crown of the 
head wanting the auriculated process on each side between the 
eyes, and in the different shape of the mandibles. The prothorax 
has a deep central channel, terminated in the middle of the fore 
margin in a small conical point. The underside of the body is 
glossy, with a few minute punctures, the head, including the 
mentum, being more strongly and closely punctured. The fore 
tibiae have six teeth on the outer edge, and the four posterior tibiae 
are each armed with two spines on the outer margin. — J. O. W.] 

Gen. OoNOTUs,* Parry. 
Dorciis adsperstis, Boheman, Ins. Caff'r. 2, 384. i 
Dorcus adspersus, Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. Ser. 3, i. 435, pi. xvi. 

fig. 6. 
A description and figure of the above species (from Port 
Natal), by Professor Westwood, will be found in the Trans- 
actions of the Society (1. c.) It appears, upon examination, to 
be so very aberrant in general form and character from those 
insects belonging to Dorcus- proper, that I have no hesitation in 
proposing it as the type of a new genus ; but as we are only 
acquainted with the female sex, it is unadvisable for the present 
to give any decided characters ; nevertheless the short mandibles, 
the abbreviate and convex form, the squamose texture of the 
body, with its rounded and anteriorly trituberculate prothorax, 
sufficiently warrant the creation of the proposed new genus. The 
above characters distinguish the insect from those smaller species 
of the Dorcidce appertaining to the genera Sclerostomus and 

* 'iiov, v»Toj, in allusion to the convex back. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 63 

Lissotes. This insect appears to represent, on the southern coast 
of Africa, those species from S. America and N. Holland belong- 
ing to the genera above alluded to. 

Lissotes Menalcas, Westw. 

This species appears to form the connecting link, through the 
genus Nigldius, between the Dorcidce and Figul'idce. 

L. Iloiviltanus, Westw., exhibits a marked difference from 
L. Menalcas in the character of the prothorax ; but its similarity 
to that species in other respects, and its close affinity in appear- 
ance to NigkUus, have induced me to locate it for the present at 
the end of the genus Lissotes, immediately preceding the Figididce. 

NiGiDius coRNUTus $, $, M'Leay, Hor. Ent. i. p. 109. 
N. cornutus, ater, nitidus ; mandibulis tridentatis ; clypeo punc- 
tato, antice mucronato ; elytris inter strias elevatis, triplici 
punctorum impressorum ordine instructis, apicibus punctatis ; 
tibiis anticis 7-dentatis. 
$ mandibularum margine supero et externo in ramum cor- 

nutum producto. 
£ maiulibulis brevioribus, baud cornu supero instructis. 
A second description of this species will be found in the Ento- 
mological Magazine, vol. v. p. 2C4, by Prof. Westwood, taken from 
a specimen in the British Museum, stated to have been received 
from Mr. M'Leay, and from Australia. Having long doubted 
the accuracy of this habitat, no specimens of it being contained 
in the numerous collections of Australian Coleoptera which have 
reached this country, I have only recently ascertained the true 
habitat of the species in question, specimens in the collections of 
W. W. Saunders, Esq., and of Count Mniszech, from Cambodia 
and Malacca, proving, upon comparison, to be identical with that 
in the British Museum. 

NiGiDius OBESUS $, Parry. 

N, convexus, brevis, nigerrimus, nitidus ; capite uti inque infra 
oculos auriculato ; mandibulis subrecurvis, intus ad basin 
processu bifido productis, extus pone medium dente parvo 
obtuso armatis ; prothorace crebre grosseque punctato, in 
medio obsolete late longitudinaliter caniculato, angulis anticis 
simplicibus ; elytris brevibus, convexis, rugoso-punctatis, for- 
titer sulcatis, intcrstitiis laevibus. 

Hab. Penang, Malacca. 

Long. corp. (mandib. incl.) lin. 7^. 



64* Major Parry's Catalogue 

This species is readily distinguished by its short, robust and 
convex form, and by the absence of the minute tubercle in the 
centre of the anterior margin of the protliorax which characterizes 
most of the allied species. The number of external spines on the 
tibiae appears to be most variable in this genus ; no instance, 
however, being known to me in which they are entirely wanting. 

Penichrolucanus copricephalus, H. Deyrolle, Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Fr. Ser. iv. vol. 3, p, 485 ; pi. ix. fig. 11, and details. 

The aberrant characters exhibited in this singular insect from 
Malacca (vid. 1. c), recently described from a unique specimen 
in Count Mniszech's Collection, preclude the possibility of assign- 
ing, with any degree of certainty, its true position in the Luca- 
noidea. It is even, I believe, still a matter of doubt among many 
Entomologists whether the species in question ought to be referred 
at all to this division of the Coleoptera. I have nevertheless placed 
it temporarily near Figulus, bearing, as it does, some similarity to 
the species of that genus, and equally, perhaps, also to the genera 
Nigidhis and Agnus, the latter appearing to form the passage 
between Nigidius and Figulus. 

Figulus vulneratus, Thomson, Cat. p. 433. 

The type specimen of the above-named species from Mada- 
gascar has obligingly been communicated to me for examination 
by Mr. Thomson. It appears to me to be specifically identical 
with F. anlhracunis, Klug (vid. Ins. v. Madagasc. 85, n. 116), 
differing only in the confused position of the punctures forming 
in the normal state the dorsal striae by which the elytra are 
characterized. Mr. Thomson (p. 402) appears to be of the same 
opinion with Dr, Burmeister as to this species being synonymous 
with Fig. sublcevis of Palissot de Beauvois, from Africa, and 
noticed by Professor Westwood, as a distinct species, in the Ent. 
Mag. v. 262, sp. 3. If the several specimens received from 
Senegal, Guinea and Bassan are identical with Palissot's insect, it 
is very evident, upon comparison with the Madagascar species, 
that the two are distinct. 

Figulus scaritiformis ^ , Parry (var. minor). 
F. scaritiformis, Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 113. 

F. parvulus, rufo-piceus ; capite grosse punctato ; protliorace 
laevigato, lateribus vage et rude punctato, medio canaliculate, 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 65 

canaliculo piinctato ; elylris profunde striatis, striis punctatis, 

apice subproducto. 
Long. Corp. (mandib. incl.) lin. 3^. 
Hab. Malacca. Coll. Parry. 

Tlie present briefly-described insect appears to be allied to 
F. Mamllarum, Hope (avgiistatus, MS., Eschscboltz), and like that 
species varies considerably in sculpture according to development, 
rendering it difficult in a single description to characterize the 
ditlorent staces of its growth, 

F. scaritijormis appears, however, to differ in having the elytra 
somewhat shorter and more depressed, the sides of the prothorax 
more coarsely punctate, and the central longitudinal channel 
longer and deeper, its punctuation also being more defined. 
Since my first notice of this species, several specimens of it, in tlie 
various stages of development, have been received from the same 
locality. 

SiNODENDRON Americanum $, ? , Palisot de Beauvois, Tns. Afric. 
et Amer. 192, tab. i. fig. 1, 2, 3; Melsheim. Cat. Coleop. 
U. S. p. 57. 

S. piceum ; thorace marginato, glabro, antice truncate, 7-dentato, 
intermedio duobusque lateralibus prominulis; capitis cornu 
recurvo ; elytris valde et subirregulariteV punctato-striatis. 

Whether the description above quoted of an insect, stated to be 
from Nortii America, can be considered as applying to a distinct 
species, admits perhaps of some doubt, no other specimen having 
been recorded from that country. Allusion is certainly made to 
it in Melsheimer's Catalogue of the United States Coleoptera, but 
on Palisot's authority alone. 

Dr. Leconte also, in his Classification of the United States 
Coleoptera, mentions further that he is totally unacquainted with 
it. I feel, therefore, inclined to believe, from the description as 
well as from the great similarity of the figures given in Palisot's 
work to our own European species, that Sinodendron cijlindncuni 
has been erroneously described as a distinct species under the 
name of S. Americanum ; but not being acquainted with the type 
specimen, the present remarks can only be taken therefore as 
conjecture. 

Dendroblax Earlianus, White, Voy. Erebus and Terror, Zool. 
p. ix. pi. ii. fig. 9 <?, 10 $. 

The marked affinity shown in several respects by this species 

VOL. II. THIRD SERIES, PART I. MAY, iSGt. F 



66 Major Parry's Catalogue 

to some of the sub-genera belonging to the Di/naslidce, and already 
alluded to by various authors,, renders it somewhat perplexing to 
assign for it any satisfactory place among the Lucanoid Coleoptera. 
Mr. White (1. c.) remarks that this insect approximates both 
to Lamprima and Bkyssonotus. Professor Westwood, in his notice 
of the species (vid. Tr. Ent. Soc, N. S., vol. 3, p. 213), regards 
it as an obscure I'epresentative of Sphenognatkus, with the mouth 
of a Sinodendron, alluding at the same time to the female as being 
apterous; and, finally, Monsieur Lacordaire, in his invaluable 
work on the Genera of Coleoptera, to which I have already had 
such frequent occasion to allude, although placing it with the 
LamprimidcB, mentions that from the remarkable character of its 
legs the species appears to be rather allied to the Dynaslidce than 
to the LucanidcB. In this view I am disposed to coincide, but 
have nevertheless, under the circumstances, placed it provisionally 
at the end of my arrangement, immediately after the genus Sino- 
dendron, thus establishing the connecting link between the Luca- 
noid Coleoptera and the Dynastidce. 

Note. — At one or two recent meetings of the Entomological Society, " di- 
morphism" or " polymorphism" has been the subject of discussion. This 
singular phenomenon is very marked in the Lucanoid Coleoptera ; and 
the existence of diverse forms of the same species, often exhibiting dif- 
ferences in their structural characters, renders necessary an acquaintance 
with a series of varieties of each separate species before we can arrive at 
a correct classification of this interesting group. — F. J, S. P., May, 1864. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. G7 



COLEOPTERORUM LUCANOIDUM CATALOGUS. 

Fam. I. CHIASOGNATHID/E. 

Genus 1. PIIOLIDOTUS, M'Leay, Ilorae Enlom. i. 97 (1819). 
CasignetHS J , ib. 98. 

Lamprima, Sclicinh. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 197 (Add). 
Chatcimon, Dalman, Eplienier. Entom. 1 (1824). 

Sp. 1. P. IIuMBOLDTi, [^, $ ] Sclionh. 1. c Brasilia. 

Uej. Cat. 193. 

de Castelnau, Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 169. 

Westvv. Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 2, i. 119 (1830. 

Burm. Handb. der Entom. v. 419 (1847). 

Guerin, Icon. I\egne Anim. 109, tab. xxvii. fig. 6. 
lepidosus $ , IM'Leay, Her. Entom. i. 97. 

Brulle, riisl. Nat. Ins. 427, tab. xxvi. fig. 3. 
geotrupoldes J, M'Leay, Ilor. Entom. i. 98. 

Cuvier, Regne Anim. tab. xlv. fig. 5. 

Sp. 2. P. Spixii, [$ , 2] Per'y. Delect. Anim. Artie. Braz. 54, tab. xi. 

fig. 13 (CiialcimoQ) Brasilia. 

Burm. llandb. v. 420. 
Lacord. Gen. Coleop. iii. 12 (18.56). 
Dejeaiiii $ , Buquet, Ann. See. Ent. Fr. t. x. Bullet, p. 21. 

Genus 2. CHIASOGNATHUS, Ste. Trans. Phil. Soc. Camb. iv. tab. 

i.,ii. (1831). 
Orihognathus, Dej, Cat. 193. 
Sphenognathus, Buquet, Rev. Zool. 1838, p. 104. 
Tetraophthalmus, Lesson, Illustr. de Zool., tab. xxiv. 

Sectio I. 

Sp. 1. C. Grantii, [^, $] Ste. 1. c Chili et Ins. Chiloe. 

Westw. Ann. Sci. Nat. 1834, p. 118. 
„ Zool. Journ. No. 19, p. 392. 
Sturm, Cat. Coleop. lab. iv. fig. 1, 2, $, $ (1843). 
Burm. Handb. V. 339 (1847). 
Gay, Hist. Chili, Zool. v. 41, Zool. Atlas, tab. xiii. 

fig- >.2. $. $ (1851). 
Lacord. Gen. Coleop. iii. 12 (1856), 
de Castelnau, Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 170. 
Reiche, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1850, p. 265. 
Cliilensis, Lesson, 1. c. (Tetraophthalmus). 

Sp. 2. C. JoussEUNii, [^] Reiche, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1850, p. 265 ....Chili. 
„ Rev. Zool. 1850, p. 249. 
Schaum, Bericht der Ent. 1850, p. 48. 
Lacord. Gen. Coleop, iii. 13. 
F 2 



68 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Sp. 3. C. Mniszechii, [ ^ , $ ] Thoms. Cat. Lucan., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 

1862, p. 406 Chili. 

Parry, ante, p. 6 (Tab. X. fig. 3). 
2 in Coll. Germain. 

Sp. 4. C. Latreillei, [ ^ , $ ] Solier, Gay. Hist. Chili, v. 42 Chili. 

Schaum, Beiicht der Ent. 1851, p. 64. 
Lacord. Gen. Coleop. iii. 13. 
Reichii $ , Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 407. 
imlierbis, Philippi et Dohrn, MS. 

Sectio II. 
Sp. 5. C. Feisthamelii, [^, $] Guer. Mag. Zool. 1840, tab. xxxix... 

Colombia; Bolivia; N. Granada. 
Gu6r. Diet, pittor, d'Hist. Nat. ix. 103. 
Burm. Handb. v. 340 (Sphenognathus). 

Sp. 6. C. Prionoides, [$, $] Buquet, Guer. Mag. Zool. i. ser. 2, Ins. 

tab. i Colombia ; N. Granada. 

Guer. Pvev. Zool. 1838, p. 104. 
Burm. Handb. v. 341 (Sphenognathus). 
Lacord, Gen. Coleop. iii. 1 4, lab. xxv. fig, 1. 
Dej. Cat. 193 (Orthognathus). 

Sp. 7. C. LiNDENii, 1$, 5] Murray, Edinb. N. Ph. Journ. N.S. v.221, 

tab. iii. fig. 1 , 2 Quito. 

Thoms. Cat. Lucan. 409 (Sphenognathus). 

Sp. 8. C. MuRRAYi, [,^,2] Thoms. Cat. Lucan. 409 Venezuela. 

Sp. 9. C. ALBOFuscus, [J] Blanchard, Ins. d'Amer. meiid. d'Orbigny, vi. 

2, 193, tab.xii. fig. 7 (Orthognathus) Peru. 

In Mus. Jardin des Piantes, Parisiis (spec, unicum). 

Genus 3. RHYSSONOTUS, M'Leay, Hor. Entom. i. 98 (1819). 

Sp. 1. R. NEBULOsus, [^, 2] Kirby, Tr. Linn. Soc. xii. 41 1, tab. xxi. 

fig. 12 (Lucanus) Nov. Holland. 

M'Leay, 1, c. 
Dej. Cat. 193. 

Sturm, Cat. 345, lab. iii. fig. 9 $. 
de Casteliiau, Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 170. 
Cuvier, Regne Anim. tab. xlv. fig. 8, 
Boisd. Faune de I'Oceanie, 233. 
Brulle, Hist. Nat, Ins. 428, tab, xxvi, fig. 4. 
Burm. Handb. v, 336, 
Lacord, Gen. Coleop. iii. 17. 
foveolatus J , Thunb. "i (sec. Burm. 1. c). 

Sp. 2. R. (?) juGULARis, [$1] Westvir. Tr, Ent, Soc. 3rd Ser. i. 429, 

tab, xiv. fig. 1 Nov. Holl. (Victoria). 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 69 

Genus 4. CACOSTOMUS, Newm. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1840, p. 364. 
Lepidodrs, Westw. Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 124 (1841). 

Sp. 1. C. SQUAMosus, [ ^, 9 ] Newm. 1. c « Nov. Holland. 

Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 211, tab. xi. fig. 6, 7. 
Burn). Handb. v. 362. 
Erichs. Wiegm. Arcliiv. 1842, ii. 234. 
rotiuidicollis, Westw. 1. c. (Lepidodes). 

Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 392 (Lepidodus). 

Genus 5. LAMPRIMA, Latr. Gen. Crust, et Tns. ii. 152. 

„ Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xvii. 277. 
M'Leay, Hor. Ent. i. 99. 
Reiche, Rev. Zool. 1841, p. 50. 
Burm. Handb. v. 410. 
Erichs. Wiegm. Archiv. 1842, p. 108. 
de Castelnau, Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. It9. 
Lacord, Gen. Coleop. iii. 17. 



Sectio I. 

Sp. 1. L. Latreillii, [^, $] M'Leay, Hor. Ent. i. 101 ....N. Holl. (Sydney). 

de Castelnau, 1. c. 

Erichs. 1. c. 

Hope, Cat. Lucan. 1. 

Burm. Handb. v. 411. 
cuprea? Latr. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xvii. 279. 
enieiis (var. cffritleus), Donov.Ins. N. Iloil. tab. i. (fig. inf. med.). 
pygm'jea, IM'Leay, 1. c. 

ptincticollis J, Dej. Cat. (vid. Boisd. Faune de I'Oceanie, 231 ). 
(Eiiea, Boisd. Faune de I'Oceanie, 228. 
Tasmania: (var. min.), Hope, Cat. Lucan. 28. 
amplicotlis, Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 41 1. 

Sp. 2. L. AURATA,[^, $] Latr. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xvii. 278 .. Nov, Holl. 
M'Leay, Hor. Ent. i, 100. 
cciieus, Donov. Ins. N. Holl. tab. i. (fig. dext. med.). 

Schreibers, Tr. Linn. Soc. v. 187 (^secundum M'Leay). 
(eiiea, de Castelnau, Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 169. 

Gu^r. Icon. Regne Anim. 109, tab. xxvii. fig. 5. 
Hope, Cat. Lucan. 1. 
Schreihersii, Hope, Cat. Lucan. 1. 
Ifutgida, Boisd. Faune de I'Oceanie, 231 Ins. Waigiou. 

Sp. 3. L.SPLENDENS, [<J, ?] F.richs. Wiegm. Archiv. 1 842, i. 108, 2.. Nov. Holl. 
Burm. Handb. v. 413. 
fulgida, Thoms. Cat. Lucan. 393. 
An species distincta ? 

Sp. 4. L. nuTiLANS,[^, $] Erichs. Wiegm. Archiv. 1842, i. 170,88 .. Tasmania. 
Burm. Handb. v. 412. 
Thoms. Cat. Lucan. 393. 



70 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Sectio II. 

Sp. 5. L. «NEA, [$, $] Fab, Si-sl.El.i. 2, 2(1792, Lethrus).. Ins. Norfolk. 
Schreibers, Tr. Linn. Soc. vi. 185, tab. xx. fig. 1 

(181 1, Lucanus). 
Latr. Gen. Crust, et Ins. ii. 132 (1807). 

,, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xvii. 278 (1817). 
Scbbnh. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 328. 
Burm. Handb. v. 41 i. 
suhrugosa, Hope, Cat. Lucan. pp. 1, 28. 

viridis, Erichs. Wiegm. Archiv. 1842, i. 109 (vid. Reiche, Ann. 
Soc. Eat. Fr. Ser. 3, i. 83). 

Sp. 6. L. MicARDi, [^, ?] Keiche, Rev. Zool. 1841, p. 51.. 

N, Hoil. (Swan River). 
Burm. Handb. v. 416. 
Hope, Cat. Lucan. 1. 
Erichs. Wiegm. Archiv. 1842, i. 108. 
Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 393. 
rarians, Germ. (sec. Reiche, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. ser. 3, i. 83). 
caltridens, Burm. (sec. Reiche, 1. c.) 

Sp. 7. L. VARIANS, [$,'}] Germ. Linn. Ent. iii. 195.... N. Holl. (Adelaide). 
Burm. Handb. v. 415. 

Sp. 8. L. suMPTUosA, [ ,J ] Hope, Cat. Lucan. pp. 1 , 28. N. Holl. (Swan River). 
Parry, ante, p. 7. 

Genus 6. STREPTOCERUS (Dej. Cat. 193), Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. 
Ent. Fr. 1850, p. 53. 

Sj). 1. S. spEciosus, [^, $] Dej. Cat. 193 Chili. 

Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1850, p. 53, tab. i. 

fig. 2. 
Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 204, tab. xi. fig. 1 $ . 
Lacord. Gen. Coleop. iii. 18. 
Dijeanii, Solier, Gay. Hist. Chili, v. 44, tab. xv. fig. c $. 

Genus 7. COLOPHON, Westw. Ann. Sc. Nat. i. ser. 2, p. 1 13 (1834). 

Sp. 1. C. Westwoodii, [^] G. R.Gray, Griffiths' Anim.Kingd.Ins. 534, 

tab. xlvi. fig. 5 Afric. merid. 

Westw. 1. c. tab. vii. fig. 5. 

„ Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 197, tab. x. fig. 1. 
Burm. Handb. v. 404. 
Hope, Cat. Lucan. 6. 
de Castelnau, Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 173. 
Lacord. Gen. Coleop. iii. 21. 
lethroides, Westw. MS. 

Sp. 2. C. Thunbergii, [$] Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 198, tab. x. 

fig. 2 Caflfraria? 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera.' 71 

Fam. II. LUCANID.i:. 

Genus 1. MESOTOPUS, Burm. Handb. v. 362. 

Sp. 1. M. Tauandus $, Swed. Act. Holm. iii. 186, tab. viii. fig. 2 

(1787) Sierra I.eonura ; Guinea. 

Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. Gmel.) iv. 1591. 
Schonh. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 322. 
Hope, Cat. Lucan. 4. 
Burm. Handb. v. 363. 
Lacord. Gen. Coleop. iii. 23. 
5, Pany, Proc. Enl. Soc. 1862, p. 107. 
„ aiile, p. 7. (Tab. V. fig. 4.) 

Genus 2. LUCANUS, Scop. Faun. Cam. (1763). 

Heiaphyllus, Wulsant, Ann. Soc. Agr. Lyon (1838). 

Sectio I. 
Sp. 1. L. cEnvus, [^, 5] Linn.Syst. Nat. I.ii. 559,ed.l2(Scaraba;us)..Europa. 
Fab. Syst. El. ii. 248, 3. 
Gesner, Nat. Hist, of Beasts, &c., 1005, cum fig. (vid. 

ante, p. 8). 
Sciuinli. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 318. 

Kraatz, Berl. Ent. Zeitsch. 1860, pp. 68, 265, lab. vii. 
"Weslw. Mod. Classif. Ins. i. 187. 
Burm. Handb. v. 350. 
Ericlis. Naturg. Ins. Deutschl. iii. 936. 
Lacord. Gen. Coleop. iii. 8. 
Blanchard, Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. 3, v. 322. 
Duval, Gen. Col6op. d'Eur. iii. 7. 
Bellier, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1846, Bulletin, p. 28, 
tab. ii. fig. 3. 
capreolus. Fab. Syst. El. ii. 249, 5. 
capra, Oliv. Ent. I. i, 11, tab. i. fig. 1, tab. ii. fig. 1. 
Dorcas, Panz. Faun. Germ. ii. 53. 
hircus, Herbst, Natursyst. Coleop. iii. 299, tab. xxxiii. fig. 4 $ , 

fig. 5$. 
armiger, Herbst, Natursyst. Coleop. iii. 301, tab. xxxiv. fig. 1 $ . 
vuniltnris, Motsch. Bull. Moscou, 1 845, i. 60 (sec, Kraalz, 1. c.) 
Tanricus, ,, ,, ,, 

pentaphijllus, Reiche, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1853, p. 71 ; Rev. 

Zool. 1856, p. 80. 
Fabiani, IMulsant, Opusc. Ent. vi. 150 (see. Kiaalz). 
Poiitbriuuti, Mulsant, Ann. Soc. Agr. Lyon, ii. 119, tab. xii, 

Duval, Gen, Coleop. d'Eur. iii. 12. 
I.usitatnciis, Hope, Cat. Lucan. 9. 
Americanus, „ ,, 10. 

Sp. 2. L. Tuncicus, [ ^ , $ ] Sturm, Cat. 346, tab. v. fig. 1 (1 843) . . 

Turcia ; As. Miii. j Grsecia. 
Duval, Gen. Coleop. d'Eur. iii. 10. 
H.Deyrolle, Anu.Soc. Ent. Fr. 1860, Bulletin, p. 22. 
Kraatz, Berl. Ent. Zeitsch. 1860, p. 273 ( L. cervi var.) 



72 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Sp. 3. L. ORiENTALis, [,J, $] Kraatz, Berl. Ent. Zeilsch. 1860, p. 273,. 

Tuicia; Asia Min. 

macrophyllus, Reiche (vid. Kraatz, Hb. cit. p. 271) Caraniania. 

tetraodon, Duval, Gen. Coleop. d'Eur. iii. 11.... Asia Min. ; Caucaso. 
Ihericus''. Motsch. Bull. Moscou, 1845, p. 60. 

ciutulus ? ,, ,, ,, 

Sp. 4. L. LATicoRNis, [ ^ ] H. Deyrolle, MS. (vid. ante, p. 9) Caucaso. 

In Coll. Mniszech et Parry. 

Sp. 5. L. Tr.TRAODON, [ ^, $] Thunb. Mem. Soc. Nat. Moscou (1806) 

i. 188 Italia; Sicilia; Corsica. 

Barbarossa, Costa, Faun. Napol. pars i. tab. xvii. 

Burm. Hand. v. 349. 
serraticornis, Duval, Gen. Coleop. d'Eur. iii. 11. 

Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1859, p. 275. 
Conicus, Gautier des Cottes, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1860, Bullet. 
p. 53. 

Sp. 6. L. Barbarossa, [^, $ ] Fab. Syst. El. ii. 251, 15.. 

Hispan.; Corsica; Afric. bor. 
Duval, Gen. Coleop. d'Eur. iii. 13, tab. i. fig. 1 $ , 

fig. 2 $ . 
Schonh. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 325. 
lllig. Mag. ii. 233, 1, iv. 104, 15 (sec. Schiinh.) 
Thunb. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. i. 201, 27 (sec. 
Scliiinh.) 
? Pontbriatiti, var. Mulsant, ubi stip. (vid. Gerst. Bericht der 
Ent. 1859— 60, p. 110). 

Sectio II. 

Sp. 7, L. LUNiFEH, [^, $] Hope, Royle. Illustr. Nat. Hist. Himal. tab. 

i. fig. 4 Ind. Minial. 

Hope, Cat. Lucan. 9. 
Lama, Burm. Handb. v. 353. 
riigifrons, $, Hope, Cat. Lucan. 4. 

Sp. 8. L. Mearesii, [^, ? ] Hope. Ann. Nat. Hist. xii. 364 . Ind.Himal.; Silliet. 
,, Ti. Ent. Soc. iv. 73. 
,, Cat. Lucan. 10. 
Westw. Orient. Ent. 21, tab. x. fig. 1. 
nigripes $, Hope, Cat. Lucan. 10. 

Sp. 9. L. HoPEi, [$] Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 103.. 

Ind. Or. aut Archip. Malay. 
Parry, ante, p. 9 (Tab. VL fig. 2). 

Sp. 10. L. CANTORr, [ ^ , $ ] Hope, Ann. Nat. Hist. xii. 363 Ind. Or. 

Hope, Cat. Lucan. 9. 
„ Tr. Ent. Soc. iv. 73. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 73 

Sp. 1 1 . L. V1I.I.0SUS, [$] Hope, Gray. Zool. Miscell. 1831, p. 22 ... . Nepulia. 
,, Cat. Lucan. 9. 
Lama, Burm. Ilandb. v, 353. 
luiiifer. Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 393. 

Sp. 12. L. SF.RicANs, [$1 Voll. Tijd. v. Ent. iv. 103 (1861) Japonia. 

linens 1 Sturm, Cat. 136 (vid. ante, p. \0), 
Sp. sequentis var. min. ? 

Sp. 13. L. MAcuLiFEMORATus, [^, $ ] IMotsch. Eludes Ent. 1 861 , p. 9 . . JapoTiia. 

Sp. 14. L. viciNUS, [$] Hope, Cat. Lucan. 10 Ind. Or. (Poonali). 

liuim. Handb. v. 527. 

Sp. 15. L. Westermanu, [ ^ , $] Hope, Cat. Lucan, 10 Assama. 

Sp. 16. L. Smithii, [^] Parry, Proc. Ent. See. 1862, p. 108 Ind. Or. 

Parry, ante, p. 10 (Tab. X. fig. 2). 
Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 394. 

Sp. 17. L. FoRTUNEi, [^, $] Saunders, Tr. Ent. See. N. S. iii. 46, tab. 

iii. fig. 1 ^,2 $ China. 

Sp. 18. L. ATRATus, [$] Hope, Gray. Zool. Miscell. 1831, p. 22 Nepalia. 

,, Cat. Lucan. 10. 

Sp. 19. L. ELAPiius, [<?,$] Fab. Syst. El. ii. 249, 4 Amer. bor. 

Oliv. Entom. I. i. 12, 4, tab. iii. fig. 7. 
Thunb. Mem. Soc. Nat. Moscou, i. 191. 
Schonh. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 322. 
Burm. Handb. v. 354. 
Melsheimer, Cat. Coleop. U. S. 57. 
l)e Geer, Alem, iv. 33, 3 (L. cervi var.). 
placidus 5, Say, Journ. Acad. Fhilad. v. 202. 

Sp. 20. L. CAPREOLUS, [$, $] Linn. Mus. Lud. Ulr. 32, 30 Amer. bor. 

Linn. Syst. Nat. I. ii. 500, 2. 

Oliv. Ent. I. i. 15, 8, tab. ii. fig. 4 $, tab. iii. 

fig. 4$. 
Herbst, Col. iii. 302, tab. xxxiv. fig. 2 $, 

fig. 3$. 
Panz. Ent. Beitr. i. 1, tab. i. fig. 1, 8. 
De Geer, Ins. iv. 336, tab. xix. fig, 1 1 , 12. 
Schonh. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 323. 
Hope, Cat. Lucan, 4. 
Duma ^ , Fab. Syst. El. ii. 249, 6. 

'Ihunb. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. i. 198, 22. 
Dej. Cat. 193. 

de Castelnau, Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 171. 
Melsheimer, Cat. Coleop. U. S. 57. 
trigonus 1 $ , Thunb. lib. cit. 199, 24, tab. xii. fig. 4. 
miu/cu6? !^ „ „ 205, 37. 



74 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Sp. 21. L. LENTus, \_$ , $] de Castelnau, Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 171.. .. Amer. bor. 
Burm. Handb. v. 356. 
Melsheimer, Cat. Coleop. U. S. 57. 
rtipicapra, Dej. Cat. 19o. 



Genus 3. RH.ETUS, Parry, aiile, p. 10. 

Sp. 1. R. WE6TW0ODII, [$] Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 108 (Uex- 

arlhrius ?) India vel Archip. Ind. 

Parry, ante, p. 11 (Tab. IX. fig. 2, 8). 



Genus 4. HEXARTHRIUS, Hope, Cat. Lucan. 4. 
CladognatliHs, Burm. Handb. v. 364. 
Lucanus, Oliv. Ent, I. i. 21. 

Sp. 1. H. FoRSTERi, [^, $] Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. xviii, 587, tab. xl. 

fig. 1 ; . Assama. 

Hope, Cat. Lucan. 11. 

Burm. Handb. v. 367. 

serricollis $ , Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. xviii. 591. 

Sp. 2. II. BowRiNGii, [$] Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 108.. 

India vel Archip. Ind. 
„ ante, p. 12 (Tab. IX. fig. 5, 7). 

Sp. 3. H. Rhinoceros, [^, $] Oliv. Entom. I. i. 21, tab. v. fig. 21 ....Java. 
Thunb. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. i. 201. 
Schonh. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 322. 
Reiche, Ann. Soc. Enl. Fr. ser. 3, i. 75. 
Burra. Handb. v. 366. 
falciger $ (var. med.), Hope, Cat. Lucan. II. 
tongipennis $ , Hope, Cat. Lucan. 10. 
vitulus $, Dej. Cat. 193. 

Hope, Tr. Ent. Soc. iv. 183. 
Tiioms. Cat. Lucan. 394. 

Sp. 4. H. BuQUETii, l$] Hope, Tr. Enl. Soc. iv. 182, tab. xiii. fig. 4. ...Java. 
Rhinoceros, Burm. Handb. v. 366. 

Sp. 5. H. CuAUDOiRf, [^] H. Deyrolle, MS. (vid. ante, p. 11) Sumatra. 

Sp. 6. H. Mniszechii, [ ^] Tboms. Archiv. Entom. i. 396 .. Ind. Or. (Silhet). 
Lacord. Gen. Coleop. tab. xxv. fig. 5. 

Sp. 7. II. Parryi, 1$, $] Hope,Tr, Linn. Soc. xix. 104, tab. x. fig. 2.. Silhet. 
Burm. Handb. v. 367. 

Sp. 8. H. Devroi.lei, [^] Parry, ante, p. 11 (Tab. IV. fig. 1) Siania, 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 75 

Genus 5. ODONTOLABIS, Hope, Tr, Linn. Soc. xix. 1 05 ; Cat. Lucan. 5. 
Anopiocnemus, Hope, Ann. Nat. Hist. xii. 364, 
Culcedes, VVestw. Ann. Sc. JS'at. i. 118. 



Sectio I. 

Sp. 1. 0. VotiENHOvii, [$] Parry, uHfe, p. 13(Tab. VIII. fig. 1)... .Borneo. 
Lacordairei, Parry, IMS. (dim). 

Sp. 2. O. LuDEKrNCU, [ $ , ^] Voll.Tijd. v. Ent.iv. 104, fab. v. fig. 2.. Sumatra. 
Parry, ante, p. 13 (Tab. II. fig. 1). 

Sp. 3. O. WoLLASTONii, [ ^, ^ ] Parry, a»i(e, p. 14 ...Malacca. 

(Tab. II. fig. 2, 3; tab. III. fig. 1). 

Sp. 4. 0. MounoTii \_$], Parry, ante, p. 14 (Tab. I, fig, 1),. Cambodia ; Siama. 

Sp. 5. O. Lacokdairei, [ ^ ] Vol!. Tijd. v. Ent. iv. 104, tab. v. fig. 1 (vid. 

ante, p. 13) Sumatra. 

Sp. 6. O. BuuMEiSTERi, [ $] Hope, Tr. Ent. Soc. iii. 219, tab. xiii. fig. 3 

(gen. .4;io/)/oc»iemitypus),.Ind. (Mysore). 
„ Cat. Lucan. 16. 
„ Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 302. 
Sp. sequentis var. ? 

Sp. 7. O. CuvERA, [ ^ , $ ] Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. xix. 105, tab. x. fig. 3 . . 

Assama ; Silhet. 
Saundersii ^ (var. min.), Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. xix. 105. 
Prinsepii $ (var. med.), Hope, Cat. Lucan. pp. 5, 16. 

Westw. Ori Ent. tab. xxvi. fig. 5. 
Delessertii $ , $ (var. min.), Hope, Cat. Lucan. pp. 5, 16. 
bicotor $ (var. min.), Saunders, Tr. Ent. Soc. ii. 177, tab. xvi. 
fig. 3. 
Burm. Handb. v. 360. 
Gazella, Westw. Or. Ent. 54. 

Sp. 8. O. Delessertii, [^] Guerin, Souv. Voy. Deless. Ins. 48, tab. xii. 

fig. 3 Ind. bor. ; Neilglierries. 

Chenu, EncycL d'Hist. Nat. tab. introd. fig. 2. 
Parry, Tr. Ent. Soc. ser. 3, i. 447. 

Sp. 9. O. Gazella, [ ^ , $ ] Fab. Syst. El. ii. 250, 9 ; Ent. Syst. I. ii. 

238 ; Mant. Ins, i. 1 Siama; China. 

Linn. Syst. Nat, (ed, Gmeiin) iv. 1.589. 
Herbst, Col, iii. 313, 12. 
AVeslw. Or. Ent, 54, tab. xxvi. fig. 2, 3, 4. 
Oliv. Ent. I. i. 13, tab. iv. fig. 13. 
Thunb. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. i. 195, 16. 
bicolor, Burm. Handb, v, 360. 



76 Major Parry's Catalogue 



Sectio II. 

Sp. 10. O.Dux, [^, $1, Westw. Ann. Nat. Hist. 1841,p. 154..Ins. Philippio. 
VVestw. Or. Ent. 17, tab. viii. fig. 1. 
Cumingii, Hope, Cat. Lucan. pp. 5, 17. 
Alces, Burm. Handb. v. 360. 
Alces?, Petiv. Gazoph. tab. xlvii. fig. 15 (1702). 

Sp. 11. O. cARiNATUS, [^, $] Linn. Mus. Lud. Ulr. 34 (Scarabffius).. 

Ind. Or. (Silhel). 
Schbnh. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 323. 
? Thunb, Mem. Soc. Nat. iMoscou, i. 193, tab. xii. 

fig-. 2. 
Reiche, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. ser. 3, i. 72. 
Alces, Fab. Syst. Ent. i. I. 

Oliv. Entom. I. i. 8, tab. ii. fig. 3 a. 
(var. min.) Burm. Handb. v. 359. 
camelus (var. minor), Oliv. Entom. i. 22, tab. v. fig. 19. 
Siva, Hope, Cat. Lucan, pp. 5, 16. 

Sp. 12. O. BELLicosus, [,^, $]de Castelnau, Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 171, 

tab. xvi. fig. 1 Java. 

iirsus $ , de Castelnau, Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 171, tab. xvi. fig. 2. 
Viihnii, (var. min.), Hope, Cat. Lucan. 17. 
serrifer (var. min.), ,, ,, 

Alces, Burm. Handb. v. 359. 
emarginatus, Dej. Cat. 193. 

Reiche, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. ser. 3, i. 73. 

Sp. 13. 0. Dalmani, [$, ^] Hope, Cat. Lucan. pp. 5, 17.. 

Tenasserim; Borneo; Sumatra; Malacca. 
Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 394. 
puhcbcens $, Blanchard, MS. 



Sectio III. 

Sp. 14. 0. Stevensii, [^, $ ] Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 414 Celebes. 

Parry (Tab. V. fig. 2, 5). 

Sp. 15. 0. Dejeanh, [^, $] Reiche, Rev. Zool. 1852, p. 21, tab. i. 

fig. 4 Singaporia ; Borneo; Malacca. 

Lama $ , Dej. Cat. 193 (vid. Reiche, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. ser. 3, 

i. 72; Thoms. Cat, Lucan. 395). 
Styx $ , Blanchard, MS. 
lalipennis $, Hope, Cat, Lucan. pp. 5, 17. 

Sp. 16. 0. Castelxavdi, [$] Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 108. .. .Sumatra. 

„ ante, p. 14 (Tab. I. fig, 2). 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 77 

Sp. 17. 0. BicoLon, [$, $] Ollv. Enlom. I. i. 22, lab. v, fig. 20.. 

Malacca; Borneo; Sumatra. 
Thunb. Mem. Soc. Nat. Moscou, i, 204, 34. 
Sclionh. Sjn. Ins. I. ii. 322. 
Wtslvv. Or. Kilt. 53, tab. xxvi. fig. 1. 
Uuim.IIandb. v. 360. 

Sp. 18. O. Brookeanus, [(J, $] Voll. Tijd. v. Ent. iv. 107, tab. vi. 

fig. 1 (var. med.) Borneo. 

Parry, ante, p. 15 (Tab. VI. fig. 5, var. max.) 

Sp. 19. O. SoMMEKi, l$] Parry, r roc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 108 Manilla. 

,, ante, p. 16 (Tab. VI. fig. 4). 

Sp. 20. O. sTRiATUs, [<J, $] II. Deyrolle, IMS. (vid. ante, p. 15).. ..Malacca. 

Sp. 21. O. PLATYNOTus $ , Hopc, Cat. Eucan. pp. 5, 18 China. 

emarginatiis $, Saunders, 'J'r. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 49, tab. iii. 

fi?- 4 $, fig. 5 $ var. rain. 
Evansii $ , Westw, Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 201, tab. x. fig. 5. 

Sectio IV. 

Sp. 22. O. CiNGALENSis, [^, $] Parry, ante.p. 16 (Tab. X. fi^. 8)..Taprobana. 
Beitgalettsis, Tennant, Hist. Ceylon, i. 27, Cat. Coleop. 

Sp. 23. O. NiGRiTA, H. Deyrolle, MS. (vid. ante, p. 17) Taprobana. 

Sp. 24. 0. iNTERMEDius, H. Deyrolle, MS Taprobana. 

Sp. nova, in Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1864 descriptura. 

Sp. 25. 0. yERATus ^ , Hope, Tr. Zool. Soc. i. 99, tab. xiv. fig. 2 $ var. 
roin. (nee $ ). . 

Tenasserim ; Ins. Walliic Principis ; Malacca. 
Hope, Cat. Lucan. pp. 5, 16. 
Westw. Ann. Sci. Nat. i. 118 (Calcodes). 

,, Or. Ent. 22, tab. x. fig. 6 (var. max.) 
de Castelnau, Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 172. 
Burm. Handb. v. 361. 
$, Parry (Tab. VII. fig. 9). 

Genus 6. HETEROCHTHES, Westw., ante, p. 17. 

Sp. 1. II. BRACHVPTERUS, [^, $] Westw., ante, p. 18 ....Cambodia; Siama. 
(Tab. X. fig. 6 $ , fig. 7 $; Tab. XI. fig. 1 $ var. max., 
fig. 2 $ var. min., fig. 3 $.) 

Genus 7. NEOLUCANUS, Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 415. 

Udontolubis, Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. xix. 105; Cat. Lucan. 5. 
Auoplocnemits, Burm. Handb. v. 357. 
Anodoiitolabis, Parry, Tr. Ent. Soc. ser. 3, i. 447. 



78 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Sp. 1. N. Baladeva, [^, $] Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc, xix. 105 ..Silhet. 

Parry (Tab. IX. fig. 1, mandibulae). 
1 Lama, Oliv. (vid. Parry, Tr. Ent. Soc. ser, 3, i. 453). 
angtilatus (var. min.), Hope, Cat. Lucan. 17. 
bicolor, Burm. Handb. v. 360. 

Sp. 2. N. Saundersii, [ $ ] Parry, oHte, p. 20 (Tab. IX. fig. 3, niandib.). . Ind.Or. 

Sp. 3. N. NiTiDus, [ $ ] Saunders, Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 47, tab. iv. fig. 1 . . China. 

Sp. 4. N. LATicoLLis, [ ^ , $ ] Thunb. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. i. 163 ... . Java. 
Ileiche, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. ser. 3, i. 80. 
Tiioms. Cat. Lucan. 395. 
glabraiiis, Hope, Cat. Lucan. 18. 
Dej. Cat. 193. 

Sp. 5. N. CASTANOPTEnus, [ (J, $ ] Hope, Gray. Zool. Misc. 1831, p. 22..Nepalia. 

„ Cat. Lucan. pp. 5, 18. 
Westw. Or. Ent. 22, tab. x. fig. 5, $ ; tab. xxvi. 
fig. 6, $ . 
bicolor, Burm. Handb. v. 360. 

Sp. 6. N. SiNicus, [ ^ , $ ] Saunders, Tr. Enl. Soc. N. S. iii. 48, tab. iv. 

fig. 2, 3 Ciiina. 

Sp. 7. N. ciNGu LATus, [ $ ] Parry, ante, p. 20 (Tab. IV. fig. 3) Malacca. 

Sp. 8. N. CiiAMPioNi, \_$] Parry, ante, p. 20 Ciiina. 

Genus 8. CLADOGNATHUS, Burm. Handb. v. 364. 
Macrognathus, Hope, Cat. Lucan. 5. 
Metopodontus, „ ,, 4. 

Prusopocoilus, ,, ,, 4. 

Psulidogiiaihns, Moysch. Etudes Ent. 1861, p. 13. 
Frismognathus, „ Schrenck. Reise, Col. (1860), 
p. 138 ; Eludes Ent. 1861, p. 10. 

Species Asiatics. 
Sectio I. 
Sp. 1. C. GiRAFFA, [(?,$] Fab. Syst. El. ii. 248 (Lucanus) ..Ind. Or., Java. 
Oliv. Ent. I. i. 21, tab. v. fig. 16. 
Tiiunb. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. i. 189, 4. 
Schijnli. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 318. 
Burm. Handb. v. 368. 
Brahmhius ( $ var. min.), Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. xix. 106. 
Giraffoides „ Hope, MS. 

WhitliiUii „ Hope, MS. 

? Downesii J , Hope, Cat. Lucan. 19. 

Sp. 2. C. Confucius ,J , Hope, Ann. Nat. Hist, ii, 62 ; Cat. Lucan. 18.. China. 
? Downesii $ , Hope, Cat. Lucau. 19. 



of Lucanoid Coleoytera. 79 

Sp. 3. C. FonncuLA, [^, $] Thorns. Rev. Zool. 1856, p. 327 ; Archiv. 

Ent. i. 488, tab. xiv. fig. 7^,8$ China. 



Sectio II. 

Sp. 4. C. iNCLiNATus, {$, $] Motsch. Etudes Enf. 1857, p. 29 Japonia. 

Rlolsch. Etudes Ent. 1861, p. 13 (Psalidognathus). 
niandihalaiii. Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 417. 

Sp. 5. C. ciNNAMOMEus, [^, $] Gu6r. la. Regne Anim. Ins. tab. xxvii. 

fig. 3 (Lucanus) ..Java. 

Burm. Handb. v. 372 (Cladognathus). 
Chenu, Encycl. d'llist. Nat. tab. x. fig. 3. 
lyiiUidipevnis, Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. xviii. 590 (Lucanus). 
fiiliipes $ (var. min.), Hope, Cat. Lucan. 13. 
Rajfleiii $, Hope, Froc. f>nt. Soc. 1844, p. 106 (Lucanus). 
Wesl«r. Tr. Ent. Soc. iv. 274, tab. xx. fig. 2. 

Sp. 6. C. CASTANEUs, [^, $] HopB, Cat. Lucan. 12 India 

Sp. 7. C. FOVEATUS, [$, $] Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. xviii. pars 4; Cat. 

Lucan. 12 Ind. Or., Assama. 

omissus, $, $, Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. xviii. pars 4j Cat. 

Lucan. 12. 
fraternns $ (var. min.), Hope, Cat. Lucan. 12. 
astacoides ,, ,, Tr. Linn. Soc. xviii. pars 4. 

Sp. 8. C. INIacleli.andi, [ $ ] Hope, Tr. Ent. Soc. iv. 74 

,, Ann. Nat. Hist. xii. 364. 
„ Cat. Lucan. 13. 

Sp. 9. C. ciLiPES, [$] Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 416 India. 

Sp. 10. C. QUADRiNODOsus, [$] Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 109.. Ind. Or. 

ante, p. 22 (Tab. VIII. fig. 4). 

Sp. 11. C. Jenkinsii, [$] Westw. Orient. Ent.21, tab. x. fig. 3 ....Assama. 

Sp. 12. C. FLAviDus, [$] Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 110 India Or. 

„ ante, p. 27 (Tab. VIIL fig. 2). 

Sp. 13. C.ELEGANs, [$] Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 110 India Or. 

ante, p. 27 (Tab. VIII. fig. 3). 



Sectio III. 

Sp. 14. C. Wallacei, [^] Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 109 Ins. Gilolo. 

„ ante, p. 23 (Tab. VII. fig. 2). 

Sp. 15. C. DFCiriENs, [ $ ] Parry, ante, p. 31 (Tab. IV. fig. 4) .. ..Malabaria. 
Specimen $ in Mus. Lugdun., forsilan hujus specici. 



80 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Sp. 16. C. Lafertei ^.Reiche.Kev.Zool. 1852,p.24,tab.i...Ins.Nov.Hebrid. 
$, Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862. p. 109. 
„ ante, p. 23 (Tab. Vlll. fig. 5). 
Lifuanus $ (var. min.), Monlrousier, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1860, 

p. 281 N. Caledonia. 

Sp. 17. C. ASSiMiLis, [ 5 ] Parry, ante, p. 25 Ins. Waigiou. 

productus $ , Parry, Proc. Enl. Soc. 1862, p. 109. 

Sp. 18. C. Tragulus ^, Voll. Tijd. v. Ent. iv. 113, tab. vii. fig. 4, 5.. 

Ins. Ternate. 
2 , Parry, ante, p. 24 (Tab. VII. fig. 6 ^ ). 
producius $ , Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 109. 

Sp. 19. C. Bison, [^, $] Fab. Syst. El. ii. 250 (Lucanus) . .Amboyna; Celebes. 
Oliv, Ent. I.i. 13. tab. iii. %. 6. 
Thunb. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. i. 193. 
Schonh. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 324. 
Burm. Handb. v, 373 (Cladognatiius). 
tesserarius, Herbst, Col. iii. 298, tab. xxxiii. fig. 3 (Lucanus). 

Voet. Col. i. 55, tab. xxx. fig. 6. 
fulvoUmbatus, Blancii. Voy. P61e Sud, iv. 138, tab. ix. fig. 11 

Sp. 20. C. ciNCTTJS, [ ^ ] Montrousier, Faune de Pile de VVoodlark, A nn. Soc. 

Agric. Lyon, vii. 26. . I us. Woodlark, N.Guinea, Ki, Aru. 
Sp. priEcedentis var. ? (vid. ante, p. 22). 

Sp. 21. C. LATERALIS, [^ , $ ] Hope, Cat. Lucan. 13. . . .Ins. Phllipp., Celebes. 
matginatiis, Burm. Handb. v. 369. 

Sp. 22. C. Zeera, [(J, 2] Oliv. Ent. I.i. 24, tab. v. fig. 17 (Lucanus). .Birnia. 
Thunb. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. i. 206. 
Schonh. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 322. 
Voll. Tijd. V. Ent. iv. 108. 
Parry, ante, p. 25 (Tab. IV. fig. 5 $ ). 

Sp. 23. C. suTURALis, [$] Oliv.Ent. I. i. 16, tab. iv. fig. 12 (Lucanus).. 

Siama aut Malacca. 
Fab. Syst. El. ii. 250 ; Ent. Syst. I. ii. 238. 
Illig. Mag. iv. 10 J.. 
Thunb. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. i. 200. 

Hope, Enl. Mag. v. 316 Japonia. 

Parry, ante, p. 25. 

Sp. 24. C. OCCIPITALIS, [ ^ , $ ] Hope, Cat. Lucan. 1 .5 . . 

Ins. Philipp., Celebes, Borneo. 
Westw. Orient. Ent. 22, tab. x. fig. 4. 
astericus $ , Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 417. 

Sp. 25. C. BiPLAGiATus, [cJ, $] Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 200, 

tab. X. fig. 4 (Lucanus).. 

Nepaliaj Thibeta; Siama. 
fasciatus, Reiclie, MS. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 81 

Sp 26. C. iNQuiNATus, [$, $] Westw. Orient. Ent. tab. viii. fig. 4 ....India. 
Sp. prajcedenlis, vdr. ] 

Sp. 27. C. ATTENUATus, [^] PaiTy, ante, p. 26 (Tab. IV. fig. 2) Malacca. 

Sp. 28. C. sERicEus, [ <J , $ ] Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. iv. 274, tab. xx. fig. 3 

(Lucanus) Java; liorneo ; Malacca. 

pulverosiis $, Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 110 (Tal). VI. 

fig. 1 , var. max.). 
juveiicus $ (Dej ), Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 396. 

Sp. 29. C. ruLvovoTATi's, [ ^ ] Parry, Proc. Enl. Soc. 1 862, p. 11 1 Ind. or. 

„ aute, p. 28 (Tab. VI. fig. 3). 

Sp, 30. C. BisiGNATUs, [(J, $] Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. Ill Ind. or. 

„ anle, p. 28 (Tab. VII. fig. 3 ^ , 5 $ ), 



Sectio IV. 

Sp. 31. C. poLiTiis, [^] Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 110 Ind. or. 

,, aute, p. 21 (Tab. X. fig. 5)- 

Sp, 32. C. DORSALis, [^ , ? ] Ericlis. Act. Acad. Cass. Lcop. v. 16, Suppl. 

tab. xxxvii. fig. 6 Ins. Philipp. 

Parry, ante, p. 31. 

Sp. 33. C. cAvimoNS, [ ^ , $ ] Hope, Cat. Lucan. 13 Ins. Pliilipp. 

dorsalis $, Burm. Handb. v. 370. 

tennipes $, Hope, Cat. pp. 5, 18 (Odonlolabis). 

Sp. 34. C. APPnoxiMATUS, [^, $ ] Parry, anle, p. 33. . . . China Cochin., Siama. 

Sp. 35. C.Bdddha, [$] Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. xix. 107 (Tab. XII.fig.3).. 

Ind. bor. 
Thiheticiis (var. min.), Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 199, 
tab. X fig. 3. 

Sp. 36. C. Daurici's, [$, $] Motsch. Etudes Ent. 1861, p. 10 Dauria. 

$,Motsch. Schrenck. Reise, Col. 138, tab. i.x. 
fig. 11 (Melopodontus). 
snbccneus $ , Motsch. Schrenck. Heise, Col. 138, tab. ix. fig. 12 
(Prismognaihus). 

Sp 37. C.SQUAMiLATERis, [<J , $ J Parry,Proc. Enl.Soc. 1862,p.ll0.. 

Borneo, Malacca. 
,, ante, p. 26. 

Sp. 38. C. PERPLExus, [$1 Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. Ill Ind. or. 

,, ante, p. 26. 
VOL. II. THIRD SERIES, r.VKT 1. MAY, 1864-. O 



82 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Sectio V. 

Sp. 39. C. OwENi, [ ^ 1 $ ] Hope, Cat. Lucan. pp. 4,14 Assama. 

suttangulatus ^ „ ,, ,, pp. 6, 24 ( Doicus). 

Sp. 40. C. FORCEPS, [$] Voll. Tijd, v. Ent. iv. 109, lab. vi. fig. 2 .. Sumatra. 

Sp. 41. C. Spencii, [^ , $ ] Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. xviii. 589 Assama. 

Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1864, p. 8 ; ante, p. 37. 
biilhosiis $ (var. min.), Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. xviii. 589, tab. 

xl.%.2. 
piinctigpr ^, Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. xviii. 592 (Dorcus). 
„ Cat. Lucan. 24. 

Sp. 42. C. cnENicoi.Lis, [ (J] Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 418 Ind. or. 

Sp. 43. C. CL'tiviPEs $ , Hope, Cat. Lucan. 25 Ind. or. 

$ , Parry, ante, p. 35. 

Sp. 44. C. RUDis, [ $ ] VVestw. ante, p. 35 (Tab. XL fig. 4) . , 

Ind. or., vel Ins. Indicis? 

Species Africanae. 
Sectio I. 
Sp. 45. C. DowNEsif, [<^] Hope, Tr. Zool. Soc. i. 99, tab. xiii. fig. 7 . . 

Fernando Po. 
Hope, Cat. Lucan. 1 1. 
de Caslelnau, Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 172. 
Burm. Handb. v. 374. 

Sp. 46. C. Savagei, [ ^ , $ ] Hope, Ann. Nat. Hist. ix. 494 Afiic. occ. 

nngalaius $ (var. min.), ,, ,, ,, ; Cat. Lucan. 

pp. U, 12. 

Sp. 47. C. EXLiHus, [ ^ , $ ] Parry, ante, p. 33 Afric. occ. 

Sectio II. 
Sp. 48. C.SERRicORNis, [(J] Latr. Cuv. Regne Anim. iii. tab. xvii. fig. 3. . 

Madagascaria. 
Burm. Handb. V. 392 (Dorcus ) 
Reiche, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. ser. 3, i. 81. 
? var. serricornis (in RIus. Pariy) Mozambique. 

Sp. 49. C. Senegalensis, [^, $] King, Erm. Reis. Atl. 38, 103.. 

Senegalia, Guinea, 
de Castelnau, Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 172. 
Reiche, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. ser. 3, i, 76. 
Dej. Cat. 193 (Dorcus). 
Antilopus ^, Burm. Handb. v. 371. 

Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 396. 
Martini $ , Hope, Cat. Lucan. 14. 
Iiispinusns <^ , Gory, MS. (Mus. Oxon.) 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 83 

Sp. JO. C. Antilopus, [^] Swed. Act. Holm. 1787, iii. 186, tab. viii. 

fig. 3 Sierra Leonum, Guinea. 

Sp. 51. C. QOADRiDENS, [(J, 9 ] Hope, Cat. Lucan. 14. .Sierra Leonum, Guinea. 
Sayersii $ (var. max.), Hope, Cat. Lucan. 14. 
piceipeniiis $ (var. nied.), „ ,, ,, . 

speciilij'er $ (var. min.), ^, ,, ,, . 

Senegaleiibis $ (var. min.), „ ,, 4 (nee Klug), 

An species disiincla, vel praecedentis varietas'? (vid. ante, p. 34). 

Scctio III. 
Sp. 52. C. Natalensis, [ ^ , $ ] Parry, ante, p. 36 Natalia. 

Sp. 53. C. FABF.it, [^,2] Thoms. Cat. Lucan. 419 (nee Dej. Cat.), (Tal). 

XII. fig. 2) Afric. occ. 

Cristflfori, Westermann, Spinola, WS. 

Sp. 54. C. MODESTUS, [$] Pairy, ante, p. 29 (Tab. XII. fig. 1) .... Afric. occ. 
Genus 9. HOMODERUS, Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 107 ; ante, p. 38. 

Sp. 1. H. Rlti.LYi, [$, $] Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862. p. 107.. 

Guinea, Calabaria Ant. 
Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. ser. 3, i. 437, tab. xvi. fig. 7 ^ , 

8 $. 
Pairy, ante, p. 38 (Tab. XII. fig. 6, caput $ var, 
max.). 

Genus 10. CYCLORASIS. Tiioms. Cat Lucan. pp. 397, 421. 
Cycli'phthalmus, Hope, Cat. Lucan. 5. 

Sp. 1. C. I'LATYCEPiiALus, [(J, $] Hope, Ann. Nat. Hist, xii.364.. 

Ind. or., Assama. 
,, Trans. Ent. Soc. iv. 73. 
,, Cat. Lucan. 5. 
Westw. Orient. Knt. 17, tab. viii. fig. 2. 
Tiioms. Cat. Lucan. 421. 

Sp. 2. C. Jekei.ii, [^, $] Parry, a«te, p. 41 (Tab. XI. fig. 4).. 

Chowson, Corea. 

Sp. 3. C. suDNiTENS, [$] Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 112 Ind. or. 

„ ante, p. 42 (Tab. VII. fig. 1). 

Genus. 11. CYCLOMMATUS, Parry, Tr. Ent. Soc. ser. 3, i. 449. 
Cyclophthalmns, Hope, Cat. Lucan. 5. 
Cladognathus, Burm. Ilandb. v. 364. 
^Jega'oprepes, Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 420. 
G 2 



84 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Sp. 1. C. METALLiFER, I^. $] Boisd. Voy. Astrolabe, Ent. Col, 236, 

tab. vi. fig. 20 Ins. Batchian. 

Parry, ante, p. 39. 
(Bneomicans $ (var. min.) $, Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 111. 

Sp. 2. C. Tauandus, [^, $] Tlmnb. Mem. See. Nat. Mosc. i. 190, 

tab. xii. fig. 1 (Lucanus) Borneo. 

Burm. Handb. v. 374. 

White, Low. Hist. Sarawak, App. 115, Ins. fig. 1. 
ra'ig'fer (var. med.), Schcinh. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 322. 
Westw. Orient. Ent. 21, tab. x. fig. 2. 

Sp. 3. C. Wniszeciiii, [^, $] Thorns. Rev. Zool. 1856, p. 526 ; Cat. 

Lucan. 397 (Megaloprepes) China. 

Sp. 4. C.STiiiGicEPS, [^] Westw. Orient. Ent. IB, tab. viii. fig. 5 Ind. or. 

viuUutentatus (var. min.) ,, ,, 17, tab. viii. fig. 3. 

Sp. 5. C. AFFiNss, [$] Parry, ante, p. 40 Ins. Philipp. ; Borneo. 

Sp. 6. C. Maitlandi, [^] Parry, axfe, p. 40 (Tab. XII. fig. 4) Ins.Nias. 

Sp. 7. C. FAUNicoLon, [$] Hope, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1844, p. 106 ..Java. 

Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. iv. 273, tab. xx. fig. 1. 

Sp, 8. C. Deiiaanii, [$] W^estw, Ann. Nat. Hist. 1841, p. 124 Java. 

Burm. Handb. v. 375. 
metallifer, Hope, Cat. Lucan. 5. 

Sp. 9. C. iNsiGNis, [$] Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. Ill Archip. or.? 

,, ante, p. 41. 

Genus 12. CANTHAROLETHRUS, Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 411. 

Sp. 1. C.LuxERii, [$~\ Buquet.Ann. Soc.Ent. Fr. 1843, p. 51 (Dorcus).. 

Columbia. 
Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1864, p. 6; ante, p. 6 (Tab. 
IX. fig. 6). 
Georgius, Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 412. 

Sp. 2. C. Reichii, [$] Hope, Tr. f:nt. Soc. iv. 182, tab. xiii. fig. 3 (Pho- 

lidotus) Columbia. 

Burm. Handb. v. 420, n. 
Lacord. Gen. Col. iii. 12. 
Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 413. 
Chenu, Encycl. d'Hist. Nat. tab. x. fig. 4. 
An species distincta, vel foemina prsecedentis ? 

Genus 13. LEPTINOPTERUS, Hope, Ent. Mag. v. 316 (1838). 
Psalicems, Dej. Cat. 194. 
Psalidostomus, Burm. Handb. v. 377 (1847). 



of Lucanoid Coleoptcru. 85 

Sectio I. 

Sp. 1. L. FuYi, [$] Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 112 Brasilia. 

„ ante, p. 43 (Tab. Vli. fig. 4). 

Sp. 2. L. FEMoiiATus, [ ^ , $ ] Fab. Syst. El. ii. 249 ; Ent. Syst. ii. 237 

( Lucanus ) Brasilia. 

Ohv. Eol. I. i. 17, tab. iv. fig. 10. 

Thunb. iMem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. i. 189. 

de Casielnau, Ilist. Nat. Ins. ii. 172, tab. xvii. fig. 

1,2. 
Schiinh. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 323. 
Burm. Handb. v. 378 (Psalidostomus). 
Dej. Cat. 194 (Psaiicerus). 
riifij'em^ratus $ , Hope, Cat. Lucan. 5. 

Sp, 3. L. EHYTHRocNEMus, [ $^ BuriD. Handb. v. 378 (Psalidostomus). . Brasilia. 
Dej. Cat. 194 {sec. Burm.) 
tibialis, Klug, Spec. alt. Ent. Biaz. 20; Nov. Act. pliys. med. 
Soc. Ca;s. Leop. Car. n. c. xii. 2, 431 {sec. Burm.). 
femoratus, Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 397. 

Sp. 4. L. TIBIALIS, [ (^ . $ ] Esch. Ent. in Nat. VViss. Abh. aus Dorpal, i. 

61, tab. i. fig. 1 ( Lucanus) Brasilia. 

Burm. Handb. v. 379 (Psalidostomus). 
Hope, Cat. Lucan. 5. 

Sectio II. 

Sp. 5. L. MELANABius, [^, $ ] Hope, Cat. Lucan. 15 Brasilia. 

J'uiiereiis (var. min.) ,, ,, pp. 5, 15. 

mm-in, Burm. Ilandb. v. 379. 
nigripes, Dej. Cat. 194 (set-. Thorns.). 

Sp. 6. L. Ibex, [ ^ , fj? ] Bilb. Nov. Ins. Sp. n. 1 ( Lucanus) Brasilia. 

Sturm, Cat. Coleop. 67, tab. ii. fig. 18a (var. max.), 

c (var. min.). 
Germ. Mag. iv. 366. 
aries $, Dej. Cat. 194 {sec. Reiche, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. ser. 3, 

i. 78). 
complaiiatus $ , Dej. Cat. 194 {sec. Reiclie, 1. c). 
potijodontns $ (var. max.), Dej. Cat. 194 {sec. Reiche, I. c). 
sarcoihawphus, de Castelnau, Hist. Nat. Ins, ii. 172. 

Sp. 7. L. V.-NiGER, [^ , $] Hope, Cat. Lucan. pp. 5, 15 Brasilia. 

triangularis, Dej. Cat. 194 (Psaiicerus). 

Burm. Handb. v. 380 (Psalidostomus). 

Sp. 8. L. puLciiEi,i.us $ (MS. Mus. Berol.) Amer. merid, 

Sp. 9. L. roLYODONTus, [ (J, $ ] Hope, Cat. Lucan. 15 Brasilia. 

Burm. IlanJb. v. 381. 



86 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Sp. 10. L. ROTUNDATUS, [$'] Parry, Pioc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 112(Psali- 

dostomus) Amer. raerid. ( Bras. ?) 

Parry, ante, p. 43 (Tab. Vll. fig. 8). 
pachiignathus, MS. Mus. Beroi. (Dorcus). 



Genus 14. MACROCRATES, Burm. Handb. v. 381. 

Sp. 1. M. Bucephalus, [$, ^] Burm. Handb. v. 382 Brasilia. 

Hope, Cat. Lucan. 15. 
Reiclie, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. ser. 3, i. 78. 
$ , Dohrn, Stett. Ent. Zeitsch.1862, p. 155. 
longicornis, Burm. MS. 



Fam. III. DORCIDtE. 

Genus 1. HEMISODORCUS, Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 421. 
Dorcus, Burm. Handb. v. 383. 
Macrognathus, Hope, Cat. Lucan. 5. 

Sp. 1. H. Nepalensis, [^, $] Hope. Gray. Zool. Miscall. 1831, p. 22. 

(Lucanus); Cat. Lucan. 19 Nepalia ; Assama. 

Buim. Handb. v. 391. 
similis, Hope, Zool. Miscell. 1831, p. 22 ; Cat. Lucan. 19. 
Clievrolatii, Hiigel, Ins. Kaschmir, iv. 532. 

Chenu, Mag. de Zool. 1845, tab. xliv. 
liiifflesii (var. max.), Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. xix. 588. 
Pariyi (var. min.), „ Proc. Ent. Soc. 1843, p. 94 ; Tr, 
Ent. Soc. iv. 183 ; Cat. Lucan. 21. 

Sp. 2. IL Maci-eayii, [^, $] Hope, Cat. Lucan. pp. 6, 19 Assan,a. 

Sp. 3. H. GRACILIS, [ (^ , $ ] Saunders, Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 47, tab. iii. 

fig. 3 (Cladognalhus) China. 

Sp. 4. H. picEiPENNis, [^] Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 202, tab. x. 

fig. 6 (Cladognathus) China vel Thibeta. 

Sp. 5. H. Passaloides $ , Hope, Cat. Lucan. 24 Java, Borneo. 

$ , Parry, ante, p. 44 (Tab. X. fig. 4). 



Genus 2. DITOMODERUS, Parry, ante, p. 45. 
Sp. 1. D. MiRABu.is, [ ^ , $ ] Parry, ajife, p. 45 (Tab. XIL fig. 6) .. Borneo. 

Genus 3. EURYTRACHELUS, Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 421. 
Platyprosopus, Hope, Cat. Lucan. 6. 
DoiciiS, Burm. Handb. v. 383. 
Dej. Cat. 193. 



of Lucanoid Coleopteru, 87 

Sectio I. 
Sp. 1. E. Bucephalus, [$, $] Perty, Cat. Col. Incl. Or. 36, fig. 5 

(Lucanus) India, Arcliip. Ind. 

Burm. Ilamlb. v. 384. 
Kiiareus $ , Hope, Cat. Lucan. 20. 
Urus $, Dej. Cat. 193 (Dorcus); vid. Reiche, Ann. See. 

Ent. Fr. Ser. 3, i. 79. 
Axis $ (var. min.), Dej. Cat. 193. 
riigifjoiis $ , Hope, Cat. Lucan. 24. 
lateralis $ , Dej. Coll. (vid. Reiche, I. c) 
]niHctifrc7is ^, Sturm. Cat. Coleop. 136. 
subcostatus $, De Haan, MS. 

Sp. 2. E. Titan, [$ , $ ] Boisd. Faune de I'Oceanie, 237 ; Voy. 
Astiolabe, tab. vi. fig. 19 (Lucanus).. 

Archip. Ind. ; Ins. Philipp. ; Celebes, Java. 
Burm. Handb. v. 384 (Dorcus). 
VoU. TijJ. V. Ent. iv. 10. 

Sp. 3. E. Westep.mam, [$] Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. xlx. 106 Silhet. 

Sp. 4. E. pLAiYMELus, [^, $] Saunders, Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 50, 

tab. iii. fig. 7 China. 

pilijh: $, Voll. Tijd. v. Ent. iv. 112, tab. vi. fig. 4. 
marginalis $, Saunders, Ti. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 53, tab. iv. 

fig. 6. 
obscurus $ , Saunders, Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 52, lab. iv. fig. 7. 

Sp. 5. E. Bi'BAi.us, [$] Perty, Cat. Col. Ind Or. 35 (Lucanus) Ind. or., Java? 
eurycephalus, Burm. Handb. v. 387 {sec. Reiche, Ann. Soc. 
Ent. Fr. ser. 3, i. 79, et Lacord. Gen. Col. 
iii. 79). 
Species distincla, vel E. Bttcephali, vel E. Titanis var. min.? 

Sp. 6. E. TiTYus, [,J, $] Hope, Tr. Ent. Soc. iv. 74 Ind. or., Silhet. 

Falco, $ , Hope, Cat. Lucan. 6. 

Chevrolatii, $ , Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 308 (nee Hope). 

semirugostis, $ (var. min.). Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 422. 

eiaralus, $, Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 426. 

UneatopuncUitus, $ , Hope, Zool. Miscell. i. 22 ; Cat. Lucan. 23, 

Sp. 7. E. Saiga, [3 , ^] Oiiv. Ent. I. i. 29, tab. v. fig. 18 (Lucanus). . 

Java, Sumatra. 
Fab. Syst. El. ii. 250. 
Schiinh. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 32, 22. 
Burm. Handb. v. 387 (Dorcus). 
eliiphns, Heibst, Col. Icon. tab. xxxiii. fig. 6. 
gi/pattos, de Castelnau, Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 172. 
Chevrolatii (var. max.), Hope, Ann. Nat. Hist, xii, 364 j Cat. 

Lucan. 20. 
incertus (var. min.), Hope, Cat. Lucan. 22. 



88 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Sp. 7. E. Saiga — conlin. 

diihiiis (var. min.), Hope, Cat, Lucan. 21. 

iiidctermiiKitiis ,, „ „ 22. 

lateiulis $, Dej. Cat. 193. 

pygargus $, „ „ 

iuermis $ , Fab. (sec. spec, in Mus. Hopeiano). 

Sp. 8. E. cninnicEPs, [^, $] Chevr. Rev. Zool. 1841, p. 224.. ..Ins. Pliilipp. 
Moloschus, Hope, Cat. Lucan. 21 (1845). 
0/-.v.r, Burm. Handb. v, 389 (1847). 

Sp. 9. E. puitPURASCENS, [^, $] Veil. Tijd. v. Ent. iv. Ill, tab. vii. 
fig. 1 , 2 ^ (fig. 6 $ , vid. ante, p. 24 ) . . 

Sumatra, Malacca. 

Sp. 10. E. coNcoi.OR, [$] Blanch. V^oy. Pole Sud, iv. 138, tab. ix. 

fig. 10 Ainboyna. 

Ceiameuiis, Tlioins. Cat. Lucan. 424. 

Sp. II. E. Thumsoni, [ $ ] Parry, ante, p. 47 Ins. Molucc. 



Seclio II. 

Sp. 12. E, Reichii, [^, $] Hope, Ann. Nat. Hist. xii. 364; Tr. Ent. 

Soc. iv. 74 ; Cat. Lucan. 21 Silhet. 

cognatas (var. min.), Hope, A un. Nat. Hist. xii. 364 ; Tr. Ent. 

Soc. iv. 75. 
Blanchardi (var. min.), Hope, 11. cc. ; Cat. Lucan. 21. 
piinctilabris (var. min.), Hope, 11. cc. 

Sp. 13. E, NiHONUNsis, [(J, $ ] Voll. Tijd. v. Ent. iv. 113, tab. vii. fig. 

3 ( Dorcus) J aponia; 

diabolicus, Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 423. 

Genus 4. DORCUS, M'Leay, Hor. Ent. i. 111. 
Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 398. 



Sectio I. 

Sp. 1. D. Antaeus, [$] Hope, Ann. Nat. Hist. xii. 364 ; Tr. Ent. Soc. 

iv. 74 ; Cat. Lucan. pp. 6, 20 ( Platyprosopus) .... Assama. 
Hujus speciei sit forsitan foemina Dorcus Scaritides (post, p. 90) "! 

Sp. 2. D. Deiiaanii, [^, ?] Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. xix. 106; Cat. 

Lucan. 22 Assania. 

Klagii $ (var. max.), Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 424. 
curvidens $ (var min.), Hope, Tr. Linn. Soc. xviii. 589 ; Cat. 
Lucan. 22. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 89 

Sp. 3 D. lIoPEi, [ ^ , $ ] Saunders, Tr. Enf. Soc. N. S. iii. 50, tab. iii. 

fig. 8 Cliiua. 

slriatopunctatui (var. inin.), Saunders, 'J"r. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 

51, tab. iv. fig. 5. 
stiiatns $ , Saunders, Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 53, lab. iv. fig. 4. 

Sp. 4. D. rAiiRvi, [$] TlioiDS. Cat. Lucan. 425 Ins. Celebes. 

Sp. 5. D. 'I'EiiNATENsis, [^ ] Thorns. Cat. Lucan, 423 Ins. Ternale. 

Sectio II. 

Sp. 6. D. viciNus, [(J , $ ] Saunders, Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 51, tab. iv. 

fig. 9 $ China. 

Sp, 7. D. suBMOT.ARrs, [ <J ] Hope, Cat. Lucan. pp. 6, 23 India. 

beiigaleiisis (var. min.) ,, pp. 6, 22. 

Sp. 8. D. BiNERvis,[^ ] Molsch. Eludes Ent. 1861, p. 18. .Ins.Tzousima(Corea;). 

Sp. 9. D. cYHNDRicus, [ ^ ] Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 427 India, 

Sp, 10. D. PARALLELUS, [^ , $ ] Burm. Ilandb, V, 395 Anier, bor. 

Knoch, IMelsheimer, Cat. 57, 
Say, Journ. Acad, Nat, So, Philad. iii. 248. 
Voetii, Schonh. Syn. Ins. I, iii, 326 (Lucanus). 
aper, l)ej. Cat. 193. 

Hope, Cat. Lucan. 6. 

Sp. 11. D. DREvis, [^] Say. Journ. Acad, Nat, Sc, Philad, v,202 (vid. 

iMelsheimer, Cat. 57) Amer. bor. 

Sp, 12, D. IMazama, [^] Lcconte, Proc. Acad. Nat. .Sc. Philad, 1861, 

p, 345 t N. Mexico. 

Parry, ante, p. 51. 

Sp, 13. D. PARALLELEPirEDus, [ (^ , $ ] Linn, Syst. Nat. I. ii, 561 

( Lucanus) Europa, Tangcr. 

M'Leay, Hor. Ent. i. 1 11. 

Burm, Ilandb. v. 393. 

Mulsant, Laineli. de Fr. 581, tab, i, 

fig, 18. 
Lucas, Ann, Soc, Ent, Fr, 1 858, Bulletin, 

p. 4. 
Ilaizeb. Forst. Ins, i, 86, tab. iii. fig. 19. 
Dufour, Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2, xviii. 166, 

fig. 5 A, 
Schonh. Syn, Ins, I, iii, 325. 
Tritqiiii $, var,, IMulsant, Ann. Soc, Linn, Lyon, ii. 14. 
biluberculalus $, M'Leay, Hor. Ent. i. 112. 



90 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Sp. 14. D. MusjMON, [,?,?] Gene, Ins. Sard. i. 32, lab. i. fig. 23 $, 

ii. 28, lab. i. fig-. 19 ^ Sardinia, Afiic. bor. 

Burni. Handb. v. 394. 

Sp. 15. D. Peyronis, [^, ?] Reiche et Saulcy, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. sen. 

3, iv. 407, tab. xii. fig. 9 Syria ; Caramania. 

Sp. 16. D. ScAUiTiDES, [2] Hope, Cat. Lucan. 24 Ind. Hiraalay. 

Forsitan D. Antcei {ante, p. 88) fcemina ? 

Sp. 17, D. DERELiCTUs,[ $ ?] Parry, Proc. Enl. Soc. 1862, p. 112. .Ind. Himalay. 
,, ante, p. 50. 

Sp. 18. D. HYDROPiiiroiDES, [$] Hope, Cat. Lucan. 23.. 

N. Hell. ; Ins. Melville. 

Sp. 19. D. cARBONAHius, [ $ ] West. Tr. Ent. Soc. ser. 3, i. 515, tab. xxi. 

fig. 3 N. Hell. 

Sp. 20. D. Pelorides, [$] Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 220 ; ih. ser. 

3, i. 514, tab, x.\i. fig. 2.. Sin. Moreton. (Nov. Holl.). 
Hujus speciei sit forsitan mas Lissotes Hoaillanus (post, p. 97)1 

Genus 5. MACRODORCAS,* Motsch. Etudes Ent. 1861, p. 15. 
Psalidostomus, ,, ,, 1857, p. 29. 

Sp. 1. M. RECTUS, [^, $] Motsch. Etudes Ent. 1861, p. 16 Japonia. 

18.57, p. 29. 

Sp. 2. M. nuGiPENNis, [^ ] Motsch. Etudes Ent. 1861, p. 16 Japonia. 

Sp. 3. M. STRiATiPENNis, [_ $ ] Motsch. Etudes Ent. 1861, p. 17 Japonia. 

Sp. 4. M. cRiBELLATus, [^] Motsch. Etudes Ent. 1861 , p. 17 Japonia. 

Genus 6. SERROGNATHUS,* Motsch. 
Sp. 1. S. cASTANicoLOR, [ ,^ ] Motsch. Etudes Ent. 18G1, p. 12. .Ins. Tzousima. 

Genus 7. GNAPHALORYX, Burm. Handb. v. 396. 
Macrogruuhus, Hope, Cat. Lucan. 5. 
Dorcus, Dej. Cat. 194. 

Sp. 1. G. Taurus, [^, ?] Fab. Syst. El. ii. 250 (Lucanus) Archip. Ind. 

Hope, Cat. Lucan. 5 (Pdacrognathus). 
Bnnasus, Dej. Cat. 194 (Dorcus). 
npacus, Burm. Handb. v. 397. 



* Genera Macrodorcas et Seirognaihiis descriplionibus solummodo niihi cognila. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 91 

Sp. 2. G. SQUAMDus, [ ^, $ ] Hope, Cat. Lucan. pj). 5, 19 Java. 

tomentosus, Burm. H;indb. v. 397. 

Dej. Cat. 194. 
lutulentiis, Uehaan, IMS. 

Sp. 3. G. DiLATicoLMS, [ $] Parry, ante, p. 51 Arcliip, Tnd. ? 

Sp. 4. G. PAnvunis, [$ , $ ] Hope, Cat. Lucan. jip. 6, 25 (Dorcu>).. 

Ins. Philipj). 

Sj). 5. G. scui.pripi NNis, [ ^] Parry, ante, p. 52 N. Guinea. 

Sp. 6. G. vEi.i'TiN'us, [ (J, $] Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 42G (Dorcus) .. .And. or. 

Genus 8. ^GUS, M'Leay, Hor. F.nt. i. 112. 
Burm. Ilandb. v. 398. 

Sectio I. 

Sp. 1. /E. ACUMiNATus, [^, $] Fab. Syst. El. ii. 251 (Lucanus).. 

Java, Sumatra. 
Schonli. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 325. 
Burm. Ilandb. V. 399. 
conihtus $ , Tliunb. Mem. Soc. IVat. Mosc. i. 202, tab. xii. fig. 3. 
cicatiicoaus $ , Wied. Zool. Mag. II. i. 108 (vid. ante, p. 52). 
lutens ? , Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 1 18, tab. xii. fig. 4 

(vid. ante, p. 51). 
ohscurtis $, Rl'Leay, Hor. Ent. i, 113 (sec. Burm.") 
stiiuteUus ? , Perty, Col. Ind. Or. 35 {sec Burm.) 

Sp. 2. JE. LUNATus, 1$ , 2] ^^'eber, Obs. Ent. i. 83 (Lucanus). .Java, Sumatra. 

Fabr. Sysl. El. ii. 252. 

Schiinh. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 327. 

Illig. Mag. i, 249 ; ib. iv. 104, 19 et 25. 

Thunb. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. i. 203. 

Burm. Handb. v. 400. 

Hope, Cat. Lucan. 6. 

Thoms. Cat. Lucan. 399. 
falciger, Weslw, Ann, Sc. Nat. ser. 2, i. 118, sub. 10. 
■porrellus, Dej. Cat. 194 (Doicus). 
deiiresstis, Illig. Wied. Archiv. T. i. 105. 
jiu7iclatiis $ , Fabr. Syst. F^l. ii. 253. 
Sp. pra2cedenlis var. minor"? (vid. ante, p. 53). 

Sp. 3. /E. Kandievsis, [ (J , $ ] Hope, Cat. Lucan. 6 (vid. ante, p. 53) . . 

Ins. Taprob., Pliilipp. et Borneo. 
Thoms. Cat. Lucan. 399. 
ciciitricosHS ^ , Hope, Cat. Lucan. 6. 

Sp. 4. .E. ciiEHFER, [(^ , $ ] M'Lcay.Hor. Ent. i. 113 (\'\ii. ante, p. 54).. 

Cambodia, Malacca. 
Boisd. Voy. Aslro!abe, 235. 
? Monlrousier, Faun. Woodlark, p 27 Ins. Woodlark. 



92 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Sectio II. 

Sp. 5. /E. cAPiTATus, [^. $] Westw, Tr. Ent. Soc. iv. 275, tab. xx. 

fig. 5 ( Oorcus). . Malacca, Borneo, Ins. VVallicePrincipis. 
platycephalus, VVesUv. 1. c. (Dorcus). 

'J'homs. Cat. Lucan. 399. 
Buim. Handb. v. 401. 
distinctiis (var. med.), West. Tr. Ent. Soc. iv. 276, tab. xx. 
fig 8 (Dorcus). 
Burm. Handb. v. 402. 
aqualis (var. min."), Westw. 1. c, tab. xx. fig. 6 (Dorcus). 

Burm. p. 401. 
Malabariciis $, Westw. 1. c, tab. xx. fig. 7 (Dorcus). 

Burm. 1. c. 
sinister J , Hope, Cat. Lucan. pp. 6, 23 (Dorcus). 

Sp. 6. /E. pAUALLELus, \_ $ ] HoDC, Cat. Lucan. pp. 6, 22 (Dorcus).. 

Lid. bor. et Ins. Walliee Principis. 
Sp. prascedentis vel sequentis var. min. ? 

Sp. 7. iE. LABiLis, [$] Westw. ajife, p. 54 (Tab. XII. fig.5)..Ind. (Darjeeling). 

Sp. 8. /E. l;evicollis, [^, $] Saunders, Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 54, 

tab. iv. fiff. 8 China. 

puuctiger J , Saunders, Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 55, tab. iii. fig. 6. 

Sp. 9. AL. EscHScnnLTzii, [^] Hope, Cat. Lucan. pp. 6. 22.. 

Malacca, Ins. Wallije Principis. 

Sp. 10. JE. PLATYODON, [ ^ , $ ] Parry, Proc. Enl. Soc. 1862, p. 112.. 

Ins. Gilolo. 
„ a«fe, p. 56 (Tab. X. fig. 1). 
1 che lifer (var. min.), Montrousier (vid. ante, p. 54). 

Sp. 11. iE. BLANDus, [ ^] Parry, a?!(e, p. 57 Ins. Salwatty, N. Guinea. 

Sp, 12. jE. punctipennis, [ ^ , $ J Parry, ante, p. 58 Borneo. 

Sp. 13. JE. SERRATus, \_$] Parry, ante, p. 58 (Tab. V. fig. 1).. 

Ins. iMorty (Oc. Pacif. bor.) 

Sp. 1 4. ^. INSIPIDUS, [$'\ Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 428 Ins. Celebes. 

Ichelifer (var. min.), Montrousier (vid. ante, p. 54.) 

Sp. 15. /E. iMPRES=icoLLis, [$, ^] Parry.'anJe, p. 58 (Tab. V. fig. 3),. 

Borneo ; Malacca. 

Sp. 16. iE. iNERHi.^, [^?] Fabr. Syst.El.ii 251, 17 (vid. ante, p. 49). .Sumatra. 
M'Leay, Hor. Ent. i. 113. 

Sp. 17. ^.iNTERUuPTus, [$ !] M'Leay, Hor. Ent. i. 113 India f 

Westw. Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2, i. 113. 
Burm. Handb. v. 401. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 93 

Sp. 18. JE poLiTus, [$] Monlrousier, FaunedeWoodlark.p. '28..IDS. VVoodlark. 
Ichelifer, Montr, (vid. ante, p. 54). 

Sp. 19. ^2. Malaccus, [^, $] Thorns. Rev. Zool. 1856, p. 516.. 

Rlalacca ; Sumatra. 
rectangulus (var. max.), Voll. Tijd. v. Ent. iv. 115, tab. vii. 

fig. 7. 

Sp. 20. JE. Myumidon, [^, $] Tlioms. Rev. Zool. 1856, p. 516 Malacca. 

Sp. 21. JE. ADLLi'Hus, [<J , $ ] I'lioms. Cat. Lucan. 428 Borneo. 

Sp. 22. .'E. GLABER, l$] Parry, a»«e, p. 59 N. Guir 



nea. 



Sectio III. 
Sp. 23. JE. TiiiLOBATus, [$] Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. ir:62, p 113 ....Borneo. 
„ ' ante, p. 59 (Tab. VII. fig. 7). 

Genus 9. ALCIMUS, Fairmaire. 

Sp. 1. A. BiLATATus, [ $ ] Faimi. Rev. Zool. 1849, p. 416, tab. xi. fig. 6.. 

Ins. VVallis. 

Genus 10. PLATYCERUS, Geof. Ins. Env. Paris, i. 59. 

Sp. 1. P. Cahaboides, 1$, ^1 Linn. Syst. Nat. I. ii. 561 (Lucanus). .Europa. 

Fabr. Syst. El. ii. 253. 

Oliv. Ent. I. i.20, tab. ii. fig. 2. 

Schonh. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 329. 

Curtis, Brit. Ent. vi. 274. 

Tliunb. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. i. 194. 

Burm. Handlj. v. 405. 
caj'ra, De Geer, Mem. iv. 334, tab. xii. fig. 1 1. 
rufipes, Fabr. Syst. El. ii. 253. 

Latr. Gen. Cr. et Ins. ii. 1 34, 2, obs. 
spinifer, var. t, Schaufuss (Cat. Coleop., Dresd. 1863). 

Sp. 2. P. Caucasicus, [ ^ ] Parry, ante, p. 60 Cauraso. 

Sp. 3. P. QUERCus, [^, $] Weber, Obs. Ent. i. 85 (Lucanus) .... Anier. bor. 
Burm. Handb. v. 406. 
Sclibob. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 331. 
Melsh. Cat. Coleop. U. S. 57. 
ieciiridensl Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Piiilad. iii. 249; id. 

Col. Exped. Rocky Mountains. 
pirensl Kirby, Faun. Amer. bor. HI (Melsh. Cat.) 
Scavitnidesi Thunb. (Sturm. Cat. 1843, p. 136). 
viresceiis 1 Fabr. App. Syst. Ent. 817. 

Sp. 4. P. DF.PREssus, [ (^ , $ ] Leconte, Agass. i. Supp. p. 224 .... Amer. bor. 
Melsh. Cat. Coleop. U. S. 57. 
picetis 1 Kirby, Faun. Amer. bor, 141. 
Helopioides, Dej. Cat. 194. 



94 Miijor Parry's Catalogue 

Sp. 5. P. Oregonensis, [ ^]Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc.iv. 277, tab, xx. fig.9. .Oregon. 
securidens 1 Say, Journ. Acad. Philad. iii. 249. 
Sp. prsecedentis varietas ? (vid. Leconle, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. 
Philad. 1861, p. 345). 

Sp. 6. P. c.ERULEscENS, [^] Leconte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 

1861. p. 345 California. 

Parry, antt, p. 60. 

Sp. 7. P. Agassii, [$] Leconle, Proc. Acad. Nat Sc. Philad. 1861, 

p. 345 California. 

Parry, ante, p. 60. 

Sp. 8. P.I EBENiNus, [,^] H. Deyrolle, MS Brasilia. 

N. Sp. cujus descriptio in Ann, Soc. Ent; Fr. 1864. 

Genus II. SCORTIZUS, Weslw. Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2, i. 119. 

Sp. 1. S. MACULATUS, [^, $], Klug, N. Act. Ac. Nat. Cur. XII. ii. 432 

( Lucanus) Brasilia. 

Burm. Handb. v. 422. 

Weslw. Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 210, tab. xi. fig. 8. 
Lacord. Gen. Coleop. iii. 31. 
Hope, Cat. Lucan. 1. 
inoratus, Hope, Tr. Zool. Soc. i. 100, tab. xiv. fig. 3 $ 
(Pholidotus). 
Westw. Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2, i. 119. 
Chenu, Encycl. d'Hisl. Nat. lab. xv. fig. 1 $ . 

Sp. 2. S. cucui.i.ATUs, [^, $] Blanch. Voy. d'Orbigny, vi. 194 ; Ins. 

tab. xii. fig. 10 ^ ( Lucanus) Chili. 

Solier, Gay. Hist. Chili, Zool. v. 46, lab. xv. 
fig. 4 $ (Sclerostomus). 
cnrnntiis $, Solier, MS. 



Genus 12. SCLEROSTOMUS, Burm. Handb. v. 423. 
Sclerognathus, Hope, Cal. Lucan. 7. 
Epipediis, Solier, Gay. Hist. Chili, Zool. v. 49. 
Pyciuhiphorus, ,, ,, ,, 56. 

Godarlia, Chenu, Encycl. d'Hist. Nat. lab. xv. fig. 6. 

Scctio I. 

Sp. 1. S. Bacchus, [^, $] Hope, Cal. Lucan. 26 (Dorcus) Chili 

Darwinii, Burm. Handb. v. 424. 

Solier, Gay. Hist. Chili, Zool. v. 48 (Dorcus). 
Chilensis, Dej. Cal. 193 (Dorcus). 



of Lucanoid ColeojHera. 95 

Sp. 2. S. FiMORAMS, [<J, ? J Guer. Rev. Zool. 1839, p. 303.. Chili, Patagonia. 
Solier, Gay. Hist. Chili, v. 51 (Epidedus). 
Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 209, lab. xii. fig. 9, 
Dtirwinii $ (var. max.), Hope, Ann. Nat. Hist. viii. 302; 

Cat. Lucan. 25. 
rtibripes ^ (var. min.), Hope, Cat. Lucan. 26. 

Burin. Handb. v. 424. 
riijifemnralis $ , Curtis, Voy. Capt. King, Magellan, Tr. Linn. 

Soc. xijK 45(j. 
riijipes, Solier, Gay. Hist. Chili, v. 50. 
Spinolte, ,, ,, ,, ,, 52. 
leiocephalus, ,, ,, „ 53. 

modeslus, Philippi, Anal. Univ. Santiago, 1859 (vid. Stett. Ent. 
Zeit. 1860, p. 2-15). 

Sp. 3. S. Fairm.mrii, [(J, ? J Parry, ante, p. Gl Chili. 

Sp. 4. S. RouLETi, [$, ^1 Solier, Gay. Hist. Chili, v. 53 Chili. 

Sp. 5. S. c.CLATUS, [^, $ ], Blanch. Voy. d'Orbigny, vi. 2, tab. xii. 

fig. 8 ? Chili. 

Solier, Gay. Hist. Chili, v. 49. 
variolosus, Hope, Cat. Lucan. 25. 
v'Utatus, Burm. Haudb. v. 423 (Scortizus). 

Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 400. 
Ciimiiigii, Hope (olim). 
ciicnmdalus, Uej. Coll. (nee Cat.) 

Sp. 6. S. FASciATus, [5] Germain, Anal. Univ. Santiago, 1855, p. 397, 

n. 36 (Tab. IIL fig. 4) Chili. 

Sp. 7. S. LiNEATus, [ ? ] H. Deyrolle, MS. (Tab. III. fig. 3) Peru. 

jV. sp. cujus descriptio in Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1864. 



Sectio II. 

Sp. 8. S. PLAOiATus, [$] Burm. Handb. v. 425 Brasilia. 

huitdlns, Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 205, tab. xi. fig. 2. 
Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 400. 

Sp. 9. S. Lessonh, [ ^ , «J]Buquet, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1842, p. 283, 

tab. xii. fig. 1 Chili. 

Chenu, Encjcl. d'Hi.st. Nat. tab. xv. fig. 6 (Godartia). 
Solier, Gay. Hist. Chili, v. 55. 
wundibularis, „ „ 66, tab. xv. fig. 5 (Pycno- 

siphorus). 

Sp. 10. S. Philippi, [^. $] Westw, ante, p. 61 (lab. XI. fig. 5.) Chili. 

Sp. sequentis var.] 



96 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Sp. 11. S, PALLID0CINC7US, \_$, ^~\ Faii'm. et Germ. Coleop. Cliil. 2 

(Dorcus) Chili. 

Sp. 12. S. viTTATUs, [^, 5] Esch. Ent. 2; Nat. Wiss. Abhandl. aus 

Dorpat, i. 65 (Lucanus) Ciiili. 

Blaocli. Voy. d'Orbigny, vi. 194, tab. xii. fig. 9. 
Solier, Gay." Hist. Chil. v. 50. 
riibrovittalus, Blanch. 1. c. Coliin). 

Burm. Handb. v. 423 (Scortizus). 

Sectio III. 

Sp. 13. S. COSTATUS, [^, $] Burm. Handb. v. 42fi Brasilia. 

Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. N.S. iii. 209, tab. xi. fig. 5 $ . 
Hope, Cat. Lucan. 27. 
cunicidus, Thorns. (Dej. Cat.) Cat. Lucan. 429. 

Sp. 14. S. Neotragus, [^, $] Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 207, 

tab. xi.fig. 3 Brasilia, 

crihratus $ , Thoms. Cat. Lucan. 429. 
An sp. sequentis var. ? 

Sp. 15. S. CRUENTUS, [$] Burm. Handb. v. 425 Brasilia. 

Sp. 16. S. siGNATrPENNis, [ ^ ] H. Deyrolie, IMS Brasilia. 

Species nova, cujus descriptionem dabit Dom. Deyrolie in Ann. Soc. 
Ent. Fr. 1864. 

Sp. 17. S. DiTOMoiDEs, 1$] Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. N.S. iii. 208, tab. xi. 

fig. 4 Brasilia. 

Sp. 18. S. TUBERCULATUS, [ $ ] Solicr, Gay. Hist. Chil. V. 54 Chili. 

Genus 13. OUNOTUS, Parry, ante, p. 63. 

Sp. 1. 0. ADSPERSus, [ $ ] Boliem. Ins. Caffr. ii. 384 (Dorcus) Natalia. 

Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. ser. 3, i. 435, tab. xvi. fig. 4. 

Genus 14. LISSOTES, Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. N.S. iii. 213. 

GerstacktT, Bericht d. J%nt. 1855, p. 57. 
Scleroslomus, Thoms. Cat. Lucan. 400. 

Sectio I. 
Sp. 1. L. REiicuLATUs, [^, ^] Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. iv. 275, fab. xx. 
fig. 4 (;1813); il>. N.S. iii. 218, tab. xii. fig 9. . 

N. Zeelandia. 
squamidorsis, White, Voy. Ereb. and Terror, 9, tab. ii. fig. 2 
(Dorcus, 1846). 
Blanch. Voy. Pole Sud, iv. 140 (Dorcus). 
cicatricosus, Burm. Handb. v. 403 (^gus, 1847). 
Zeelandicus, Fairm. Rev. Zooi. 1849, p. 414 (Dorcus). 
Blanch. I.e. tab. ix. fig. 13. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 97 

Sp. 2. L. Nov^-Zeelandi.i, [(?,$] Hope, Cut. l.ucan. 25(Dorcus).. 

JSI. Zeelandia. 
piuictiilatiis, White, \''oy. Ereb. & 'I'error, 9 (Dorcus). 
caviceps, Westvv. 'I'r. Knt. Soc. N. S. iii.21"2, lab. xii. fig. 6 $ , 
7 $ (Sclerostomus). 

Sp. 3. L. Cancroides, [^, ?] Fabr. Syst. El. ii. 251 (Lucanus),. . .Tasmania. 
Oliv. Ent. I. i. 18, tab. iv. fig. 11. 
Westvv. Ent. Mag. v. 267, cum fig. ; Tr. Ent. Soc. 

N.S. iii. 215. 
Boisd. Voy. Astrolabe, 234. 
Bum. IJandb. v. 402 (yEgus). 
Thunb. JMem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. i. 200. 
Sclibn. Syn, Ins. I. iii. 326. 

Sp. 4. L. SVBIUBERCU1.ATUS, [$] W^cstw. Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 215, 

lab. xii. fig. 2 N. IIoll. ? 

Sp. prsBcedentis varietas"! 

Sp. 5. L. cRENATvs, [^, §] Westvv. Tr. Ent. Soc. M.S. iii. 216, tab. xii. 

fig. 3 N. Holl. 

Cavcioidts, Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 400. 

Sp. 6. L. OBTUSATus, [^, ? ] Westvv, Ent. IMag. v. 267, cum fig. (Dor- 
cus); Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii, 217 (Lissotes). .Tasmania. 
Burm. Handb. v. 402 (^gus). 
Reiche, Ann. Soc. Em. Fr. ser. 3, i. 82. 

Sp. 7. L. cuRVicoRNis, [ (J ] Boisd. Faune de I'Oceanie, 235 . . . . N. Hollandia. 
Latr. MS.; Dej. Cat. 194. 
Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 400. 
Sp. prfficedentis varietas 1 

Sectio II. 
Sp. 8. L. HowiTTANUs, [$] Westvv.Tr. Ent. Soc. ser. 3, i. 513,tab. xxi. 

fig. 1 (Dorcus) N. Holl. or. 

Hujus sit forsitan foemina Dorcus Pelorides, anta^ p. 90 1 

Sp. 9. L. I^Ienalcas, [<?,$] Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 214, t?b. 

xii. fig. 1 (vid. ante, p. 63) Nov. Hollandia. 

FaiTi. IV. FIGULID^. 

Genus 1. NIGIDIUS, M'Leay, Hor. Ent. i. 108. 

Westw. Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2, i. 121. 
Eudora, de Caslelnau, Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 174. 

Sectio I. 
Sp. 1. N. GRANDis, l$] Hope, Ann. Nat. Hi=t. viii. 302; Tr. Ent. Soc. 

iii. 279 ; Cat. Lucan. 26 Sierra Leonum, Gabono. 

Ceorgianus, Thorns. Arch. Ent. ii, tab. i. fig. 4. 
Mniszechii, ,, ,, p. 47, 

VOL. II. THIRD SERIES, PART I. MAY, 1864. H 



98 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Sp. 2. N. BuBALUs, [$} Swed. Act. Holm. 1787, p. 187, lab. viii. fig. 4 

( Lucanus) G uinea, Senegalia. 

Westw. Ent. Mag. v. 266 (Nigidius). 
BuriD. Handb. v. 432. 
integer, Weslw. Ent. Mag. v. 265. 

auiiculatus, Klug, Eim. Reis. All. 39, 104, tab. xv. fig. 10. 
vervex, Dej. Cat. 194 (Figulus). 

Midas, de Casteln. Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 174, tab. xvii. fig. 5 
(Eudora). 

Sp. 3. N. Delgorguei, [$, $] Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 430 Natalia. 

Sp. 4. N. AURicuLATUS, [ ^ , $ ] Guer. Icon. Reg. Anim. tab. xxvii. fig. 4 

(Platycerus) Senegalia, Gabono. 

Westw. Ent. Mag. v. 265 (Nigidius). 
Burm. Handb. v. 433. 
Tlioms. Aicli. Ent. ii. 48. 

Sp. 5, N. NiTiDus, [^, $] Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 431.. .. ..Senegalia, Gabono. 

An var. tantiira sp. praecedentis ? 

Sp. 6. N. CORNUTUS, [$, $] M'Leay, Hor. Ent. i. 109, fig. 6 (partes 

oris) Cambodia, Malacca. 

Westw. Ent. Mag. v. 264. 
Burm. Handb. v. 434. 
Parry, ante, p. 63. 

Sp. 7. N. OBESus, [$'] Parry, ante, p. 63 Malacca. 

Sp. 8. N. L/EvicoLLis, [^, $] Westw. Ent. Mag. v. 264 Ins. Philipp. 

Hope, Cat. Lucan. 7. 
fvrcijiatus, Westw. Ent. Mag. v. 267. 

(Esch. MS.), Dej. Cat. 194 (Figulus). 
Burm. Handb. v. 433. 
Thoms. Cat. Lucan. 401. 



Sectio II. 

Sp, 9. N. Madagascariensis, [$, $] de Cast. Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 175 

(Eudora) Madagascaria. 

Westw. Ent. Mag. v. 266 (Nigidius). 
Burm. Handb. v. 434. 
Bucephalus, Dup. MS.; Hope, Cat. Lucan. 7. 

Genus 2. AGNUS, Burm. Handb. v. 441. 

Sp. 1. A. EGENus, [^] Burm. Handb. v. 442 ,. ..Maurilio. 

agnus, Dej. Cat. 194 (Dorcus). 

Reiche, Ann, Soc. Ent. Fr. ser. 3, i. 84. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 99 

Genus 3. PEMCIJROLUCANUS, H. Deyr. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. ser. 4, iii. 485. 

Sp. 1. P. CornicEi'HAivs, [ ] II. Dcyr. I. c. lab. ix. fig. 11 (vid. ante, 

p. 64) Malacca. 

Genus 4. FIGULUS, M'Leay, Hor. Ent. i. 110. 

Westw. Ann. Soc. Nat. ser. 2, i. 

119; Ent. Mag. v. 261. 
Buim. Ilandb. v. 435. 

Sectio I. 

Sp. 1. F. si,'Bi.,Evis, [$'} Pal. de Beauv. Ins. Afr. et Amer. i. 3, tab. i. 

fig. 3 (Lucanus) Afric. occ. 

Westvv. Ent. Miig. v. 262 (Figulus). 
Schonh. Syn. Ins. 1. iii. 331. 
1 Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 402. 
monilifer, Patry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 113 Nov. Zeelandia? 

Sp. 2. F. ANTHiiAciNL's, [(^, J ] K lug, Ins. INI adagasc. 85 . . . .Madagnscaria. 
Sturm, Cat. Coleop. 137. 
ebenus, Weslw. Ann. Soc. Nat. ser. 2, i. 120, lab. vii. fig. 4 ; 

Ent. Mag. v. 261. 
vuhieratus, Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 433 (vid. ante, p. 64). 

Sp. 3. F. MGRiTA, [^, $] Westvv. Ent. Mag. V. 261 Senegalia. 

Hope, Cat. Lucan. 7. 
suhldnvis, Burm. Handb. v. 436. 

Thoins. ('at. Lucan. 402. 
ovUl, Dej.Cat. 194. 
An sp. distincta, vel F. subltcvis (PaL de Beauv.) var. 1 

Sp. 4. F. L.T.VIPENNIS, [^, $] Montrousier, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1860, 

p. 286 ..N. Caledonia. 

Sectio II. 

Sp. 5. F. TiiiLOBus, [$, ^] Westw. Ent. Mag. v. 263 N. Ilollandia. 

Burm. Handb. v. 439. 
covnuiiis, Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 401 (Nigidius). 

Sp. 6. F. iNTiGRicoi.Lis, [^]. Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 431 Ins. Mariannae. 

Sp. 7. F. nKct;LAnis, [$ , $] Westw. Ann. So. Nat. ser. 2, i. 120; 

Ent. Rlag. V. 263 N. HoU. 

Hope, Cat. Lucan. 7. 
Burm. Handb. v. 437. 
Australicus, Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 432. 
Pacijicus, Dej. Cat. 194. 

Sp. 8. F. SUI.CICOLLIS, [ (J , $ ] Hope, Cat. Lucan. 26 Port. Essingtonio. 

11 2 



100 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Sp. 9. F. FOVEicoLLis, [ ^ I $] Boisd. Faun, de I'Oc. 239 (Platycerus).. 

Ins. Rlaiis Pacif. merid. 
Burm. Handb. v. 437 (Figulus). 
Fairm. Rev. Zool. 1849, p. 414. 
insularis,. Blanch. Voy. Pol. Sud, 142, tab. ix. fig. 14 (sec. 

Fairm. 1. c.) 
Woodlarkianus, Montrousier, Faun. Woodlark, 26. 
Lifuantis, „ „ Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1860, p. 287. 

Sp. 10. F. STRiATUs, \_$ , $] Oliv. Ent.I.i. 19,tab.iv.fig.l4(Lucanus).. 

IMauritio, et Ins. Borbonica. 
Fabr. Syst. Ei. ii. 253. 
Weslw. Ent. Mag. v. 262 (Figulus), 
Hope, Coleopt. JMan. 79. 
Burm. Handb. v. 438. 
Sclionh. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 331 (Platycerus). 
striata, de Cast. Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 175, tab. xvii.fig. 6(Eudora). 

Sp. 11. F. coNFusus, [(?.$] Westw. Ent. Mag. v. 262.. Ind. or.?, Cambodia. 
Barm. Handb. v. 439. 
striatus 1, M'Leay, Hor. Ent. i. 100. 

Sp. 12. F. LATicoLLis, [ ^ , $] Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 402 Ins. Philipp. 

Reiche, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. ser. 3, i. 84. 

Sp. 13. F. suBCASTANEUS, [,J , $ ] Westw. Ent. Mag. V. 263 .....Java. 

Burm. Handb. v. 4o8. 
Hope, Cat. Lucan. 7. 

Sp. 14. F. Manili.arum, [ ^, $] Hope, Cat. Lucan. 26 Ins. Philipp. 

aiigustatus ? (Esch. MS.), Dej. Cat. 194. 

Sp. 15. F. ScARiTUORMis, [^] Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 113. .Malacca. 

„ ante, p. 64. 

Sp. 16. F. MODESTus, [^] Parry, Proc. Ent. Soc. 1862, p. 113..N. Zeelandia ? 

Sp. 17. F. LiLT.iPUTANUs, [ ^, $ ] Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 219, 

tab. xii. fig. 5 N. Holl. 

Clivinoides, Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 432. 

Sp. 18. F. FissicoLLrs, [^ j Fairm. Rev. Zool. 1849, p. 414.. 

Tonga Tabou, et Ins. Philipp. ? 
aiigustatus, Dej. Cat. 194 {sec. Fairm. Rev. Zool. 1849, p. 414) 
Thorns. Cat. Lucan. 402. 

Sp. 19. F. Capensis, [$Vj Thunb. Mem. Soc. Nat. Mosc. i. 203 

(Lucanus) Cap. Bon. Spei. 

Schbnh. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 331. 
Burm. Handb. v. 439. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 101 

Genus 5. CARD ANUS, Westw. Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2, i. 1 12. 
Stiutlesus, Gray, GiifT. Anim. Kingd. 
Eudora, de Cast. Mist. Nat. Ins. ii. 174. 
Fiiiulus, Uej. Cat. 194. 

Sp. 1. C. suLCATus, [$, $] Wcstw. Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2, i. 113, 

tab. vii. fig. 3 Java, Timor. 

Burm. Ilandb. v. 440 (Figulus). 
cnrnutus, Gray, Griff. Anim. Kingd. tab. xlvi. fig. 3 (Syndesus). 
cornnta, de Cast. Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 175 (Eudora). 
culindricus, Dej. Cat. 194 (Fij^nlus). 
afper, Sturm, Cat. Coleop. 137 (Figulus). 



Genus 6. XIPHODONTUS, Westw. Ent. Mag. v. 260. 
Cortiplius, Dej. Cat. 194. 
Cephax, de Castel. Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 175. 

Sp. 1. X. Antilope, [,^, $] Westw. Ent. Mag. v. 260 (%.).. 

Cap. Bod. Sp., CafTiaria. 
Burm. Handb. v. 430. 
Capensis, Dej. Cat. 194 (Coryptius). 

Slurm, Cat. Coleop. 347, tab. iv. fig. 3. 
Reichii, de Cast. Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 175, tab. vi. fig. 7, 8 (Cephax). 



Fam. V. SYNDESIDiE. 

Genus 1. SYNDESUS, M'Leay, Hor. Ent. i. 104. 
Hexaphyllum, Gray, Anim. Kingd. xv. 536. 
Psilodon, Perty, Delect. Anim. Artie. 54. 



Sectio 1. 

Sp. 1. S. coRNUTUs, [,^, $] M'Leay; Hor. Ent. i. 104 N. [Iollandi:i. 

Westw. Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2, i. 114. 

Latr. Cuv. Kegne Anim. iv. 580. 

Burm. Handb. v. 333. 

Lacord. Gen. Col. tab. xxv. fig. 3. 

Reiche, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. ser. 3, viii. 283. 

BoisJ. Voy. Astrolabe, 238. 

de Castel. Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 176. 
corinitiim, Fab. Syst. El. ii. 377 (Sinodendron). 
parvus, Don. Ins. N. IIoll. tab. i. Iig. 4 (Lucanus). 

Sp. 2. S. CANCELL.ATus, [ (J . $ ] Monfrousief, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. ser. 3, 

viii. 283 (Ryssonotus) N. Caledonia. 

cHcuUaius, Tboras. Cat. Lucaa. 403. 



102 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Sectio II. 

Sp. 3. S, Brasiliensis, [^, $] Gray.GriflF. Anim. Kingd, 536, tab. xlvi. 

fig. 4 (Hexaphyllum Brasiliense) Brasilia. 

Westw. Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2, i. 115, tab. vii. 

fig.l ^,2 $. 
Burm. Handb. v. 332. 
Reiche, Ann. Soc. I^nt. Fr. ser. 3, viii. 283. 
Schiiberii $ , Perty, Voy. Spix & Mart. tab. xi. fig. 12 ( Psiiodon). 
de Castel. Kist. Nat. Ins. ii, 176. 

Sp. 4. S. «QuiNocTiALis, [^] Buquet, Ann. Sop. Ent. Fr. 1840, p. 375 

(Hexapliyllum jequinoctiale). . N. Grenada, Santa Fe. 
Westwcodii, Hope, Proc. Ent, Soc. 1840 ; Cat, Lucan. 1. 
Burm. Handb. v. 332. 



Fara. VI. ^SALID^. 

Genus 1. CERATOGNATHUS, Westw. Ent, Mag. v. 260, 

Sp, 1. C. NIGER, [^, $] Westw, Ent. Mag, v, 261, cum fig, ,. N. Hollandia. 
Burm, Handb. v. 325. 
fitrcatus, de Casteln. Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 174 (Platycerus). 
coniutus, Thorns, Cat. Lucan, 403. 

Sp. 2. C. MENTiFERus, [ $ ] Wcstw. Tf. Ent. Soc, ser, 3, i. 434, tab. xv. 

fig. 5 N, Hollandia, 

Sp. 3. C. Westwoodii, [$] Thorns, Cat. Lucan. 433 ..N, Hollandia. 

punciatisiimiis, Westw, Tr, Ent, Soc. ser, 3, i. 433, tab, xv. 
fig. 4. 

Sp. 4. C, Hflotoides, [ $ ] Thorns. Cat. Lucan, 434 N. Zeelandia. 

areolaUun, Westw. Tr, Ent, Soc. ser, 3, i. 430, tab, xiv, fig. 2 
(Sinodendron "!). 

Genus 2. MITOPHYLLUS, Parry, Tr, Ent. Soc. iv. 55. 
PtilophtjllinH, Guer, Rev. Zool. 1845, p. 439. 
Ceratognalhus, Burm. Handb. v. 324. 

Lacord, Gen, Col, iii. 41. 

Sp. 1. M, IRRORATU3, [$ , ^] Parry, Tr. Ent. Soc. iv. 56, tab. i. fig. 4.. 

N. Zeelandia. 
Hope, Cat. Lucan. 7, 

White, Voy, Ereb. & Terror, tab, ii, fig. 3, 4. 
Burm. Handb. v. 326 (Ceratognathus). 
Lacord. Gen. Col. iii. 41, tab, xv, fig. 4 (Ceratog- 
nathus). 
Godeyi, Guer. Rev. Zuol, 1845, p, 439 (Ptilopbyllum) ; Ann. 
Soc. Ent, Fr. ser, 2, iii. Bull. 97. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 103 

Sp. 2. M. Parrianus, [^J] Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. ser. 3, i. 432, fab. xv. 

ii''. 3 N. Zeelaiulia aul N. Caledonia ? 



Genus 3. CERUCHU3, M'Leay, Ilor. Ent. i. 1 15. 
Turandus (INlegerle), Dej. Cat. (183;3). 
Platycenis, Latr. Gen. Cr. et Ins. ii. 133. 

Sp. 1. C. Tenebrioides, [^, $] Fabr. Syst, EI. ii. 252 (Lucanus) .. ..Europa. 

5anz. Faun. Germ. 62, I. 2. 

Duftschm. Faun. Austr. i. 67. 

IM'Leay, Hor. Knt. i, 115 (Ceruchus). 

Heer, Faun. Ilelvet. i. 497. 

Dej. Cat. 194 (TaranJus). 

Burm. Ilandb, v. 328. 

Latr. Gen. Cr. et Ins. ii. 133 (Plafycerus). 

Gyll. Ins. Suec. ii. 68. 

de Castel. Hist. Nat. Ins. ii. 173. 

Schonh. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 3'28. 
Silesiacus (var. min.), Uej. Cat. 194 (Tarandus). 
Turandus, Panz. Beitr. &c. i. 25, tab. iii. fig. 3, 5 (Lucanus). 
Duval, Gen. Col. d'Eur. tab. ii. fig. 6 ^,7 $. 
Mulsant, Lainell. dc Fr. 597 (Ceruchus). 

Sp. 2. C. picEus, [^, $] Weber, Obs. Ent. 84 (Lucanus) Amer. bor. 

Fabr. Syst. El. ii. 252. 
Thunb. Mem. Soc. Nat. IMosc. i. 202. 
Sclionii. Syn. Ins. I. iii. 327. 
Burm. Handb. v. 329. 
Americanus, Dej. Cat. 194 (Tarandus). 
halbi, de Casteln. Ilist. Nat. Ins. ii. 174, tab. xvii. fig. 3, 4 

(Plalycerus). 
qiiercicola, Sturm, Cat. Coleop. 13G (Tarandus). 

Sp. 3. C. striatus, [$] Leconte, Proc. Ac. Nat. So. Philad. 1859. 

p. 85; id. Classif. Coleop. N. Amer. 121 Oregone. 



Genus 4. /ESALUS, Fabr. Syst. El. ii. 254. 

Sp. 1. JE. Scarab;eoidus, [,J, $] Fabr. Syst. El. ii. 254 Eurof 

Latr. Gen. Cr. et Ins. ii. 133. 

M'Leay, Hor. Ent. i. 103. 

Duftschm. Faun. Austr. i. 70. 

Panz. Faun. Germ. 26, 15, 16. 

Gu6r. Icon. Regne Anim tab. xxvii. fig. *>. 

Burm. Ilandb. v. 323. 

Duval. Gen. Col. d'Eur. tab. ii. fig. 8. 

Schonh. Syn. Ins. I, iiu 331. 



104 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Fam. VII. S1N0DENDRID.E. 

Genus 1. SINODENDRON, Hellwig, Schneid. Mag. 391. 
Ligniperda, Fabr. Syst. El. ii. 18. 

Sp. 1. S. cYLiNDRicuM, [$,$.] Linn. Syst. Nat. I. ii. 544, 11 (Scara- 

bseus) ••.. Europa. 

Fabr, Syst. El. ii. 376. 

De Geer, Mem. iv. 258, tab. x. fig. 2, 3 (Scara- 

baeus). 
Oliv. Ent. I. iii. 47, 54, tab. ix. fig. a, b, c. 
Lair. Gen. Cr. et Ins. ii. 101. 
Cuvier, Reg. Anim. tab. xlv. fig. 1. 
Ralzeb. Forst. Ins. i. 87. 
Heer, Faun. Helvet. 497. 
Westw. Mod. Classif. Ins. i, 185, fig. 13, 18. 
Mulsant, Lamell. de Fr. 60, tab. iii. fig. 10. 
Burm. Handb. v. 320. 
Duval, Gen, Col. d'Eur. tab. ii. fig. 9 ^,10 $. 

Sp. 2. S. RUGOSUM, [$] Mannerh. Bullet. Mosc. 1843, p. 262.. 

Oregone, California. 
Leconte, Ent, Rep. Exp. Missis, p. 17 ; id, U. S. 
P. R. R. Exp. Suiv. Zool. par. xlvii, p, 42, tab. i. 
fig. 15; Clas?if. Col. N. Amer. 1861. 
Melsh. Cat. Coleop. U. S. p. 57. 
Doue, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1857, Ballet, p. 19. 

Sp. 3. S. Ameeicanum, [$, $ ] Pal. de Beauv. Ins. Afr. et Amer. 192, 

tab. i. fig. 1,2,3 Amer. bor. 

Melsh. Cat. Coleop. U. S. 57. 
Leconte, Classif. Col. N. Amer. 121. 
Parry, ante, p. 65. 
An species distincta, vel S. cylindrici, Linn., varietas? 

Genus 2. DENDROBLAX, White, Voy. Ereb. & Terror. 

Sp. 1. D. Eari.ianus, [^i ?] White, Voy. Ereb. & Terror, 9, tab. ii. 

fig. 9 ^, 10 $ N. Zeelandia. 

Laeord. Gen. Coleop. iii. 15, tab. xxv. fig. 2. 
Westw. Tr. Ent. Soc. N. S. iii. 213. 
Erichs. Bericht. d. Ent. 1846, p. 49. 
Parry, ante, p. 65. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 



105 



SYNOPSIS. 



COLEOPTERA PECTINICORNIA ; DIV. LUCANOIDEA. 



[The Species marked f are known to 
are not in 

Fam. I. CHIASOGNATHID.E. 
Gen. i. Pholidotus, M'Leay. 
Sp. 1. P. Humboldti, Schonh. 
2. P. Spixii, Perty. 

Gen. ii. Chiasognathus, Steph. 

Sp. 3. C. Grantii, Steph. 

f 4. C. Jousselinii, Keiche. 

5. C. Mniszechii, 'I'lioms. 

6. C. Latreillei, Solier. 

7. C. Feistharnelii, Guer. 

8. C, Prionoides, Buquet. 

9. C. Lindenii, Murray. 
10. C. Murvayi, Thorns. 

•11, C. niftii/'uscHS, Blanch. 

Gen. iii. Rhvssonotus, M'Leay. 
Sp. 12. R.vebulosns, Kirby. 
13. R.jugularis, Westw. 

Gen. iv. Cacostomus, Newman. 
Sp. 14. C. squamosus, Newman. 

Gen. V. Lamprima, Latr. 
Sp. 15. L. Latreillii, M'Leay. 
16. L. aurata, Lair. 
tl7. L. splendens, Eiichs. 

18. L. rutilans, Erichs. 

19. L, snea, Fabr. 

20. L. Micardi, Reiche. 

21. L. varians, Germ. 
*22. L. sumptuosa, Hope. 

Gen. vi. STrEPTOCERvs, Fairm. 
Sp. 23. 5. speciosus, Fairm. 

Gen. vii. Colophon, Westw. 
Sp. 24. C. Weitwoodii, Gray. 
•25. C. Thunlergii, \N'eslw. 



me by description only, and those marked 
my Collection.] 

Fam. n. LUCANID^. 
Gen. viii. Mf.sotopus, Burm. 
Sp. 26. M. Turandus, Swed. 



Gen. 
Sp. 27. L. 
28. L. 
L. 
L. 
L. 
L. 
L. 



29. 
30. 
31. 
•32. 
33. 

34. L. 

35. L. 

36. L. 

37. L. 

38. L. 
t39. L. 

40. L. 

41. L. 

42. L. 

43. L. 

44. L. 

45. L. 

46. L. 

47. L. 



ix. Lt'Canus, Scop. 
cerDKs, Linn. 
Turcicus, Slurm. 
oiientalis, Kraatz. 
laticornis, Deyrolle. 
telraodon, Tliunb. 
Barbarossa, Fabr. 
lunifer, Hope. 
Mearedi, Hope. 
Hopei, Parry. 
Caiitori, Hope. 
villosus, HopOk 
sericans, Vollenh. 
maculij'emoratus, Motsch. 
vicinus, Hope. 
Westervianii, Hope. 
Smithii, Pairy. 
FortiDtei, Saunders. 
atrattts, Hope. 
elaphus, Fabr. 
capreolus, Linn. 
leniuSf Casteln. 



Gen. X. Rhxtus, Parry. 
Sp. 48. R. Westwoodii, Parry. 

Gen. xi. HtxARTHnius, Hope. 
Sp. 49. //, Fnrsteri, Hope. 

50. //. Biiwringii, Parry, 

51. H. Rhiuocerus, Oliv. 

52. H. Biiquetii, Hope. 
t53. H. Chaudiiri, Ueyrolle. 

54. H. Mniszechii, Thorns, 

55. //, Parriii, Hope, 
♦56. H. DeyroUei, Parry. 



106 



Major Parry's Catalogue 



Fani. II. IMC kmYiM— continued. 
Gen. xii. Odomtolabis, Hope. 
Sp. 57. 0. Vollenhovii, Parry. 

58. 0. Ludekingii, Vollenh. 

59. 0. Wcllastonii, Parry. 
*60. 0. Moiilwtii, Parry. 
*61. 0. Lacordairei, Vollenli. 
*62. 0. Burmeisteri, Hope. 

63. 0, Cuvera, Hope. 

64. 0. Delessertii, Guer, 

65. 0. Gatella, Fabr. 

66. 0. Dux, VVeslw. 

67. 0. carinatus, Linn. 

68. 0. bellicosvs, Castelii. 

69. 0. Dalmani, Hope. 

70. 0. Stevensii, Thorns. 

71. 0. Dejeanii, Reiche. 

72. 0. Castelnaudi, Parry. 

73. 0. bicolor, Oliv. 

74. 0. Brookeanus, Vollenh. 
+75. 0. Sommeri, Parry. 
*76. O. striatus, Deyroile. 

77. 0. platynotus, Hope. 

78. 0. Cingalensis, Parry, 

79. Omiiigrita, Deyroile. 
■ffiO, O. intermedms, Deyroile. 

81. 0, ceratus, Hope. 

Gen. xiii. Heterociithes, Westw. 
Sp. 82. H. brachypterus, Westw. 

Gen. xiv. Neolucanus, Thorns. 
Sp. 83. N. Baladeva, Hope. 

84. N. Saitndersii, Parry. 

85. A', nitidiis, Saunders. 

86. N. laticollis, Thunb. 

87. A'^. castunopterus, Hope. 

88. N, Sinirns, SaunJers. 

89. N. cingulatus, Parry. 

90. A'^. Champicmi, Parry. 

Gen. XV. Cladoonathus, Burm. 
Sp. 91. C. Giraffa, Fabr. 

92. C. Confucius, Hope. 

93. C. Forjicula, Thorns. 

94. C. inclinatus, Motsch. 

95. C. cinnnmomeus, Guer. 

96. C. castaneus, Hope. 

97. C.foveatns, Hope. 



Fam. II. LVCANW^— continued. 
Gen. XV. Cladoonathus — contind. 
Sp. 98. C. Madelhindi. Hope. 
99. C. cilipe^. Thorns. 
100. C.quadrinodosus, Parry. 
*10l. C. Jenkinsii, Westw. 

102. C.Jiavidus, Parry. 

103. C. elegans, Parry. 
*I04. C. IVullacei, Parry. 
*105. C. decipiens, Parry, 

106. C. Lafertei, Reiche. 
•107. C. assiinilis, Parry. 

108. C. Tragulus, Vollenh. 

109. C. Bison, Fabr. 

110. C. cinctus, Montrousier, 

111. C. lateralis, Hope. 
*112. C. Zebra, Oliv. 

113. C. sutnralis, Oliv. 

114. C. occipitalis, Hope. 

115. C. biptagiatiis, Westw, 
*116. C, inquinatns, Westw. 
*1 17. C. allenuatus. Parry. 

118. C. sericeus, Westw. 

119. C. fulvonotatus. Parry. 

120. C. bisignalus. Parry. 

121. C. po/itiis, Parry. 

122. C. dorsalis, Erichs. 

123. C. cavijrons, Hope. 

124. C. approximatus, Parry. 
tl25. C. Buddha, Hope. 

126. C. Dauricus, Motsch. 

127. C. squumilateris. Parry. 

128. C. perplexus, Parry. 

129. C. Oweni, Hope. 

130. C. forceps, Vollenh. 

131. C. Spencii, Hope. 

132. C. crenicollis, Thorns. 

133. C. curvipes, Hope. 

1 34. C. rudis, Westw. 
*135. C. Downesii, Hope. 

136. CSavagei, Hope. 

137. C. eiimius, Parry. 

138. C. serrif or/us, Latr. 

139. C. Senegalensis, Klug. 
tl40. C. Antitopus, Swed. 

141. C, quadridens, Hope. 

142. C. Natalensis, Parry, 

143. C.faber, Thorns. 

144. C modestus, Parry. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 



107 



Fam. II. LllCAmDJE— continued. 

Gen. xvi. Homoderus, Parry. 
Sp. 145. H. Mellui, Parry. 

Gen. xvii. Cyclohasis, Thorns. 
Sp. 146. C. platiieephahis, Hope. 

147. C. Jekelii, Parry. 

148. C. subnitens, Parry. 

Gen. xviii. Cyclommatus, Parry. 
Sp. "Hg. C.metallifer, Ooisd. 

150. C. Taraiidus, Tliunb. 

151. C. Miihxechii, Thorns. 

152. C. strigiceps, Westw. 

153. C. affiiiis, Parry. 
•154. C. Maitlandi, Parry. 

155. Cfuunicolor, Hope. 

156. C. Dehaanii, VVettw. 

157. C. insignis, Parry. 

Gen. xix. Cantiiarolethuus, Thorns. 
Sp. 'loS. C. Lurerii, Ruc|uet. 
•159. C. Reichii, Hope. 

Gen. XX. LrpTfNOPTEnus, Hope. 
Sp. 160. L. Fiyi, Parry. 
161. L.J'emoratus, Fabr. 
•162. L. eii/throcnemus, Burm. 

163. L. tibialis, Esclischoltz. 

164. L. meliiiiarius, Hope. 

165. L. Ibex, Bilberg. 

166. L, V-niger, Hope. 

•167. L. pulchelliis, MS. Mus. 
Berol. 

168. L. polijndontus, Hope. 

169. L. rotundatiis, Parry, 

Gen. xxi. Macrocrates, Burm. 
Sp. 170. M. Bucepiialus, Burin. 

Fam. III. DORCID.E. 
Gen. xxii. IIejiisodopcus, Thorns. 
Sp. 171. H. ^'epalensis, Hope. 

172. //, Macleayii, Hope. 

173. //. ^riifi7/s, Saunders. 

174. H, pireipennis, Westw. 

175. //. Paysiiloides, Hope. 



1 Fam. Ill, DORCID M— continued. 
Gen. xxiii. Dito.moderus, Parry. 
j Sp. 176. D. mirabHis, Parry. 

Gen. xxiv. Euhytrachelus, Thonis. 
Sp. 177. E. Bucephalus, Perty. 

178. E. Titan, Boisd. 

179. E. Westermani, Hope. 

180. E. platymeliis, Saunders, 
tl81. E. Bubalus, Perty. 

182. E. Tttyus, Hope. 

183. E. Saiga, Oliv. 

184. E. cribriceps, Chevr. 

185. E. purpurascens, V'ollenli. 

186. £. concolor, Blanch. 

187. E. TItomsnni, Pairy. 

188. E. Reichii, Hope. 

189. £. Nipouensis, Volienh. 

Gen. XXV. Doncos, M'Leay. 
Sp. 190. D..Ant(eus, Hope. 

191. D, Dehannii^ Hope. 

192. D, Hopei, Saunders. 

193. D, Parryi, Thoms. 

194. D. Teruatensis, Thoms. 

195. D. vicinus, Saunders. 

196. D. submoliiris, Hope, 
f 197. D. binervis, Molseh. 

198. D, cylindricus, Thoms. 

199. D. purallelns, Burm. 
1200. D. brevis. Say. 
•}-201. D, ISIazama, Leconte. 

202. D. parallelepipedns, Linn. 

203. D. Musiiiion, Gene. 
*204. D. Ptyrnnis, Heicbe, 

205. D. Srariiides, Hope. 

206. D. derelictus, Parry. 
•207. D. Hydrophiloides, Hope. 
•208. D. carbonariits, Westw. 
•209. D. Pelorides, Westw. 

Gen. xxvi. Macrodorcas, Molscli. 
Sp. t210. M. reditu, Motsch. 
f-l 1. M. rugipennis, Motsch. 
t2i2. M. striatipennis, Molseh. 
t2l3. M. cribellatiis, Motsch, 

Gen. xxvii, Serrognathus, Motsch. 
Sp. t214. S. castaiiicolor, Motsch. 



108 



Major Parry's Catalogue 



Fam. III. BORCmM— continued. 
Gen. xxviii. Gnaphaloryx, Burm, 

Sp. 215. G. Taurus, Fabr. 

216. G. sgrialidus, Hope. 

217. G. dilaticnlUs, Parry. 

218. G. parviilus, Hope. 

219. G. sculptipetinis, Parry, 

220. G. vehitinus, Thorns. 

Gen. xxix. ^gus, M'Leay. 
Sp. 221. yE. acuminatjis, Fabr. 

222. ^. lunatus, Weber. 

223. JE, Kandiensis, Hope. 

224. ^. chelifer, M'Leay. 

225. jE. capitatus, Westw. 

226. -lE. parullelus, Hope. 

227. ^. labilis, Westw, 

228. jE. ItEvicoUis, Saunders, 

229. ^. Eschschultzii, Hope. 

230. ^. platyodon, Parry. 

231. ^. btandtis. Parry. 

232. ^. puncdpennis, Parry. 

233. JE. serratus, Parry. 

234. ^. wsipidiis, Thorns. 

235. JE. impressicolUs, Parry. 
■)-236. ^E. inermis, Fabr. 
+237. ^ interruptus, M'Leay. 
i"238. ^. pulitus, Montrousier. 

239. jE. Malaccus, Thorns. 

240. ^. Myrmidon, Thorns. 

241. jE, adelphus. Thorns, 

242. /E. gtaber. Parry. 

243. ^. trilohatiis. Parry. 

Gen. XXX, Alcimus, Fairm. 
Sp. 244. A, dilatatus, Fairm, 

Gen. xxxi. Platycerus, Geof, 
Sp, 245 P. Caraboides, Linn. 

246. P. Caucasicus, Parry. 

247. P. guercns, Weber. 

248. P. depressiis, Leconte. 
t249. P. Oregonensis, Westw. 
t250. P. Cisntlescens, Leconte. 
t2.51, P. Jgiissii, Leconte. 
♦252, P. ehemnus, Deyrolle. 



Fam. IIL DORCIDJE— continued. 
Gen. xxxii. Scortizus, Westw. 
Sp. 253. S, maculatus, Klug. 
254. iS. cucuUatus, Blanch. 

Gen, xxxiii. Sclerostomus, Burm. 
Sp, 255. S. Bacchus, Hope, 

256. S.femoralis, Guer. 

257. 5. Fairmairii, Parry. 

258. 5. Routeti, Solier. 

259. S. ccelatus, Blanch, 
•'260, S.fasciatus, Germain. 
*261. S. lineatus, Deyrolle. 

262. S. plagiatus, Huvm. 

263. S, I.essnnii, Buquet. 

264. S, Philippi, Westw. 

265. 5. pallidocinclus, Fairm. & 

Germain. 

266. S, vitlatus, Eschschollz. 

267. S. costatus, Burm. 

268. S, Neotragus, Westw. 
t269, S. cruentus, Burm. 
*270, iS. signatipen7iis, Deyrolle. 
*271. S. DHomoides, Westw. 

272. S. tuberculaUis, Solier. 

Gen. xxxiv. Oonotus, Parry. 
Sp, 273. 0. adspersus, Bohem, 

Gen. XXXV. Lissotes, Westw. 
Sp. 274. L, reticulatus, Westw. 

275. L. NovtE'Zeelandice , Hope. 

276. L. Cancroides, Fabr. 
t277. L. subtuberculatus, Westw. 

278. L. crenatus, Westw. 

279. L. ohtusatus, Westw, 
t280. L, curvicornis, Boisd. 
t281. L. Howittanus, Westw. 

282, L. Menalcas, Westw. 

Fam. IV. FIGULID.E. 
Gen. xxxvi. Nigidius, ftl'Leay. 
Sp. 283, JV, grandis, Hope. 

284, N. Buholus, Swecl, 

285. N. Detgorguei, Thorns. 

286. A*^. anriculatus, Gu6r. 

287, A'^. nitidus, Thorns. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 



109 



Fam. IV. F IGVLIDM— continued. 
Gen. xxxvi. Nigidivs — continued, 
Sp. •288. A^ cornuius, M'Leay. 

289. N. obesiis, Parry. 

290. N. I<£vicollis, Westw. 

291. N. Madagascariensis, Casteln. 

Gen. xxxvii. Agnus, Burm. 
Sp. 292. A. egeniis, Burm. 

Gen. xxxviii. Penichrolucanus, 

DeyroUe. 

Sp, 293. P. Copricephalus, Deyrolle. 

Gen. xxxix. Figulus, M'Leay. 

Sp. t294. F. suhlcevis, Palisot. 

295. F. anlhracinns, Klug. 

296. F. nigrita, Westw. 

297. F. licvipennis, Wontrousier. 

298. F. trilobiis, Westw. 

299. F. hitegricollis, Thorns. 

300. F. regiilaris, Westw. 

301. F. sulcicollis, Hope. 

302. F.foveicollis, Boisd. 

303. F. striatus, Oliv. 
t304. F. confusus, Westw. 
t305, F. laticollis. Thorns. 
•306. F. subcastaneus, Westw. 

307. F. Manillarum, Hope. 

308. F. Scaritiformis, Parry. 

309. F. modestus, Parry. 

310. F. LilUputanui, Westw. 
t3ll. F.Jissicoltis, Yairm, 

to 12. F. Capensis, Thunb. 

Gen. xl. Cardanus, Westw. 
Sp. 313. C. sulcatus, Westw. 



Fam. IV. FIGVLIDJE— continued. 
Gen. xli. Xipiiodontus, Westw. 
Sp. 314. A'. Aiitilope, Westw. 

Fam. V. SYNDESID.E. 
Gen. xlii. Syndesus, M'Leay. 
Sp. 315. .V. cornutus, M'Leay. 

316. S. cancellatus, Montrousier. 

317. S. Brasiliensis, Gray. 

318. S. tEquinoctialis, Buquet. 

Fam. VL ^SALID.F. 
Gen. xliii. Ceratognathus, Westw. 
Sp. 319. C. niger, Westw. 

320. C. mentiferus, Westw. 

321. C Westwoodii, Thorns. 

322. C. Helotoides, Thorns. 

Gen. xliv. Mitopiiylius, Parry. 
Sp. 323. M. irroralns. Parry. 
324. M. Parriantis, Westw. 

Gen. xlv. Ceruchus, M'Leay. 
Sp. 325. C. Tenebrioides, Fabr. 
326. C. piceus, Weber. 
t327. C. striatus, Leconte. 

Gen. xlvi. jJIsalls, Fubr. 
Sp. 328. jE. ScarabcEoides, Fabr. 

Fam. Vn. SINODENDRID.E. 
Gen. xlvii. Sinodendron, Ilellwig. 
Sp. 329. S. cylindricum, Linn. 
330. S. rugosum, Mannerh, 
t331. S. Aniericanum, Palisot. 

Gen. xlviii. Dendroblax, White. 
Sp. •332. P. Earlianus, White. 



N.B. Tluoiigh the kindness of J. IMiers, Esq., F.R.S., &c., I iiave, since the 
preparation of tliis Catalogue, had an opportunity of examining the unique type- 
specimen of Sclerostomiis Ditomnides, Westw., and believe it to be only the var. 
min. of 5. Aeoti-agus, Westw,— F.J. S.P„ May, 1864. 



110 



Major Parry's Catalogue 



Comparative View of the Numher of Species of Lucanoid 

Coleoptera possessed by the Authors of the follotving 

Catalogues at the periods of publication. 

Species. 

1845. Rev. F. W. Hope, Cat. Lucan., records 165 

From which deduct those which have proved to be only the 
other sex of established species or mere varieties of de- 
velopment 



Total. 



37 



128 



1862. Mr. James Thomson, Cat. Lucan,, records 190 

From which deduct as above 9 



Total. 



181 



1864. Major Parry, Cat. Lucan., records 332 

From which deduct the desiderata to his collection, as 

notified iu the Synopsis by the marks • and -f 69 



Total. 



263 



Count Mniszech's collection probably contains about the same number of 
species as my own. 

The following are the names of the formerly reputed species deducted as above 
from the Catalogues of JNIr. Hope and Mv. Thomson : — 



Rev. 

Lamprima Schreibersii, 

TasmanicE, 
I.ucanns Hircus, 

ni gripes $ . 

Americanus, 

Heiarlhrius falciger. 

tongipennis $ . 
serricollis $ . 
Metopodontus utigulatus, 
omissus, 
aslacoides. 
J'ralernus, 
fulvipes. 
Prosopocoilus speculij'er. 
piceipeiinis. 
Sayersii. 
J.epiinopterus funereus. 

sarcorhamphus, 
Odontolabis serrij'er. 

an^ulatus. 



F. W. Hope. 

Odontolabis tetitiipes $ . 
Macrognathus Dowiiesii $ • 
Parry i, 
bulbosus. 
Platyprosopus Chevrolaiii, 
puiictHabris. 
Blanchardi. 
(lubius, 
incertus. 
indeterminatus. 
Dorciis Bengalensis. 
curiide)is, 
luteralis 9 • 
rvgifrons $ . 
inermis J . 
puHCtiger J . 
subaiigulatus J . 

37 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 



Ill 



Mr. Jamis Thomson. 
Lampy'ima ampUcpllis. 
Lucaiius Fontbriauti. 

Fabiaiii. 
Cladngnathus sperulifer. 
Eiirytrachetus semirugosus, 
diaboliciis. 



Dorcus eiaratus 9 • 
Sclerostomus leiocejihalus, 
FijiiiUa Austrulicus. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate I. 
Fig. 1. Odnntolitbis Mouhotii, Parry, ^. 
2. „ Castetnaudi, Parry, $. 

Plate II. 
Fig. 1. Odontotabis Ludekingii, Vollenh,, $ var. med. 
2. ,, WoUustonii, Farry, $. 



Plate III. 
Fig. 1. Odimtolabis WoUastonii, Parry, $ var. max. 

2. Sclei-ostomus signatipennis, Deyrolle, $ . 

3. ,, /jiicatHs, Deyrolle, 5. 

4. „ fasciatus, Germain, J . 

Plate IV. 
Fig. 1, Heiarthrius Deyrollei, Parry, ^, 

2. Cladognathus attenuatns, Farry, $. 

3. 'Neolucamis cingtilatus, Parry, J . 

4. Cladognathus decipiens, Varry, O. 
6. ,, Zebra, Oil v., $. 

Plate V. 
Fig. 1. JEgus serratus, Parry, ^. 

2. Odontolabis Stevensii, Thorns., $ var. max.. 

3. ^gus impressiroltis, Parry, $. 

4. Rl esntopus Tarandus, Swed., $. 

5. Odontolabis Steieitsii, Thorns., $. 

Plate VI. 
Fig. 1. Cludngnathus sericeiis, Hope, ^ var. max. 

2. Lucaniis Hopei, Farry, ^. 

3. Cladognnthusfulvonotaltis, Parry, ^ var. max. 

4. Odontolabis Sommeri, Farry, $. 

5. „ Brookeauus, Vollenh., $ var. max. 



112 Major Parry's Catalogue 

Plate VII. 
Fig. 1. Cyclorasis suhnHens,VAXTy, $. 

2. Cladognalhus Wallacei, Parry, $ var. max. 

3. ,, bis'ignatiis, Parry, $ var. min. 

4. Leptinopterus Fryi, Parry, $ var. max. 

5. Cladflgnathus bisignatus, PaTTy, ^. 

6. ,, Tragulus, Volleah., $ var. nied. 

7. jEgus trilohaius. Parry, $. 

8. Leptinopterus rotundatus, PdiTiy, $. 

9. Odoutolabis teratus, Hope, $ . 

Plate VIII. 
Fig. 1. Odontolabis Fo/Zen/ioDii, Parry, $ var. max. 

2. Cladognathusjiavidus, Parry, $ var. max, 

3. ,, elegans, Parry, $ . 

4. „ quadrinodosus, Parry, $ var. max. 
6. „ LaJ'ertei, Reiclie, $. 

Plate IX. 
Fig. 1. I^eohicanns Ealadeva, Hope (mandib.) 

2. Eli(Ftus Wcstwoodii, Parry, $ var. max. 

3. Neoluccivus Saundeisii, Parry (mandib.) 

4. Cyclorasis Jekelii, Parry, $, 

5. lleiarihrius Boivriiigii, Parry, $ var. max. 

6. Cantharolelhrus Luierii, Buquet, $. 

7. Hexarthrius Bawii'igii, Parry (anten.) 

8. Rhcetus IVestwoodii, Parry, (anten.) 

Plate X. 
Fig. 1. Mgns phitycdoii, P^ny, $ var. max. 

2. Lucamts Smithii, Parry, $. 

3. Chiasognathiis Miiiszechii, Thorns., $. 

4. Hemisodorcus Pasialoides, Hope, ^. 

5. Cladognalhus poUtus, Pzrry, $. 

6. Heterochthes brachvptevus, Westw., $ . 

7. „ ■„ „ $. 

8. Odontnlabis Cingalensi^, Parry, $ var. max. 

9. Macrocrutes bucephalas, Burm., $. 

Plate XI. 
Fig. 1. Heterochthes hrachypierus, Westw., $ var. max. ; lo, outline of portioa 
of the head ; lb, front of the liead seen from the front; Ic, maxilla; 
Id, mentum ; le, mentum seen from within, with the labium and 
palpus; 1 /, antenna ; 1^, prosternum seen from beneath ; 1/;, ditto, 
seen sideways. 

2. Heterochthes brachypterus, Westw., $ var. min. ; 2a, outline of the siJe 

of the head ; 26, mandible. 

3. Heterochthes brachypterus, Westw., $ ; 3a, the head ; 36, the eye, divided 

by the canthus ; 3c, antenna ; 3d, maxilla; 3e, mentum ; 3/, labium 
and palpus. 



of Lucanoid Coleoptera. 113 

I'latt. XI. — roulinued. 
Fig. 4. Cludo^uulhus iiutis, Westw,, $ ; 4a, the lieiid witli one of llie aiUenii.e ; 
4b, the eye lialf-divided b}' the caiuhus ; 4c, maxilla ; 4(1, menlum ; 
4e, labium and palpi ; 4J', prosternuni ; 4^, the same, sileways. 

5. Sclerostiimiii PhUipp!, Westw., ^. 

6. Homotlerus Metltii, I'arry, $ var. max., ;inteiior part of body , 6a, tlie 

same, seen sideways. 

Plate Xll. 
Fig. 1. Cladi'gfiatlms niiule^ins. Parry, ^ ; In, the left side of the head, wiih the 
elypeus ; \b, the extremity of the risjht mandible ; Ic, the mentum, 
with the four palpi in situ. 

2. Cladognathiisjalier, Thorns., $ var. max. ; 2(i, $ var. min., liead. 

3. ,, Buddha, Hope^ $ var. max. 

'3u. „ ,, ,, $ var. min. (C. Tliibelicm, Wesiw.) 

4. Cucloinmatiis Maiihindi, Pany, $ var. max.; 4rt, side view. 

5. JEgiis lubilis, Weslvv., $ ; 5u, the eye entirely divided by tiie catilim-.; 

5ft, maxdia ; 5c, the mentum, lobes of tnaxillaj and piipi ; bd, 1. biuni 
and its palpi, 
fci. Ditomodeius mirabilis, Parry, $ ; dn, the tly])eus and central tubercle of 
the front of the head ; 66, the eye half-divided by the canlluis ; 
fie, terminal joints of the antenna; ; 6d, niaxill.i ; 6c, menlum and 
l>alpi. 



THIKD SKKIES, PART I. — MAY, ISGi. 



OCT. 



TO. 1'C;4. 



( 115 ) 



II. On the Formation of the Cells of Bees and Wasps. 
By G. R. Waterhouse, F.Z.S., &c. 

[Read 7th March, 1864.] 

At a former meeting of this Society, a discussion having arisen 
respecting the theory of the structure of the cells of wasps, &c., 
I stated that I possessed the commencement of a hornet's nest — 
or rather of the comb — in which there were but three cells, and 
these only partially built : that these cells were so placed that 
each one came in contact with two others, and had two flat sides, 
the flat sides forming the common partitions between two cells ; 
and that the remaining portion of each cell (being about two- 
thirds of the entire circumference) was circular at the opening. 

I promised to exhibit this rudimentary condition of a hornet's 
nest, and was reminded of this promise by our ex-President at the 
last meeting. I now lay it before you (PI. XIII. figs. 1 and la); 
but before I proceed to make any remarks respecting it, I am 
anxious to direct the attention of the members to other nests 
and cells of Hymenopterous insects ; and especially to the very 
extensive collection of these interesting objects exhibited in the 
small room at the east end of the northern Zoological Gallery of 
the British Museum. Here will be found between three and four 
hundred nests of various kinds of bees, wasps, &c. These nests, 
and many others which I have had opportunities of examining, 
may be divided into three principal classes. 

I. Nests formed in burrows in the ground, or in dead' wood. 
They are very numerous, and the cells of which they are 
composed are either cylindrical or ovate, sometimes round, 
or nearly so. 

II. Isolated cells, not deposited in such excavations, but merely 
attached to some foreign substance. They are frequently 
ovate, sometimes cylindrical and sometimes spherical — 
never angular. 

III. Groups of cells more or less closely united, not deposited in 
excavations or burrows, but either attached to some foreign 
substance, or to a nest -covering made by the insects. 
Here the form of the cell is commonly hexagonal. 

Now it is a striking fact that of these different kinds of nests 

'vol. II. THIRD SERIES, PART II. — AUGUST, 186-t. K 



1 ]6 Mr. G, R. Waterliouse on the 

(aggregates of cells) or isolated cells, botli groups of insects men- 
tioned — bees and wasps — furnish all the diflferent varieties above 
noticed. Bees and wasps, we must bear in mind, form two very 
extensive and distinct sections of the order Hynienoptera, distin- 
guished by many important points of structure. Each of these 
great sections is divided into families and genera, also charac- 
terized by differences of structure. Here then are insects of two 
distinct great sections furnishing repetitions of similar architecture 
in the construction of their nests and cells ; on the other hand, 
we find instances of species of the same genus building nests and 
cells which are very dissimilar, not only as to the structure, but 
as to the material used. In short, insects, very dissimilar in form 
and structure, build similar nests and cells, and insects of (very 
nearly) the same form and structure build dissimilar nests and cells. 
From this we may infer, either that the influence of the form and 
structure of the insect upon that of the nest and cell must be but 
of minor importance ; or, that the differences in the structure of 
the nests and cells are more apparent than real. I entertain the 
latter idea, and nearly thirty years back, when called upon to 
write the article " Bee" for the Penny Cyclopaedia, I endeavoured 
to show that there was a common principle in action in all insect 
architecture, viz., that of working in segments of circles; and 
that, so far as the hive-bee was concerned, the cells of that insect 
furnished no exception to the rule. 

Tlie theory propounded by me, in explanation of the form of 
the cell of the hive-bee, has been objected to by several able 
naturalists, since it will not serve likewise to explain the hex- 
agonal form of the cell of the wasp or hornet, it being surmised 
that the same laws would govern the form of the cell in both 
cases. 

In 1835, when I wrote the article alluded to, I was not ac- 
quainted with certain facts relating to the building of the wasp's 
nest, and when I learnt that a single female wasp constructed, in 
the spring time, a nest made up of hexagonal cells, I felt that the 
objection that had been raised against my views was a very 
serious one. 

The leading idea with me, in respect to the cells of the honey- 
comb, was that of a number of insects working simultaneously 
(or nearly so) in a confined space; but, with the wasp, the case is 
different, and in fact, as I soon afterwards discovered, is pre- 
cisely the reverse ; for it is a single insect, in unconfined space, 
working simultaneously (or very nearly so) at many cells : 
that is, so far as the nest first formed by the female wasp is 



Formation of the Cells of Bees and Wasps. 1 1 7 

concerned. Tlie cells constructed later in the season by the 
neuter wasps, I have no doubt, come into the same category as 
the cells of the hive-bee. 

Having made these preliminary remarks, I will now direct your 
attention to one or two other specimens which I have to exhibit. 
But first I wish you to observe, with regard to the specimen of 
part of a nest already exhibited, that it consists of a stalk by which 
it was attached to the nest-covering, the stalk being slender in the 
middle and expanded at the extremities — at the base to increase 
the surface for attachment, and at tlie opposite extremity to unite 
with the three cells. Viewing this specimen from the side, or 
with the stalk towards you, there is no trace of plane surfaces; all 
the work is in curves, and the partially formed cells appear to be 
hemispherical. It is only when you view it with the openings of 
the cells towards you that plane surfaces are visible, and these are 
presented by the flat partitions between the cells. You will also 
perceive that were the now partially circular outline of the opening 
of one of these cells to be carried on and completed, it would en- 
croach upon tiie two neighbouring cells. 

This specimen originally formed part of an enormous hornet's 
nest, the nest consisting, as usual, of a number of horizontal slabs 
composed of cells, and a thick covering enclosing the whole and 
constructed of the same materials as the cells. The covering, in 
parts, was very irregular, no doubt arising from the situation in 
which the nest was placed (most probably in a hollow tree). On 
its inner surface were many small cavities, in several of which were 
small rudimentary nests, or rather portions of comb. They were 
evidently not completed, on account of the confined space not per- 
mitting of further progress. It was from one of these cavities 
that the specimen exhibited was taken. 

Here are two other small bits of comb from the small cavities 
spoken of. The cells are increased in number, but are less ad- 
vanced than in tlie first piece. This (PI. XIII. fig. 2), the smallest 
piece of comb, shows four cells in a rudimentary condition ; the 
most advanced of these cells (and no doubt the one first com- 
menced) is nearly hemispherical ; attached to this is a second cell, 
rather less advanced, and in the interspace of these two cells are 
two others, presenting a still earlier condition. The smaller of 
these latter has its outer free portion nearly semicircular, whilst 
the inner half is formed by portions of the two adjoining cells, 
these portions presenting curves encroaching upon the small rudi- 
mentary cell. The partitions between the other three cells show 
a slight tendency to become flattened. Comparing this piece of 

K 2 



118 Mr. G. R. Waterhouse 07i the 

comb with the piece to which 1 first drew attention, it will be 
seen that the diameter of each of these rudimentary cells is less 
than that of the more advanced cells. The most advanced of the 
four cells is already half-surrounded by the adjoining cells. 

This piece (PI. XIII. fig. 3), from the same great nest, is still fur- 
ther advanced. It consists of a comparatively deep cell (a) — still, 
however, nearly hemispherical — and five other cells in different 
stages of progress, enclosing about five-sixths of its circumference. 
Viewing this piece (exhibiting the foundations of six cells) in 
connexion with the other pieces exhibited, and, again, with a 
piece of comb in a still more advanced state, where all the cells 
are of one diameter, and all (except the outermost series) are 
hexagonal, it seems to me impossible to avoid the conclusion that 
the deepest and most advanced of the six cells was the one first 
formed ; that the cell next formed was this one, which, you will 
perceive, is rather more advanced than the other cells surrounding 
the first one, and that this little shelf (6), with a very gently con- 
cave inner surface, was the last work of the insect ; it is the com- 
mencement of the sixth cell. 

The work here is somewhat rude and irregular, as compared 
with that seen in cells more advanced in condition. For instance, 
this (c), which from its state of advancement must have been the 
fifth cell commenced, unlike the other cells surrounding the first 
one, does not come in immediate contact with it ; at least, the par- 
tition between cell («) and cell (c) is double the usual thickness. 
I have already described how the first cells constructed form, as 
it were, a mere expanded portion of the previously formed stalk. 
This stalk is more or less irregular, and in this particular instance 
it is strengthened by a lateral pillar, on the summit of which the 
fifth cell is commenced. Again, the axes of the cells surrounding 
the first cell are not equidistant. The centres of the shallow little 
cavities, presented by the earliest condition of the cells, are more 
approximated than in those which are more advanced ; but of 
necessity, if the work is continued, the centres must be gradually 
shifted as the work proceeds, until the whole of the cells sur- 
rounding the first one shall have attained their full diameter. 
Then, the diameters of all the cells being equal, the circumference 
of cell 1 must admit of six other (and only six other) cells being 
joined to it. 

I have still other points to notice in connection with this par- 
ticular piece of comb. Here the first formed cell (or rather part 
of a cell, for we see no perfect cells in any of these specimens) is 
purely circular in its horizontal section, whilst the second and 



Formation of the Cells of Bees and Wasps. 1 1 9 

tliird cells are separated by a flat partition. These are slight 
irregularities in the work, and I dwell upon them because I 
believe that it is only by bestowing close attention to such points 
that we shall arrive at any satisfactory solution of the problem 
furnished by the hexagonal form of the cells of these insects. 

Lastly, I will notice, that notwithstanding the very small 
amount of work that has been bestowed upon these six rudi- 
mentary cells, there is still a small portion of another cell visible. 
This little shelf ((/), which springs from the angle between two 
marginal cells, is clearly the commencement of a cell.* 

• The pieces of comb just described are undoubtedly the woric of the neuter 
insects. Mr. Smith, our best authority for all that appertains to llie Ilymenopterous 
insects, thus describes the early work of the female wasp: — "She begins by 
making three circular saucer-shaped receptacles, in eacli of which she deposits 
•"i 6gg ; she then proceeds to form other similar shaped receptacles, until the 
eggs first deposited are hatched, and the young grubs require a share of her 
attention. From the circular bases she now begins to raise her hexagonal cells — 
not building them up at once, but from time to time raising them as the young 
grubs grow." See Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1858, p. 35. 

From certain specimens before me of the early work of the female wasp, I will 
make a slight addition to the above. These specimens, being forwarded for the pur- 
pose by Mr. Stone, were exhibited by Mr. Smith at our last meeting (in February ; 
see Proc. Ent. Soc. 1864, p. 2), and are now again before you for inspection. 
'I'hey have kindly been placed in my hands for examination since their first exhi- 
bition. Amongst these specimens is a single isolated cell, or rather a commence- 
ment of a cell — it being the first one constructed by the insect. It is in the form of 
a low, hollow cone, the pointed end being attached to a small stalk, and is about 
one-eighth of an inch in height, and of the same width at its opening. Under a 
magnifying glass it appears to be built entirely of glistening, whitish, silk-like 
threads, which I have little doubt are a secretion from the insect, all the threads 
being firmly attached together as if they had originally been of a glutinous nature. 
Of two other specimens, one shows three low, hollow cones, each cone united to two 
others, and at their junction having flattish partitions. The third specimen shows 
four such cones, with flat partitions between them. The largest of these cones 
scarcely exceeds the first isolated cone in size, and there are some which are de- 
cidedly smaller. Under a lens the work appears rather rude and irregular, the apices 
of the cones not springing from the same level, and the so-called flat partitions only 
in a rude manner sketching out the future hexagon. These cells differ from those 
formed by the neuters, later in the season, in being of smaller size, and in appa- 
rently having no admixture of foreign substances (such as masticated dead or 
rotten wood, which appears to be most commonly used) in their composition ; and 
I cannot help thinking that the extreme economy of material which is apparent in 
the spring nest formed by the female wasp, not only in the formation of the cells, 
but likewise in that of their covering, has connexion with the nature of the 
material used. Almost simultaneously with the commencement of the cells, it 
appears that the nest-covering is commenced. At first it has the appearance of 
a miniature umbrella, serving to shelter the rudimentary cells. As the cells pro- 
gress so does the thin covering, by additions to the free edge, until, when com- 



120 Mr. G. R. Waterhouse on (he 

I will now call attention to some pieces of comb of another 
species of wasp, the Vespa oriental'is. These specimens may be 
seen in the British Museum. Here the cells, instead of being 
built of minute fragments of wood, glued together by a secre- 
tion from the insect, as in the case of the pieces of comb of 
the common hornet which I exhibit, are built of clay, and the 
work is extremely beautiful and true. Under the same glass 
shade are three slabs of comb of this Indian hornet (a large piece 
and two small slabs) ; one of the small slabs is fractured in 
parts ; the other is perfect, and this I will endeavour to describe, 
for if taken in connexion with what has already been said of the 
specimens exhibited, I think I shall then have directed your 
attention to some very important facts connected with the matter 
in hand. 

This slab of comb is nearly round, rather more than two 
inches in diameter, and contains thirty-five cells in different 
stages of progress. Both surfaces of the slab are gently convex. 
All the cells form equilateral hexagons, excepting those which 
belong to the outer or marginal series. A few of the cells in the 
central part of the slab may be said to be complete, or very 
nearly so, having attained their full depth ; and from the centre 
towards the margin the cells are successively less deep. Those 
on the margin, however, vary considerably in their depth, or, we 
may say, in their state of progress. Many of them have attained 
about half their full depth, and most of these are, at the opening 
of the cell, nearly true hexagons ; each of them is in contact with 
four other cells, and each one of four of its sides thus forms a 
partition common to two cells. These sides meet so as to form 
true angles, but the two remaining sides of each cell, which as 
yet are not in contact with other cells, are less truly flat, and at 
their junction form a slightly rounded angle. Viewing these cells 
on the outer surface, we perceive that the imperfect angular form, 
which the cell has attained at its opening, rapidly disappears 
towards the base of the cell, which is rounded. Besides these 
half-formed cells, which have two free sides, there are two half- 
formed cells that are in contact only with three of the inner series 
of cells, and these two have three free sides each, which sides 
meet so as to form two slightly rounded angles at the outlet of 

plete, it assumes a spherical form, but with an opening on the lowest part for the 
ingress and egress of the wasp. A second, and even a third covering successively 
follow, and aie detached from each other. The largest of the nests exhibited by 
Mr. Stone is scarcely equal to a hen's egg in bulk, and the smallest is not larger 
than a medium-sized walnut. 



Formation of the Cells of Bees and Wasps. 121 

the cell, whicli angles disappear towards the base of the cell, as 
in the other, much more common, form of half-constructed cells. 
The other cells of the external series are less advanced and show 
no trace of angles externally, the outline of the part not in contact 
with other cells being, in a horizontal section, in the form of a 
segment of a circle. These latter cells have not attained their 
full diameter. 

I have now to refer to some other specimens which I exhibit; 
and, first, to two cells, which were constructed by a bee — Osmia 
leucomclana. They are formed of mud ; and each cell is built 
separately. The female bee having deposited a small pellet of 
mud in a sheltered spot, between some tufts of grass, imme- 
diately commences to excavate a small cavity in its upper sur- 
face, scraping the mud away from the centre towards the margin 
by means of her jaws. A small shallow mud-cup is thus pro- 
duced. It is rough and uneven on the outer surface, but beau- 
tifully smooth on the inner. On witnessing thus much of the 
work performed, I was struck with three points: 1st, the rapi- 
dity with which the insect worked ; 2ndly, the tenacity with 
which she kept her original position whilst excavating; and, 
Srdly, her constantly going over work which had apparently been 
completed ; at every fresh addition of material brought up to 
the margin of the cell, the bee worked back again in the cavity 
which was already rendered smooth. To continue the cell, more 
material has to be sought for. It is added to the margin of 
the little cup first scooped out, and is wrought, by scraping, 
on the inner side ; and here, again, it is certain that the bee 
does not entirely confine the work of her jaws to the additional 
material, but again passes them over the old work, and hence 
the part of the work already completed has a certain influence 
upon that which follows. The curves first formed have an in- 
fluence upon those that follow, and, if continued, they would 
return again into themselves; that is to say, the cell would be- 
come a hollow sphere, but the tendency to this form is partially 
overcome by the fact that the cell has to be constructed by exca- 
vation, and by an insect which, when at work, is on the outside of 
it. The effect is, that it gradually passes from the spherical 
towards the cylindrical form, but never quite attains the latter, for 
the sides gradually close in, and ultimately the aperture becomes 
too contracted for the bee to insert her head and to carry on the 
work as before. Still fresh mud is added to the margin of the 
cell, but only to the inner edge, and this is continued horizontally, 



122 Mr. G. R. Waterhouse on the 

ring after ring of mud, till the cell is closed in by a lid ; the lid is 
excavated and rendered concave on its outer or upper surface, 
and is convex and rough on its inner surface, and, in fact, is 
a simple repetition of the first -formed portion of the cell, a 
part of a hollow sphere ; and if the work proceeded beyond 
this point, there can be little doubt that this lid of a cell would 
become the bottom of another similar cell, and thus we should 
have the cells joined end to end, and with a common straight 
axis, as we see in the cells of certain other bees — Megachile for 
instance ; here, however, the cells are deposited in cylindrical 
burrows made in the ground, and the cells themselves are cylin- 
drical. I have witnessed the construction of the first part of the 
cell of the Osmia, and I have seen cells in all states of progress 
from that part to their completion. The completed Osmia cell 
strongly reminded me of the isolated cells built by the hive-bee 
for the queen-bee larva ; the general form is the same to this 
extent, — they are both hemispherical at the base, and gradually 
approach the cylindrical form towards the mouth of the cell. 

I have still one other form of cell, to which I wish to direct 
your attention. These two cells, like those of the Osmia, are 
constructed of mud, but the insect that formed them (a species of 
Eumenes) belongs to the wasp tribe. Whilst the Osmia is a short 
stout insect with short legs, the Eumenes is slender and has long 
legs. The cell of the Osmia would be completely filled by the 
pupa of the insect reared in it ; but that of the Eumenes is much 
larger when compared with the size of the insect that constructed 
it. This difference in the proportionate size of the cells has, no 
doubt, reference to the kind of food which has to be stored up 
for feeding the larva. Furthermore, these cells differ from those 
of the Osmia in being almost perfectly spherical. They remind 
one of certain water bottles, and, like them, have a short neck, 
through which is the opening into the nest. The opening is very 
small, but I have little doubt would permit the insect to enter the 
cell ; but, on the other hand, I much doubt whether she could 
perform the whole of the work of its construction from the outer 
side. I believe, indeed, that in executing the latter part of the 
work, at least, the insect was inside the cell. However this may 
be, here is a cell, the foundation of which was laid down in seg- 
ments of circles of much larger size than those seen in the cell of 
the Osmia, and, in connexion with this, we have the fact, that 
the comparatively long legs of the Eumenes would give it the 
power of a far greater stretch, supposing that her work was com- 



Fvrmation of the Cells of Bees and Wasps. 123 

menced and carried on like that of the Osmia. In this case you 
observe there are two cells joined side by side ; but as in other 
similar cells constructed by species of Eumenes which have come 
under my notice the cells are isolated,* there can be little doubt 
these two cells were constructed separately. 

I compared the cell of the Osmia to that of the queen-bee of 
the hive, and I regret that I am unable to exhibit a perfect spe- 
cimen of a queen's cell. On this piece of honeycomb, however, 
you will see two half- formed queen's cells, and I am anxious that 
you should notice the peculiarities in the work of the hive-bee in 
the region of these cells. In order to form a foundation for one 
of these large cells, it being attached to a very irregular surface, 
an abundance of wax is used. The foundation being formed, 
however, this superfluous wax is not allowed to remain, but the 
bees immediately commence its removal, and it is evident that 
many must be engaged in this work. The queen's cell is bur- 
rowed into in all parts. Where the wax is thinner, the surface of 
the cell is covered with little shallow, circular pits ; where thicker, 
the pits are deeper and of larger diameter ; and what is worthy 
of remark is, that these pits are very rarely confluent, they are 
separated by walls of the same height. Lastly, at the base of 
the cell where the wax is thickest, the pits have, some of them, 
assumed the hexagonal form of the ordinary cells, but they are 
of but little depth and apparently useless. Between these and the 
small pits first noticed, there are other pits showing every inter- 
mediate condition, — some partly rounded and partly angular, and 
in those that are angular, the number of straight sides is very 
variable. Here are two little pits having a common flat partition 
between them, but which are elsewhere circular. The bottoms of 
the pits, moreover, are either circular or angular ; but, in all cases, 
it will be seen, upon examining them attentively, that wherever 
the pits are bounded by flat sides, the flat sides form the common 
partitions between themselves and adjoining cavities. This irre- 
gularity is not confined to the region of the queen's cells, but 
occurs frequently in other parts of the comb. In the pieces of 
comb on the table there are cells with five and with seven-)- sides : 
there are cells, which, instead of having three plates at the bottom, 

• One of these isolated cells is figured by Mr. Smith in his " Catalogue of 
Hymenopterous Insects in the Collection of the Biilish Museum." See Part V. 
Vespldie, plate 6, fig. 7. 

t Two specimens of 7-siJed cells exhibited are cells of rather larger diameter 
than usual, and have surrounding them six cells varying sligliiiy in size, and a 
small abortive seventh cell. I'he sides of the 7-sided cell are therefore unequal. 



124 Mr. G. R. Waterhouse on the 

have but one plate ; each of such cells being exactly opposed to 
one other cell on the opposite side of the comb.* 

and it is only al the mouth of the cell that the seven sides appear. 5-sided cells 
are common, this being the usual form of the cells of the first-formed tier in the 
hive, cells which are on one side in contact with the roof of the hive, and aie 
surrounded at other parts by four cells. 

• In the British Museum is a nest of one of the slender-bodied wasps which 
is well worth examination in connexion with any theory intended to explain the 
form of the cells. The nest in question has its upper part dome-shaped, and is 
built round a stout stick. The under part is closed in by a thin covering, the 
outer surface of which is gently convex (excepting at one part, where a small 
area is depressed and slightly concave). It furnishes an extensive surface, being 
between seven and eight inches in diameter. A small opening is left in this 
lower envelope of the nest for the ingress and egress of the wasps. Nearly the 
whole of its surface is covered by a network of rudimentary cells, the average 
depth of the cells being about the eighth of an inch ; those on the concave part, 
however, are much deeper. The cells covering the chief part of this area are 
truly hexagonal, and the bottoms of the cells are flat or very nearly so. Notwith- 
standing the beautiful regularity which prevails in this work, there are, in certain 
parts, some remarkable aberrations from the normal conditions. The most ir- 
regularly formed cells are those on the margins of the nest-covering. Here the 
lower edges of the dome-shaped upper and outer covering of the nest descend and 
hang down like a curtain, with an average width of about half an inch, which 
serves to protect the comb being constructed on the under covering of the nest, 
and which in time, had the structure proceeded, would itself have been inclosed. 
The cells which come in contact with this curtain are so built that the curtain 
forms their outer boundary, and most of them are pentagonal, but with very 
unequal sides, the partitions which separate them from each other being often 
twice, and sometimes three times as long as those which separate the marginal 
from the sub-marginal cells. These cells, moreover, are frequently confluent, 
some of the partitions which should have separated them not being carried up, 
but sketched out, as it were, by an indistinct ridge ; in short, so variable are 
these marginal cells, that one may safely say there are no two alike. In other 
parts are some singular modifications in the forms of the cells. I will notice 
one particular cell and a few others that are near to it. This cell has six sides ; 
two longer sides which meet as nearly as possible at a right angle, and one 
very short side. From this short side extend two sides of an adjoining cell, 
and these form part of the boundary of a cell with five unequal sides, two of 
which sides do not meet so as to form a true angle, for the angle is rounded (I so 
express it for brevity sake). From this rounded angle runs out one of those rudi- 
mentary partitions which merely sketch out the boundaries of what I have termed 
confluent cells. Again, joining the cell first noticed, and also adjoining each 
other, are two cells which are very nearly square, each having four long sides 
and one extremely short one ; these again join a cell which has seven unequal 
sides, I will only further add, with respect to this nest that there is a con- 
siderable area round the thick stick which passes through the nest on which cells 
have not been commenced, and that nearly the whole of the cells which abut 
upon this area (and they are numerous) have their free margin rounded ; in one 
or two only is the outer margin rendered angular. 



Formation of the Cells of Bees and Wasps. 125 

Now the chief difference between the hive-bee's cell and that of 
the wasp is, that, in the former, the bottoms or bases of the cells 
are made up of plane surfaces ; whilst, in the case of the wasp, 
the cells are hemispherical (or nearly so) at the base ; never 
showing either angles or plane surfaces. And the difference in 
the slabs of comb made by the two insects is this : a slab of wasp 
comb consists only of one layer of cells ; all the cells opening out 
in one direction ; whilst the slab of honeycomb presents cells on 
both surfaces, those on one surface being united to those of the 
opposite side by their bases, and, consequently, the openings of 
tlie cells of the two sides of the slab are in opposite directions. 
When it is stated (as is often done) that, in this case, each cell is 
exactly opposed to three other cells, only the more common con- 
dition of the honeycomb is described, for there is considerable 
variation in this respect, as I have already shown ; and the number 
of the plates of which the base of the cell is composed, as well as 
their form and proportions, is varied accordingly. This difference 
in the form of the bases of the wasp cells and that of the hive bee, 
connected, as it is, by contact of opposing cells, on the one hand, 
and non-contact on the other, furnishes a very striking fact in 
connexion with the subject under consideration. 

But the cells of the honey-bee are not always angular at the 
base nor at the sides, as appears from certain experiments made 
by Mr. Tegetmeier. " My first experiment" (says this gentleman) 
" consisted in placing a flat parallel-sided block of wax in a hive 
containing a recent swarm. In this the cells were excavated by the 
bees at irregular distances. In every case where the excavation was 
isolate it was hemispherical, and the wax excavated was added at 
the margin, so as to constitute a cylindrical cell. As other exca- 
vations were made in contact with those previously formed, the cells 
became flat-sided, but, from the irregularity of their arrangement, 
not necessarily hexagonal.'' * 

The hexagonal cells I have been speaking of have for the most 
part been built under conditions which would not permit of the 
full diameter of the cell being carried out ; but in the wasp comb, 
like that of the hive-bee, there are cells of larger size, which often 
appear quite suddenly, and extend over a considerable extent of 
surface : in the hive-bee they are known as the drone's cells. Upon 
measuring these carefully, Ilind that their average diameter is equal 
to that of the ordinary cells, if measured across the centre from 

• See Report of the 28th Meeting of the British Associalion. "Transactions 
of the Sections," p. 132. 



126 Mr. G. R. Waterhouse on the 

angle to angle, and I assume, therefore, that they are cells having 
the full diameter permitted by the stretch of the insect, as it 
ordinarily works in cell-building ; such cells would merely touch 
each other were they cylindrical (whereas, in the smaller cells, the 
natural outlines would intersect), and there would be in their 
interstices a certain amount of superfluous material, which the 
instinctive propensities of the insects would lead them to remove ; 
for, as I have before pointed out, their cells are carried up from 
the original foundation by adding material to their margins, and 
this is followed by excavation on the inner side. 

I have now to speak of those cells on the margin of the wasp 
comb which are more or less angular on the outer side, and yet, 
at that part, are not in contact with other cells. 

It has been stated that after the marginal cells have been carried 
lip to a small extent the next work of the wasp is to commence 
other cells in the angles between each pair of these cells ; thus 
converting the cells which were marginal into inner cells, and that 
then the sub-marginal cells become truly angular and hexagonal. 

Let 1, 2 and 3 (PI. XIII. fig. 4) be three partially constructed 
marginal cells ; and let a and b be two cells commenced in the 
angles between them ; it is clear that the work performed on the 
cells 1, 2 and 3 can no longer belong entirely to those cells, — they 
being continued by the insect almost simultaneously with the cells 
a and b. So much work as is bestowed upon cell 2 on its outer 
side must equally form part of the walls of cells a and b ; and the 
work of cells a, b must in part belong to cells 1, 2 and 3. As these 
cells (a and b) moreover increase in size, part of the work in each 
must be common to the two, viz., at the point d, where they will 
become united. The force, then (I will so put it), that is thrown, 
for instance, on that part of cell a that comes in contact with cell 
2, is met by another force in cell 2 at that part in which it is in 
contact with cell a ; and the two forces are equal. If the cells 
2, a and b are to be carried up together, there is no reason why 
any one should encroach on any other, but the contrary. 

When the insect is at work with its head in cell 6, there must 
be a certain time during which its work is bestowed on the part 
which is common to cell b and cell 2, and at another time it will 
be at work upon the part which is common to cell b and cell 3. 
It works, then, to the left and to the right equally, and we must 
suppose that the axis of its body is in the direction of the partition 
which separates cells 2 and 3 ; and, taking the size of the wasp 
and of its cell into consideration, we may add that its abdomen 
would be extended across another cell (4) behind these. 



Formation of the Cells of Bees and Wasps. 1 27 

If cell a had been previously commenced, we can see that tlie 
work afterwards performed in cell b might be restricted on the 
side next that cell ; but on the opposite side, which is not so re- 
stricted, the work is not laterally extended beyond the same point; 
and I infer from this, that when the insect is in the position men- 
tioned (and there is no disturbing cause*), its power of stretch 
controls the diameter of the cell, as appeared to be the case with 
the Osmia. That from a certain point, which shall be, we will say, 
the centre of cell b, the stretch being in all directions equal from 
the centre, nuist describe a circle, and at the same time it must be 
equal, in each direction from the centre, to one side of a hexagon, 
the angles of which would touch that circle. 

Cell-building consists of a constant repetition of similar work, 
and of similar parts of the work. Let us see what would be the 
effect of such repetition upon the cell 3. Cells 1, 2 and 3 are 
partly built and are marginal cells ; cells 4 and 5 are within these, 
and are more advanced. The next operation, according to tlie 
usual course, would be to commence the building of cells a and b, 
the first atom of material laid down for these cells being in the 
angle between cells 2 and 1, or 2 and 3. The position of the insect 
in building cell a I suppose to be in the direction of the partition 
between cells 1 and 2 and across cell 5 ; that for building cell b 
would be in the direction of the partition between cells 2 and 3 
and across cell 4. Cell 2, then, is enclosed at all parts, and has 
assumed a truly hexagonal form, and to complete this hexagon the 
insect has worked alternately in cell 2 and in cells a and b. But 
a repetition of part of the work would have produced the same 
effect on cell 2. The axis of the insect being in the direction a 5, 
and suitable for building cell a, the insect might work alternately 
inside and outside of a part of cell 2, and thus produce the 
straight partition between cell a and cell 2. Again, the position 
of the insect being altered, as it would be, to build cell 6, that is 
in the direction b 4, by the same operation the partition between 
cells b and 2 would become straightened. At the same time the 
same position enables the insect to work alternately likewise in 
cells 3 and b, and to produce a flat partition between them. The 
inner half of the circumference of cell 3 has been converted into 
three sides of a hexagon ; externally it furnishes two entering 
angles d and e. Let the work be repeated as before described, 

• Under different conditions to those above indicated — as, for instance, in the 
construction of tlie nest-covering — the insect evidently does not keep its body 
fixed in position while at work. Here the work is performed with shilling centres, 
and segments of very large circles are exhibited in all parts of the work. 



128 Mr. G. R. Waterliouse on the 

the insect working with the axis of its body in the same relative 
direction to the cells; say, first, in the direction cZ 2, and, secondly, 
in that of e 2 ; then two more flat sides to cell 3 may be pro- 
duced by simple repetition of similar work ; and, lastly, the side 
f 4 being now straight, furnishes a position through which the 
insect may operate upon the side which still remained untouched. 
Thus it is possible, by mere repetition of similar work under 
similar conditions, to alter a cell having a circular section into an 
hexagonal cell; the cell in question being only in contact with two 
other cells. 

In the foregoing it is assumed that the wasp is at work on a 
plane surface — on a piece of comb in which the openings of the 
cells are all on the same level, and it brings about conditions 
which VERY NEARLY accord with those which actually present 
themselves. 

The surface of the forming comb, however, is not a plane one, 
but is more or less convex, and the young cell on the margin of 
the comb, as I have had to point out, opens out obliquely, dipping 
away from the level of the next inner series of cells ; and it is 
obvious in this case that the stretch of the insect would be more 
or less restricted. The insect, for example, which is at work in 
cell a, might reach to the right and to the left on the outer 
surface of cells 1 and 2, but it would only be to some point short 
of the centre of the exposed surface of cells 1 and 2, and some- 
thing shorter than the side of the hexagon ultimately attained. 
And if the wasp were to work (as it very often will do) on the 
outer surface of a cell having the position of cell 2, but without 
having the adjoining cells a and b in contact, it would have the 
power of flattening the once-rounded outer wall, from the entering 
angle on either side towards, but not quite to, the centre of the 
free margin, and there would, therefore, he no true angle formed 
at that part ; and this corresponds cxaclhj with the conditions 
ordinarily presented. 

I have now described the cells constructed by the wasp, and 
tliose of allied insects ; and I have likewise described the cells of 
certain bees, and compared together the works of these two tribes 
of insects, In so doing I have endeavoured to set down the 
leading facts exactly as they present themselves, and not to be 
influenced by any theoretical views. Subsequently, I have 
endeavoured to harmonise those facts, and this part of the com- 
munication only, I think, can in any way be regarded as theo- 
retical. Here I may, and probably have, erred in endeavouring 
to explain too much ; but setting aside certain minor points, I 



Formation of the Cells of Bees and Wasps. 129 

believe I have clearly shown that there is one common principle 
in action exhibited in the work of all these insects — I might 
include the work of other tribes of insects, or I might point to the 
works of other animals, the bird's nest for instance — and that is 
the principle of working in segments of circles : that the hexa- 
gonal form of the cells of certain bees and wasps may, and 
does, arise out of this mode of action when under certain con- 
ditions : that those conditions are, that the cells are so com- 
menced that their natural circumferences, as the work proceeds, 
are either simply brought into contact with each other, or that the 
cells are so placed that the (vve will say theoretical) circum- 
ference^ must intersect. Contact with adjoining cells then is an 
essential condition to bring about the hexagonal form,* but for 
this result it is not necessary that a hexagonal cell should be 
completely surrounded by other cells. 

• As I have before pointed out in this Society's rooms. See Proc. Ent. Soc. 
1858, p. 17. 



( 131 ) 



III. On the Construction of Hexagonal Cells by Bees and 
Wasps. By Frederick Smith, late Pres. Ent. Soc. 

[Read 4lh April, 1864.] 

At the March meeting of tliis Society, Mr. Waterhouse pro- 
pounded his theory of tlie construction of hexagonal cells by bees 
and wasps, and, supposing his to be the true solution of the 
problem, we are asked to accept it as explanatory of the manner 
in which all social insects form them. For years past I have had 
constant opportunities of examining nests of the social Hymen- 
optera, and I also formed a beautiful assortment of specimens for 
my own study ; the result has been a conviction on my own part, 
that a different process obtains in different species; not that each 
particular species differs from all others, but that a variety of 
modes is observable amongst them in constructing hexagonal 
cells. 

A mud-cell was exhibited to us by Mr. Waterhouse, and its 
mode of construction explained ; whilst building this cell, the 
insect was stated to have always placed itself in one fixed position 
when at work, and the diameter of its cell was said to have been 
determined by the distance the insect could reach when thus at 
work. Now in that particular instance it no doubt was so; but 
had a hemispherical excavation of a similar diameter been made 
by a species of SpJiex, by Ammoph'da lutaria for instance, that 
insect would have gone to work in a very diflferent way. Am- 
mophtla is three times the size of the bee, but she would 
have moved round and round in different directions, until the 
same result was produced. Large insects frequently construct 
cells of smaller diameter than others built by smaller insects ; 
and individuals of the same species may be observed at one 
time laboriously constructing cell after cell, whilst another is 
seen to avail itself of some ready-formed cavity, if equally 
adapted to its purposes. I am here alluding to solitary species; 
but I will show you this evening, that hive -bees will avail 
themselves of extraneous aid, and that if furnished with a series 
of pyramidal bases, they will readily erect hexagonal walls 
thereon ; and I think you will see, that bees can form hexagonal- 
shaped cells without working in a circular direction at all, and 

VOL. II. THIRD SEUIES, PART II. — AUGUST, 1 8G4. L 



132 Mr. F. Smith on the Construction of 

also without making circular excavations so close to each other 
as to necessitate the transformation into hexagonal cells, but 
which were intended to be cylindrical. 

You were invited, at our last meeting, to arrive at the con- 
clusion that all hexagonal cells were constructed in accordance 
with what is called the circular theory ; that cell after cell arose 
from consecutively constructed hemispherical bases. An ex- 
amination of a large number of nests has enabled me to ascertain 
that cells are constructed upon hemispherical, oval, pyramidal 
and also upon plane or flat bases. I have observed that cells are 
built upon bases consecutively formed, and also that the bases of 
entire combs are prepared before a single cell is constructed. 
Examples of each I shall lay before you, and having done so, I 
shall be much interested to have it shown, that all these various 
modes of building are in perfect accordance with the theory pro- 
pounded to this Society at its last meeting. 

Some writers upon the wonders of the hive have endeavoured 
to show that the hexagonal form of cell is, in some degree, neces- 
sitated for reasons that appear to me to have little weight. Saving 
of space is put forth as one ! Surely not saving of space simply as 
such, without some collateral bearing, because the bees in a 
natural state are not constrained to occupy any particular-sized 
cavity. Then the saving of wax is supposed to operate, because 
wax is said to be a precious material secreted and elaborated in 
the stomach of the bee ; and also in consequence of its being 
produced only by a certain class of working bees ; but we must 
not lose sight of the fact, that hexagonal cells are not all built 
of wax ; the scrapings of plants or of wood, used by many 
species of wasps, are not a scarce material ; neither can mud, 
which is used by others, be said to be a precious or a rare 
material. Then as to the saving of labour, 1 cannot see that 
there is any better proof of this at all determining the desira- 
bility of the hexagonal-shaped cell ; if honey-bees were left to 
their own resources, in localities to which they are indigenous, I 
believe that, like all other insects, they would just perform the 
amount of labour necessary to carry out the ends for which they 
are designed in nature ; at the same time I see occasionally indi- 
viduals of the same species, one labouring day by day in the con- 
struction of a nidus adapted to its purposes, whilst another avails 
itself of one ready made, but totally different in every respect to 
that formed by her laborious sister, but one that will answer her 
purpose ; and in such instances I recognise a saving of labour. 
No, the hexagonal form of cell is the plan laid down by the 



Hexagonal Cells hy Bees and Wasps. J 33 

great Arcliitcct, and tlie bees are the builders tliat carry out His 
designs. 

In the year 1858 this subject was brouglit before tlie Society by 
Mr. Tegetmeier, and at that time Mr. Waterhouse explained the 
nnture of the circular theory, which, in his opinion, clearly elu- 
cidated the principle upon which all hexagonal cells are built by 
bees and wasps. My own observations on the mode of con- 
struction adopted by wasps, I found, in what was then assumed 
as essential to the formation of hexagonal cells, directly opposed, 
and I attempted, with such material as I at that time possessed, 
to combat the theory, which appeared to me inapplicable to the 
building of wasps ; and I had the pleasure of finding, shortly after- 
wards, that one of our most intelligent inquirers held the same 
opinion. 

Since that jieriod Mr. Brown has advocated Mr. Waterhouse's 
theory in the "Zoologist," and the former gentleman assumes it 
as a fact, that no bee or wasp has been known to construct a 
single isolated hexagonal cell ; contact with other cells, if I under- 
stand Mr. Brown rightly, being the essential condition which 
influences the hexagonal form j and if so, as regards complete 
cells, I take it for granted that it equally influences any portion 
of a cell that is raised into an isolated position ; therefore I feel 
that I am warranted in assuming that no portion of a hexagonal 
cell can possibly be carried up above the surrounding cells, if the 
premises are infallible. 

Mr. Brown gives it as his opinion, that *' every cell during its 
progress is impinged upon by six other cells, and as all progress 
at the same time, the united attempts of the workers to avoid 
interspaces and to expend no more wax than is necessary to the 
making of firm walls, produce inevitably the hexagonal structure." 
Mr. Tegetmeier has given it as the result of his experience, "that 
the outer portion of each cell is cylindrical until a fresh cell is 
added on its outer side, when the cell becomes an inner one, and 
its outer sides transformed into a hexagon." 

When this sul)ject was last brought before the vSociety, I ex- 
pressed my opinion to be, that the wasp commenced her comb 
with the intent instinctively to build hexagonal cells ; since that 
time, I have had many opportunities of examining nests of wasps 
and bees, and the result is, if possible, a more confirmed belief in 
my original opinion. I shall have the pleasure of offering to your 
notice a number of most interesting examples of the architecture 
of wasps, and of pointing out the facts upon which my opinions 
are based ; should I fail to prove my case to the satisfaction of a 

L 2 



134 Mr. F. Smith on the Construction of 

single individual, I still think the exhibition of the different 
methods adopted by wasps in building their combs cannot fail 
to prove interesting. 

It must not be supposed that all bees, or that all wasps, are 
equally skilful in constructing hexagonal cells; such is in fact far 
from being the case ; some species, like unskilful masons, produce 
very unfinished or rustic work. This observation applies to wax- 
working bees, as well as to paper- and pasteboard-working wasps. 
The cells of Trigonn are rude and unskilful in construction, when 
compared with the elegant and highly-finished structures erected 
by the hive-bee. Amongst the Vespidce, the wasps belonging to 
the extensive genus Polisles, that construct cells of a papery con- 
sistency, are rude and unskilful in their work, when compared 
with those belonging to the genus Chartergus, which construct 
cells of stiff cardboard. 

Wax is the material of which all honey-bees construct their 
cells ; it is of a soft plastic nature, and is capable of being 
moulded, cut or scraped into any shape with ease ; not so the 
pasteboard of wasps. The material of which the paper or 
cardboard is composed varies in different species ; some use 
scrapings of sound timber, this is the case with the Vespa 
Norvegica ; the nests of this wasp have a strength and durability 
adapting them for exposure to the vicissitudes of weather, being 
suspended to the branches of trees and shrubs ; the hornet and 
other wasps, on the contrary, select decayed wood, consequently 
their nests are exceedingly fragile, and would soon perish if 
exposed. Many exotic wasps use materials of a vegetable nature, 
scrapings of the stems of plants ; such is the material selected by 
pasteboard-working species ; so firm and strong is the outer case, 
as well as the cells, of these wasps, that it is a difficult matter to 
tear them asunder. A few species build their pensile habitations 
entirely of clay, some nests being as much as eight or nine inches 
in diameter, and of an oblong, or egg-shaped, form ; a specimen 
of an unfinished comb I shall lay before you. 

We will now examine a little into the differences observable in 
the architecture of bees and wasps. Honey-bees, as you all 
know, build double combs, and these depend from the roof 
of the hive ; the cells are consequently in a horizontal position. 
Tr'igonce (stingless honey-bees) construct single combs; they are 
arranged horizontally, precisely like those of the common wasp, 
the mouths of the cells being consequently downwards ; the 
combs, like those of the wasp, are supported by short columns of 
wax, or a material closely resembling wax, and of an equally soft 



Hexagonal Cells hy Bees and Wasps. 135 

and ductile quality. Let me now direct your attention to the 
nests of various species of social wasps. The first which I 
will mention is the nest of Icaria guttalipennis ; this is the 
nest to which I referred at a former meeting, as being figured in 
my Catalogue of the Vespidce, and I incorrectly described it 
as being constructed of a single row of hexagonal cells ; it con- 
sists of a double row, the number of cells being ten; I now direct 
your attention to the fact that all the cells are perfectly hexagonal, 
the exterior planes being as beautifully finished as those in contact 
with the inner planes of the opposing cells. I have placed a 
drawing of this nest (numbered 1) in the box on the table, and 
I particularly wish you to observe, that the first cell is carried 
up in a perfectly hexagonal form above the adjoining cells; a 
proof that, if wasps never build perfect isolated hexagonal cells, 
they certainly possess the capability of doing so. The exterior 
of all the cells, as I before observed, is hexagonal, not cylindri- 
cal until fresh cells are added on the outer side, as was observed 
to be the case in combs of the hive-bee by Mr, Tegetmeier. (See 
PI. XIII. fig. B.) 

I now invite observation to a nest, numbered 2, in the box of 
specimens; the portions exhibited are those of the exterior of a 
nest of Ncctarina Lecheguana. The nest of this wasp is of 
globular shape, and is sometimes not less than sixteen or eighteen 
inches in diameter ; the foundation is a single comb, inclosed in 
a globular envelope ; on this envelope the wasps commence series 
of cells on all sides; these cells are covered in patches by en- 
velopes, — the envelope always serving as the foundation of a 
fresh series of cells : a repetition of the above process, on all 
sides of the continually-increasing nest, results in structures such 
as I have described. Now you will observe, that all the cells 
constructed by these wasps are built upon the flat outer en- 
velopes, and if you examine the specimens exhibited, you will see, 
in some instances, the faintest ground-plan of the hexagonal cell 
intended to be raised, traced on the flat foundation. 

No. 4 is a portion of a nest of Talua moiio, perhaps the 
most interesting specimen that I offer to your notice ; one that 
proves, to my mind, the primary-intention of the wasp, instinc- 
tively to build cells with exactly six sides. Tatua morio is a 
p.isteboard-maker ; she constructs a bell-shaped nest, the outer 
envelope being very strong and tough ; this woulfl appear to be the 
first portion constructed, and next the flat floors upon which the 
cells are built ; these floors are carried across the entire diameter 
of the nest, and attached to the outer envelope on all sides, each 
floor having a small circular opening left on one and the same 



136 Mr. F. Smith on the Construction of 

side, serving as a passage for the wasps from floor to floor, the 
entrance being at the bottom of the nest. 1 have sketched the 
section of one of these nests, and No. 4 in the box of speci- 
mens shows a portion of one of the floors, and also some un- 
finished cells. The nest sketched consists of nine chambers, all 
the floors are finished, but on the six upper ones only cells are 
constructed; a few are just commenced on the seventh. I have 
seen nests with cells on three floors only. In the nest sketched, 
the two lower floors are unoccupied, not a single cell having been 
commenced. In the box of specimens you will see one of these 
foundation floors without cells, and another upon which a number 
of the most beautiful hexagonal cells were in the course of con- 
struction. If the foundations of the planes of the exterior cells 
are examined, you will find one, two or more planes, clearly 
traced out as it were upon a ground-plan ; if plans, so self- 
evident of intention, do not prove the instinctive purpose of the 
architect, I cannot imagine anything to my mind more perfectly 
conclusive. (See PI. XIII. fig. D.) 

It may not be known to some members of the Society, that in 
order to expedite the building of honey-combs, it is a common 
practice with bee-keepers in Germany to furnish hives with 
artificial foundations for the cells ; these consist of sheets of wax, 
upon which is impressed a series of pyramidal hollows; in fact, 
the counterpart of a comb built by the bees themselves, entirely 
deprived of the cell- walls ; and it is from such a piece of comb 
that the casts for the artificial foundations are obtained. A piece 
of casting of this description I lay before you, and I particularly 
call your attention to the commencement of the outer cells ; you 
will see, in some instances, a single plane of the hexagonal cell com- 
menced, in others two or tiiree are in progress; here you have a 
ground -plan supplied, or, I may say, the foundations of the 
habitations ready prepared, upon which the labourers are to raise 
the walls, and you may see how admirably they have done it. 
Instinct enables the bee to construct hexagonal cells without 
teaching, and, we are told, in one undeviating manner. Surely the 
example before us exhibits an amount of intelligence on the part 
of the bees in availing themselves of such adventitious aid. 
Must we not henceforth, when speaking of the marvels of the 
hive or the vespiary, erase from our vocabulary such terms as 
blind instinct ; and must we not cease to stigmatize the bee as a 
mere machine ? 

Before passing on to other considerations, let us here ask our- 
selves, what assumption naturally arises in the mind when we see. 



Hexagonal Cells hy Bees and Wasps. 137 

as on the sheet of artificial bases exhibited, that the bees have at 
once availed themselves of this adventitious aid ? does it not 
almost naturally occur to us, that these hexagonal ground-plans 
must be exactly such plans as they are accustomed to erect their 
hexagonal cells upon ? does it not impress upon our minds the 
possibility, and even something more than that, the probability, 
tliat in whatever manner bees first commence their work, for 
instance, by making cylindrical excavations, does it not appear 
almost certain, that the bases of several cells are formed, and that 
each is perfectly pyramidal in shape, before a single wall is com- 
menced? Such must be the conclusion arrived at by all who 
believe that insects can only work in one direction, and I think it 
must be admitted, that the very fact of the bees at once accepting 
the plan furnished, argues strongly in favour of the supposition 
that bees, when left entirely to their own resources, construct a 
])recisely similar basement. 

I would now direct attention to a large piece of a comb of the 
common wasp, Vespa vulgaris, and also to another of drone cells 
of the hive-bee, ^fpis meUiJica, and I would point to a very marked 
difference in the construction of the cells ; those of the hive-bee 
have always, whether finished or unfinished, a thickened rim of 
wax, the sides of the cells themselves are so thin and brittle that 
a constant traversing of the working bees over them would other- 
wise break and more or less destroy them. It is quite evident 
then, that whenever an addition is made to the height of a cell, 
this thickened rim must be scraped down to the same thinness as 
the planes of the hexagon beneath. This rim is always found on 
the cells, even when no further addition is intended to be made. 

The wasp, you will observe, never requires a strengthening rim, 
the walls of her cells are carried up in hexagonal plar)es, to me, 
as evidently as if constructed by the hand of a mason. 

Does then the fact of the bee always adopting the thickened 
rim indicate a difierent process of building, whereby the hexa- 
gonal-shaped cell is ultimately produced ? or is it simply a neces- 
sity for insuring the safety of her work? Had it been removed 
when the cell was finishtd, I should have been led to suppose, 
tliat the cells of the hive bee were built by a different process ; 
but, as it is always present, it rather appears to indicate the neces- 
sity of the rim as a mode of securing and strengthening the work. 

So much, indeed, does the hexagonal principle appear to guide 
wasps in their operations, that one species, Apoica pallida, not 
only builds hexagonal cells, but she also, occasionally, constructs 
the entire comb itself of a hexagonal shape ; now, here is no 



138 Mr. F. Smith on the Construction of 

compelling power, here are no adjoining circular combs, forcing 
the production of this particular hexagonal-shaped comb ; the 
comb of this wasp consists of a single layer attached to trunks or 
branches of trees, &c., without any exterior envelope. I cannot, 
when I see such beautiful examples of the architecture of wasps, 
come to any other conclusion, than that, in instances such as the 
one I have just mentioned, it was the intention of the wasps to 
build hexagonal-shaped combs, and also their intention that those 
combs should consist entirely of hexagonal-shaped cells. 

I direct your attention to a small nest of PoUstes tepidus ; this 
nest appears to illustrate, and to establish as a fact, a supposition 
that has frequently occurred to me, namely, that the development 
of the larvae of Hymenoptera to the perfect condition must be a 
process much more rapidly carried on in tropical countries than 
in temperate ones, and that this rapidity of development ne- 
cessitates the more rapid construction of those cells in which the 
first eggs are deposited. The nest before you, I think, is an 
exemplification of this idea: five cells are completed, eacli having 
served as the nursery of a wasp ; twelve additional cells are com- 
menced, and are in different stages of progress. Now I would 
call your attention to one fact, that the circumference of the un- 
finished cell is not carried up equally, or to the same height on all 
sides ; you will observe that the two planes of each hexagonal 
cell that attach the unfinished cells to the finished ones are elevated 
obliquely considerably above the other planes ; when any cell is 
carried up to the height required, all the planes have an equal 
elevation ; therefore, it is clearly the case that the two inner planes 
that attached the unfinished cells to the finished ones must be first 
completed, leaving the two outer planes to be finished afterwards. 
This mode of construction is never, so far as my observation 
enables me to judge, to be observed in combs built by a populous 
community ; in such cases, all the sides of the cells are carried up 
simultaneously. 

I also exiiibit a comb of the common wasp, Vespa vulgaris 
(No. 8), it is exceedingly interesting from the fact of its consisting 
of cells of different sizes ; about three-fourths of the comb are 
occupied by cells of workers ; at this stage of formation it became 
necessary to construct cells of a larger diameter adapted for 
females ; this could not have been effected at once without a total 
disarrangement of their usual beautiful uniformity, but it could be 
done by degrees ; thus we find the bases of about four rows of 
cells elongated, the parallel planes of the hexagons being also 
elongated, and thus by degrees the enlargement of the cells is 



Hexagonal Cells by Bees and Wasps. 139 

effected. The cells beyond the intermediate elongated ones will 
be found to be regular hexagons of the increased dimensions re- 
quired. When I see such a departure from the usual mode of 
building as this, I recognize an intelligence that forces me to ac- 
knowledge in the wasp a creature that evidently designs an end to 
be accomplished, not a creature that would instinctively construct 
cylindrical cells, but whose labours always eventuate in the pro- 
duction of hexagonal ones, this result being dependent upon un- 
controllable circumstances which always present themselves. 
(See PI. XIII. fig. C.) 

Five years ago, when the circular theory was brought before 
this Society, it did not appear in the same guise as now ; it was 
then surrounded by certain collateral conditions, which I was led 
to believe were corner-stones of the ingenious edifice. Combina- 
tion of labour was deemed essential, and at one period it was 
supposed that no solitary bee or wasp could construct hexagonal 
cells ; this latter supposition proved to be a fallacy when I in- 
stanced the queen wasp as a solitary builder. In 18(i2, the Rev. 
Samuel Haughton, in a paper read before the Natural History 
Society of Dublin, says the hexagonal form of cell " may be ac- 
counted for simply by the mechanical pressure of the insects 
against each other during the formation of the cell. In conse- 
quence of the instinct that compels them to work with reference 
to a plane, and of the cylindrical form of the insects' bodies, 
the cells must be hexagons." This theory is, I think, at once 
disproved by the instance of the solitary wasp. 

Another condition, essential (as I understood it) to the stability 
of the circular theory, was that no cell could possibly be con- 
structed of the hexagonal form into which the builder could not 
insert its head. I exhibit the foundation comb of a wasp, and 
also the insect that constructed it (No. G in the box of specimens); 
I have taken off" the head of ihe wasp and placed it over one of 
the cells, in order to show the impossibility of its being inserted. 

The next condition that formerly existed was a circumstance 
that was supposed to regulate or determine the width of the 
planes of tlie hexagon ; the explanation was this — a working bee 
was supposed to place itself exactly opposite the centre of one of 
the planes, and then fixing itself steadily in the proper position, 
the width of the plane would be the exact distance that the bee 
cut or reached with its mandibles when turning its head as upon 
a pivot. Now this at first sight appears a very ingenious solution ; 
apparently it accounts admirably for the uniform exactitude ob- 
servable in the width of all the planes ; the uniformity of size in 



140 Mr. F. Smith on the Construction of 

the bees themselves also appears to add to the completeness of 
the theory ; but it soon occurs to us that the same bees afterwards 
construct the larger cells of the drones. And we are no better 
off if we look into the nest of the wasp, for we find the large 
queen constructing the small cells of the workers, and the workers 
constructing the large cells of males and females. 

I shall only mention one other position, still, I believe, upheld 
by the adherents to the circular theory ; it is that no bee or wasp 
ever builds an isolated hexagonal cell, or a cell of hexagonal 
form carried up above the adjoining cells. If you examine the 
nest of Icar'm guttatipennis, and also that of PoUstes Tasmaiiiensis, 
both of which are exhibited, I think you will be satisfied that in- 
stances to the contrary are before you. I would also invite 
attention to a nest of Vespa Norvegica (No. 7), in which a 
central hexagonal cell is only raised to about one-third of its in- 
tended height, and has only four planes of the hexagon im- 
pinged upon by adjoining cells, the fifth and sixth cells not being 
commenced ; this example will prove that the hexagonal form 
does not necessitate the impingement of six adjoining cells for its 
production, a position that has been laid down as being absolutely 
necessary. 

No doubt it will be said that I have not shown the principle 
of the circular theory to be inapplicable to the construction of 
all hexagonal cells, but I contend that I have done so in several 
instances — in the nests of Nectarina Lecheguana and of Tatua 
mono, both wasps that erect hexagons upon flat bases ; I have 
pointed out the fact that the commencements of single planes of 
the hexagon are to be found, in other cases of two or of three 
planes, and these beginnings exhibit not a trace of the circle 
any more than one, two, three or more pieces of masonry. I 
have shown that the bases of the cells of the common wasp, that 
constructs her cells upon consecutively formed bases, are hemi- 
spherical ; in the hive we know they are pyramidal ; and the bases 
of the transition cells, from those of the worker-wasp to those 
destined to contain females, partake more or less of the oval form. 

Mr. Brown in his Essay remarks that "hive-bees produce their 
ordinary comb-cells by the united efforts of many individuals. 
Owing to this circumstance, and also to their never building up 
cells at the margins of combs unflanked by the foundations of 
other cells, they afford us, when so employed, no opportunity of 
observing the fundamental scheme upon which they build." My 
opinions are formed entirely upon observation of different modes 
of building ; my conclusions have been forced upon me by facts, 



Hexagonal Cells by Dees and Wasps. 141 

in my opinion, conclusive of tlie primary intention of the builders 
to erect hexagonal cells. 

I have examined nests of wasps in every stage of progress ; I 
have found some species laying a separate foundation for each 
cell, wasps as well as bees; 1 have found some species of wasps 
constructing the entire foundations of a con)plete comb before a 
single wall of a cell was erected ; and I see bees furnished with a 
complete floor of artificial foundations, at once adopting this ad- 
ventitious aid. Then, again, I observe in nests of Tatua viorio, 
and of some other species of wasps, the walls of one, two, three 
or more planes of the hexagon more or less raised ; and, under 
these circumstances, what is the conclusion at which I naturally 
arrive? Why that all hexagonal cells are not constructed upon a 
circular principle, and that the primary idea of all social bees and 
wasps is not to produce cylindrical cells with hemispherical bases. 
I know not whether any one besides myself has arrived at a 
similar conclusion, or whether I stand alone in the opinion I have 
endeavoured to explain. 



Addendum. — It having been suggested that the nest of Icaria 
guttatipennis, of which I could only exhibit a sketch, might pos- 
sibly be only the portion of a nest in a state of demolition, I have 
re-examined it, ajid can vouch that such is not the case; only a 
few of the cells being carried up to their full height and lined with 
the exuvice of the larva. It has also been stated that wasps are 
well known to destroy their old nests ; such a circumstance is 
quite unknown to me, and I do not remember to have heard such 
a statement previously made. 

In order to place clearly before my readers the fact of Icaria 
building hexagonal cells with exterior portions of the cells angu- 
lated, I have had a drawing of a nest of another species made, in 
which none of the cells are carried up to the required height. 
(See PI. XIII. fig. A.) All the nests of this genus of wasp ap- 
pear to be constructed in the same manner, the sharpness and 
beauty of the hexagon varying according to the skill of the par- 
ticular species. 

I exhibited a nest oi Polisles Tasmaniensis in which a single cell 
was carried up above the surrounding cells, and it has been 
objected to as not being perfectly hexagonal : I have already 
stated that all bees and wasps are not equally skilful workmen, 
those belonging to the genus Polisles being instanced as " rude 



142 Mr. F. Smith on the Construction of Hexagonal Cells. 

and unskilful ;'' I admit that the elevated portion of the cell is 
not perfectly sharp and angular at the corners, but it is sufficiently 
so to prove the truth of my assertion. I recall attention to the 
cells of Icaria, which are exteriorly perfect in form, true hex- 
agons, and I direct attention to the cells, particularly the exterior 
ones, in the figure of the nest of Tatua morio ; it is to these I 
would point, and not to the least perfect example, as proofs of the 
fact of some species of wasps finishing the exterior portions of 
their cells in a perfectly hexagonal shape. — F. S., July, 1864. 



( 143 ) 



IV. On the Reversion and Restoration of the Silkworm. 
By Captain Thomas Hutton, F.G.S., of Mussooree, 
N. W. India. (Communicated by Mr. Frederic 
Moore.) 

[Read 2nd May, 1864.] 

Introductory Remarks. 

For many years past the utmost anxiety has prevailed on tlie 
European Continent, and more especially in France, in regard to 
the condition of the common silkworm, known to science as the 
Bombt/x Mori, the constitution of the worm appearing to be so 
thoroughly weakened and undermined, by diseases arising from a 
long and uniform course of domestication, bad nourishment and 
other prejudicial influences, as to excite the most lively appre- 
hensions lest the insect should suddenly become extinct. 

That such apprehensions are far from groundless may be seen 
in the fact that one form of disease by which the worm is attacked, 
known in France as " la muscardine," is said by M. Guerin- 
Meneville annually to destroy more than one-fourth of the worms; 
and it has been clearly shown by this eminent Entomologist, and 
by several experienced cultivators of silk, that the crop has, 
within the last ten years, dwindled down to about one-half of what 
it used to be. 

Various remedies have, of course, from time to time been tried 
for the purpose of arresting the progress of disease, sometimes 
with partial and temporary effect, but more generally without any 
success at all. 

In consequence of these maladies, and their inability to arrest 
them, the French, with prudent and praiseworthy foresight, are 
using every possible means to introduce and acclimatize other 
species, which may, in some measure, fill the commercial void 
which would be created by the loss of the common silkworm. 

Under these circumstances it occurred to me, that while assistinor 
our continental neighbours in tlie introduction of such wild species 
as occur within our Western Himalayan forests, I might as well 
at the same time endeavour if possible to reclaim and restore to 
health the most valuable species of the whole; and, consequently, 
for several years past I have studied and experimented upon the 
Bomhijx Mori and its domesticated congeners, with a degree of 
success which I now purpose to unfold. 



144 Captain T. Hutton on the 

In experimenting upon the worm I have not confined my efforts 
within the narrow limits of an endeavour to cure particular phases 
of disease, but to effect a permanent benefit in the restoration of a 
healthy and vigorous constitution, which, if accomplished, as I 
think it may be, will of itself not only cast out this or that par- 
ticular phase of disease, but all the diseases under which the worm 
is now labouring ; and I am fully convinced that until such radical 
change has been wrought, it will be but time and labour thrown 
away to seek to cure particular maladies as they appear. 

Hitherto the results of my experiments have been such as to 
warrant my entertaining the most sanguine hopes of ultimate 
success, provided the same system be carried on for a few years 
longer, when it will of course depend upon the cultivator to main- 
tain the advantages thus secured. 

Of all the groups comprised within the family o( the Bombycidce 
that in which the genus Bomhyx is contained, is, perhaps, in a 
commercial point of view, the most interesting and the most 
valuable. This genus contains, besides a few wild indigenous 
species widely scattered over the continent of India, all those long 
domesticated species popularly known as ^'silkworms," which were 
centuries ago imported into Europe from the northern provinces 
of China, where for many centuries previously they had likewise 
been kept in a state of domestication. 

Having, however, already, in a paper entitled *' Notes on the 
Silkworms of India," entered somewhat fully into the history of 
the Chinese species, I need not here travel over the same ground, 
but shall call attention to facts not previously noticed, and en- 
deavour, after exposing the folly of insisting, as some still ob- 
stinately do, upon the healthy and vigorous constitution of the 
insects, to show by how very simple a method the worms may be 
induced to revert from their present artificial and moribund con- 
dition to one of vigour and permanent health. 

Discovery of the Silktvorm. 

According to the commonly received chronology the discovery 
of the silkworm in China was made about the year b.c. 2640 ; and 
the means of reeling off", or unwinding the fibre from the cocoon, 
being also discovered, the regular domestication of the insect at 
once commenced. 

Whether the species then discovered was, in reality, that to 
which naturalists have since assigned the name of Bombyx Mori, 
or whether the discovery of more than one species then occurred, we 
have now no means of positively ascertaining; nor, indeed, does it 



Restoration of the Silkworm. 145 

much signify, as for the present, at least, it is with that known 
and cultivated in Europe as an annual that we have to deal ; but 
from a paragraph quoted by Mr. F, Moore from the " Account of 
the Ceremonies of the China Dynasty," it would appear as if 
more than one species was under cultivation at the time when the 
" Account" was written, inasmuch as it contains an allusion to a 
second crop of silk, when it says, — " the officer who adjusted the 
price of horses forbad the people to rear a second breed of silk- 
worms in one season." Now, whatever the Bombyx Mori may be 
when cultivated in Cashmere, Persia or Europe, it may un- 
doubtedly be made, in a suitable temperature, to produce an 
autumnal brood ; this, however, refers to the worm after having 
been submitted to my experiments for two or three years, and 
when, indeed, it may be said to be fast travelling back to a state 
of nature. The same thing occurs likewise with regard to another 
species which is also an annual, as far as I can learn, in all coun- 
tries, except Mussooree, in the Western Himalaya; this is the 
Boro Pooloo of Bengal, and Bombyx texlor (nobis), which, like the 
Bombyx Mori, yields an autumnal crop when treated in a particular 
temperature. This fact, indeed, has led some people to declare 
that the two are but varieties of the same species, and that in a 
state of domestication all may, by the application of certain tem- 
peratures, be made to yield several crops of silk annually. This, 
however, may fairly be denounced as pure nonsence, the occm- 
rence of the two crops arising solely out of the fact of our having 
in autumn a recurrence of the spring temperature, or what may be 
called a double season. Hence, since a particular degree of tem- 
perature causes the egg to hatch, whenever the season returns in 
which that temperature is produced, the young worm is of course 
excluded from the egg. It is quite possible then, and even pro- 
bable, that these species may originally have done the same in 
their native country, and the reason why they have ceased to be 
double-brooded in Europe and other localities is to be attributed 
solely to the uncongenial temperature, which is sometimes too 
high, at other times too low ; and with respect to those species 
which are termed " monthly" worms, if it were really the case 
that the number of crops is due to cultivation in warm climates, 
it ought to follow that, when domesticated in a cold climate, the 
frequent succession of silk crops should become less frequent, and 
the worm give symptoms of reverting to its old habits. Such, 
liowever, I have not found to be the case ; for although I have 
succeeded in obtaining two broods from Bombyx Mori of Cash- 
mere and B. tcxtor of China, yet the small monthly China worm 



J 46 Captain T. Hutton on the 

(fi. Sinensis, nob.) has continued yielding crop after crop even to 
the middle of December, when the eggs were again deposited in a 
temperature of 53° of Fahrenheit. Hence 1 adhere with good 
reason to the opinion that all are naturally distinct species. Con- 
sequently, as all the other accounts, quoted by Mr. Moore and 
other authorities, lead to the conclusion that one spring crop only 
was produced by the worm originally cultivated in China, it will 
be well to allow the annual species domesticated in Europe as 
B. Mori, to retain that distinctive title, more especially when we 
consider that as the people were forbidden to rear — not merely a 
second crop of silk, but — "a second breed of worms," the stock, if 
double-brooded, would speedily have been destroyed and lost by 
such interdiction. This, then, would tend to prove that the worm 
under cultivation was an annual only, and that the prohibition 
extended to other species. 

Introduction into Europe. 
From the year before Christ 2,640 until 550, or thereabouts, of 
the Christian era, the domestication of the worm appears to have been 
exclusively confined to China, severe punishments being inflicted 
upon any one who ventured to attempt its exportation into other 
countries, when, at length, about the latter year, through the 
laudable zeal of missionary monks who had visited China and 
there learnt the mode of cultivation, the eggs were secretly con- 
veyed into Europe and presented to the Emperor Justinian. 

Constitution impaired by Domestication. 

Thus, for a period of more than 3,000 years, the so-called cul- 
tivation of the worm had remained exclusively in Chinese hands. 
What wonder, then, if the constitution of the insect had during 
that time been gradually undermined by a course of imperfect 
feeding, close and tainted atmosphere and various other enervating 
causes, until, at length, when imported into the West, it no longer 
retained its natural vigour, health and original characteristics, but 
had become enfeebled, degenerated and sluggish, by a long 
system of interbreeding with debilitated stock, and rendered 
liable, by the loss of constitution, to a multitude of diseases! 

From the time of its introduction into Europe, the treatment it 
has experienced has been, with some modifications, nearly the 
same as that pursued in China ; so that for an uninterrupted 
period of no less than 4,500 years, the worm has had to contend 
against all those unnatural and purely artificial influences arising 
from a state of domestication, which we erroneously persist in 



Restoration of the Silkworm. 147 

terming cull'n^adon, witlioiit one single renewal or infusion of tlie 
original healthy and natural stock from which the race has 
descended ! Truly has it, as Darwin would say, undergone " the 
struggle for existence ! " 

One would almost be tempted to think, that the object of cul- 
tivators had actually been the destruction of the insect, for in 
what other department would breeders so long have neglected to 
infuse new blood into their domestic stock? Is it not a well 
understood and long-established fact, that, whether among 
animals or plants, an occasional renewal of seed and re-infusion 
of the original stamina is found to be absolutely necessary for the 
preservation of health, and of that particular standard of per- 
fection which it is thought desirable to maintain ? And yet with 
the domesticated Bomhyx Mori, this necessary precaution has 
been uniformly neglected for 4,500 ypars ! What wonder, then, 
that under the coml)ined effects of bad and scanty food, want of 
sufficient light and ventilation, too high a temperature, and with 
the constant and unvarying interbreeding of a debilitated stock, 
the insect should have become subject to a multitude of maladies, 
and threaten, at no distant period, to become extinct ! 

By here condemning tiie system of interbreeding, I must, how- 
ever, guard against the possibility of being misunderstood, for I 
am well aware that in France a very senseless outcry has been 
raised in some quarters against the interbreeding of brother and 
sister, and other near relatives, as if, in a state of natural freedom, 
such a proceeding was not the general and authorized rule. 
What I condemn, and in this I am happy to find myself sup- 
ported by such weighty authority as that of M. Guerin-Meneville, 
is not the intercourse of near relations, but the incessant inter- 
breeding of diseased and debilitated individuals, which, as "like 
produces like," cannot possibly do otherwise than perpetuate and 
aggravate both disease and debility. Where brothers, sisters 
and cousins are all healthy and of sound constitution, no bad 
consequences will ensue from their interbreeding, for such is the 
established plan upon which nature acts; but where disease 
exists, the breeding from two deteriorated individuals, whether 
they be nearly or distantly related, will only add fuel to the fire, 
and ])erpetuate, and even aggravate, disease. 

I assert, then, that there is no such thing now in existence as a 
perfectly healthy domesticated stock of silkworms, the colour 
proving, beyond all doubt, that the constitution has been utterly 
destroyed, and the wonder rather is, that the worms have con- 
tinued to live so long, and to yield such good returns under such 

VOL. II, THIRD SERItS, PART II. AUGUST, 186i. SI 



148 Captain T. Hutton on the 

a constant struggle against adverse circumstances ; for it seems 
quite evident, since naturalists have never recorded the colours 
of the caterpillar to be otherwise than ashy or creamy-white, 
that even so long ago as the time of the Emperor Justinian, the 
true colour of the worm had already been obliterated by the 
centuries of mismanagement to which the Chinese had subjected 
the insect. It is true that the occasional occurrence of dark- 
coloured worms among the general brood has been observed, yet 
these occurrences are always spoken of as exceptional cases 
indicating variety arising from domestication, rather than as 
denoting, what in reality is the fact, an attempted return, on the 
part of nature, to the original colours and characteristics of the 
species. 

Under no other supposition than this does it appear possible to 
account for the error committed by the older naturalists ; and, 
consequently, I again assert, with the greatest confidence, and 
shall presently prove, that the whiteness of the worm is to be 
regarded solely as a positive indication of the loss of constitution, 
and that the species, in its natural colours, has yet to be 
described. 

The Fruillcssness of seeking for healthy Seed. 
I shall probably be told that learned and experienced men 
liave occasionally been sent from Italy and France, in order to 
collect fresh seed (as it is termed) for the purpose of renovating 
the sickly stock of Europe by the re-infusion of a healthier and 
more vigorous constitution from the worms of India and of China. 
Such an assertion, to a certain extent, would, no doubt, be true, 
since it cannot be denied, that a search for healthier stock has 
often been made, though never with success, from the simple fact, 
that whetlier in Europe, Persia, India or China, the worms are 
all equally degenerated, or if indeed there be a difference yet 
perceptible, it is altogether in favour of the European race. We 
can all "call spirits from the vasty deep — but will they come 
when we do call?" Had a search been instituted in China for the 
tvild worm in its original state of freedom, great benefit would no 
doubt have ensued from its discovery; but if we reflect that the 
worm, even in its native country, has, like that of Europe, been 
immemorially of a pale colour, a Chinese cultivator on being 
asked for the original wild stock would at once acknowledge that 
he knew the worm under no other aspect, and in no other con- 
dition, than that in which for so many centuries it had been cul- 
tivated by his forefiithers, and the idea of its having possibly 



Restoration of the Silkworm. 149 

clianged or lost its colour under domestication, would in all pro- 
bability never enter into tlie head either of the Chinaman or of 
his interrogator. Seeing then, as I shall presently show, that the 
Eastern is infinitely inferior to the European stock, the crossing 
with seed selected either in India or in China would only be 
adding to the disease which already threatens the West with such 
disastrous consequences. 

Nature of Expcr'/menls explained. 

T may, however, be asked, what proof I can adduce of disease 
and change of colour? As regards the existence of disease there 
is no occasion to reply, as the fact is only too well known ; but as 
regards the loss of colour, I have abundant evidence now before 
nie. 

All those, indeed, who have had the least experience in the 
rearing of the silkworm must have perceived the occasional occur- 
rence among the brood of one or more dark-grey or blackish- 
brindled worms, contrasting strongly and curiously with the pale 
sickly hue of the majority. Tiicse, by the French cultivators, are 
called ''vers ligres" or "zebics," that is, "tiger or zebra striped,' 
and are regarded as a mere variety. Yet these are, in fact, the 
original and natural worms ! 

My attention having long since been arrested by this circum- 
stance, it at length occurred to me to endeavour by a series of 
experiments to ascertain the cause, my conviction being, either 
that the species had at some time or other been crossed by another 
of different colours, and that nature, as sooner or later she always 
will do, was making an effort to separate them; or that the 
original colour of the worm had in reality been dark, and an effort 
was being made to revert from a sickly condition to the original 
healthy starting-point. Acting on this idea, I at once determined 
to assist Nature by giving her fair play, and, consequently, picked 
out all the dark-coloured worms and reared them separately, 
allowing the moths to couple only inter se, and the same course 
was pursued with the white worms. 

In the following spring the one batch of eggs produced nearly 
all dark-brindled worms, while the other produced white ones, 
sparingly interspersed as before with an occasional dark one; 
these latter were removed into the dark batch, which was at the 
same time weeded of its pale worms. 

In the third year the worms were still darker than before, and 
were always larger and more vigorous than the pale ones, giving 
likewise larger and better stuffed cocoons. 

M 2 



150 Captain T. Hutton on the 

Unfortunately, just as tbe eggs of the third year had been de- 
posited and collected, a violent and unexpected gale of wind sud- 
denly upset the whole and irretrievably scattered them abroad. 
I had, however, seen such good reason for hoping that I might 
eventually by this method succeed in restoring the constitution of 
the worm, that I commenced de novo, and went over the same 
ground again. 

The eggs with which my experiment was recommenced, were 
procured in the spring of 1862 from Mr. Cope of Umritsir, in the 
Punjab, who assured me that they had just arrived direct from 
Cashmere, although, from their appearance, I strongly suspect 
they owed "their birth, parentage and education," to the Punjab, 
and had been sent by mistake. But however this may be, on 
their arrival at Mussooree, I submitted them to the microscope, 
vi'hich at once proclaimed them to be ill-formed, discoloured and 
diseased. 

This Mr. Cope denied ; nevertheless it was a fact, and as the 
worms proceeded towards maturity, various phases of disease 
became apparent, and I can only account for the denial of its 
existence by Mr. Cope and some cultivators in Bengal, by sup- 
posing that they do not know a disease even when they see it. 
The worst form attacked the worms just previous to their spin- 
ning the cocoons, and gave them the appearance of having been 
sprinkled with ink from a pen. This is, I believe, what the 
French term being " peppered," or "vers joolvres ;" a most ex- 
pressive and appropriate term. 

Nevertheless the cocoons were formed, though, as might be 
expected, they were thin, papery and greatly deficient in silk ; as 
cocoons, indeed, they were perfect trash, but, as I had a point to 
ascertain in respect to the silk, I despatched them to Mr. 7\irnbull 
of Ganthal, an experienced and skilful superintendent of silk 
filatures, ever willing to oblige, and who had likewise reeled for 
Mr. Cope of Umritsir, and Colonel Clark of Oudh ; the result 
was, that my worthless cocoons yielded a silk not one whit inferior 
in quality to that produced by the inordinately-belauded cocoons 
of the above-mentioned gentleman ; and, indeed, although in 
epislold Mr. Cope pronounced Colonel Clark's cocoons to be 
*' the finest he had seen in India," it was declared by Mr. Turnbull, 
who reeled them, that they had deteriorated 56 per cent, below 
the Cashmere standard furnished by Mr. Cope himself, and as 
that standard is itself about 50 per cent, below that of France 
and Italy, we may safely put down the best Indian cocoons of the 
true Bombyx Mori as being 75 per cent, worse than they ought to 



Restoration of the Silkworm. 151 

be ; and yet, in spite of common sense and twenty-five years' 
experience, 1 am modestly required to believe that the worm is 
not diseased! What then, in such case, is the meaning of the 
panic in France and Italy ? 

It is to be remembered, however, that all my sickly worms 
were of the white variety, and that the few dark worms picked 
out from them escaped disease altogether, although reared in the 
same manner, in the same room, in the same temperature, on the 
same quality of food, and in close contiguity to the others. These 
dark ones in due time spun cocoons and produced moths, which, 
coupling inter se, deposited a fair stock of eggs, with which the 
ex|)erinient was again carried on in the spring of 1S63. 

I may here observe that it is a well-known fact that the more 
numerous are these dark-coloured worms in any brood, the 
healthier is it considered to be, and vice versd. 

Now the eggs furnished by Mr. Cope in the spring of 18G2 
produced very few dark worms, while the eggs from dark worms 
descended from them produced in 1863 an undue number of white 
worms, which had to be weeded out, and proving at the same 
time the extreme weakness of constitution of the stock upon 
which I was experimenting. 

Again, another proof of disease is foimd in the fact that in the 
S]n-ing of 18fi2, the eggs received from Urmitsirwere all loose and 
detached : this is characteristic of the species whether in India 
or in Europe, and proceeds from weakness in the glands attached 
to the ovipositor, and which do not, in consequence, secrete the 
gimi necessary to attach the egg. A few will of course always be 
found to adhere at first, but so slightly that the least touch causes 
them to fall. 

In the spring of 1863 the eggs obtained in the previous year 
from the dark stock began to hatch on the 16th of March, and no 
sign of disease was apparent among them until the moths came 
forth froiTi the cocoons, when many of these still showed defect in 
the malformation and dark spotting of the wings. As compared, 
however, with the previous year there was decided improvement ; 
there were still too many white worms in the brood, but they did 
not show any symptoms of disease and none died; they attained 
to a larger size by a quarter of an inch, increasing from three to 
three and a quarter inches in length ; they produced, in conse- 
quence, larger cocoons, thovigh still deficient in silk, and the 
moths, although still showing the presence of disease, laid good 
sized eggs, great numbers of which adhered firmly to the paper 
up;)n which they were deposited, and indeed one sheet of paper 



152 Captain T. Hutton on the 

was thickly covered with them, a thing which, ahhough I have 
paid attention to this subject for the last twenty-five years, I 
never witnessed before, nor even heard of it. The eggs of other 
species will adhere, but to find those of the Bomhyx Mori doing 
so is truly a novelty which betokens decided progress towards a 
healthier condition. 

There was hkewise another indication of returning strength to 
be seen in the fact that, wliile ordinarily the male moths are so 
sluggish as to make no attempt to fly, many of those produced 
from my black stock left the trays and flew off to seek the females 
in a distant part of the room. This is one of the marked cha- 
racteristics of the wild moth of Bombijx Huttoni, which flies ofF 
from tree to tree for long distances when " on amorous thoughts 
intent." 

But still more extraordinary appears the fact that some of the 
eggs of B. Mori of the spring crop of 1863 began to hatch again 
for a second crop on the 7th of August of the same year ; these 
were all from the dark stock, and the circumstance, in itself per- 
fectly novel, arises, I am inclined to think, from an accession of 
strength acquired by reversion to a state approaching more nearly 
to the original constitution. 

The hatching continued throughout August, and occasionally 
even to the 23rd of September, when, fearing that my supply of 
leaves might fail, the eggs were removed to a temperature below 
70° Fahrenheit in order to check the hatching. 

The worms now hatched continued to grow and thrive, and spun 
good cocoons superior in size to those of the spring crop, the 
worms attaining to 3^^ inches in length. In due time the moths 
appeared and were fully twice as large as those of spring, de- 
positing large well-formed eggs. In the beginning of December, 
to my dismay, more worms were hatched from the spring batch, 
and continued to come forth throughout the month at the rate of 
40 or 50 daily in a temperature of 53° Fahrenheit, when, having 
no more leaves upon the trees, I was compelled to place the re- 
maining eggs out in the open air at night in order that the sharp 
hoar frosts might effectually put a stop to any further hatching. 
All these worms were of the dark kind, and no white ones now 
appeared among them as in the spring ; indeed from the white 
stock only three worms were produced and these came to nothing. 
This circumstance, so thorougldy unusual with Bomhyx Mori, I 
attribute entirely to an accession of health and strength in the 
lilack worms, which are evidently now in a transition state, which 
may account in some measuie for their hatching out of season, so 



Restoration of the Silkworm. 153 

irregularly and in such a low temperature. This, however, must 
close the experiment for 18(;3, and I must hope for some decided 
results in the spring of ISCi from the eggs deposited in October, 

In the meantime then I will return to the consideration of what 
the worm ought in reaHty to be. 

The Dark Worm is the Natural Colour. 

That the dark colour is the natural one is shown in some 
measure by the strong similarity, evinced in the disposition and 
arrangement of the markings, to the wild races of India; while 
the moth also, instead of remaining so purely white in wings and 
body, assumes a dark ashy or smoky hue on the body of the 
males, which is likewise diffused over a great portion of the wings, 
as in Bomhyx Ilutlonl. 

Here, then, 1 think I have already given in the above account 
strong proofs that the original colour of the worm was dark, and 
that the pale sickly hue which it has long since assumed is entirely 
owing to debilitated constitution. 

Nor is there here much room for wonder when we reflect how 
often among our other domestic stock the original colour fades awiiy, 
to give place to pie-bald, and finally to white. Need I do more than 
call attention to our domesticated rabbits, our pigeons, domestic 
fowls, turkeys, Guinea fowls, ducks and geese, in proof that the 
more the white colour prevails the further do the species recede 
from their natural characteristics, and the weaker becomes the 
constitution. Even our cage birds, as every bird-fancier well 
knows, exhibit this same tendency to lose their original colours, 
and become paler and paler, until many eventually turn altogether 
white. 

On this subject, for the purpose of strengthening my argument, 
I feel that I cannot do better than quote a passage from General 
Daumas' very able work on " The Horses of the Sahara," that 
writer's views being so thoroughly in accordance with my own. 

" It is abundanily apparent," says the General, " that legendary 
traditions and experience are in perfect harmony in according a 
decided superiority to coats of deep and decided hues. Coats of 
a light pale colour are held in no esteem whatever. The horse's 
coat, therefore, must be an index to his character. The long ex- 
perience of Mahomed the prophet and of Moussa the conqueror 
must have placed them in a position to speak with full knowledge 
of the subject, and their opinion, confirmed by that of all the 
Arabs, the best horsemen in the world and the most interested in 



154 Captain T. Hutton on the 

studying the animal, upon whom indeed depends their honour and 
their life, is certainly entitled to be regarded with some respect. 
It is beyond all question that the Kouinmite — red mingled with 
black, chestnut or bay — is j)referred by the Arabs to all others. 
If I might be allowed to quote my own personal experience, I 
should have no hesitation in saying that, if there be any prejudice 
in the matter, I share it with them. Besides, must it necessarily 
be a prejudice because it may seem to be one? No one nill deny 
that all the individuals of the same species are, in their wild stale, 
identical in colour and endorved with common instinctive qualities in- 
herent in the race. These colours and these qualities undergo no 
alteration or admixture except in a state of servitude and under its 
itfluences, so that if any of these individuals by a return to their 
natural condition, more easily proved than explained, happen to 
recover the colour of their frst ancestors, they will be ecfially distin- 
guished by more broadly defined natural qualities. The canine race 
may be taken as an illustration. Whence it follows that a certain 
number of domesticated individuals being given, their coats alike 
and with dominant qualities, it may be fairly concluded that this 
coat and these qualities were those of the race in its wild state. 
In the case then of the Arab horse, if it be true that those whose 
coat is red shaded with black are endowed with superior speed, 
are we not justified in inferring that such was the uniform colour, 
such the natural qualities, of the sires of the race ? I submit with 
all humility these observations to men of science. 

" Abd-el-Kader assures us, moreover, that it is ascertained by 
the Arabs that horses change colour according to the soil on which 
they are bred. Is it not possible, in fact, that under an atmosphere 
more or less light, of water more or less fresh, of a nurture more or 
less rich according as the soil on which it is raised is more or less 
impregnated with certain elements, the skin of the horse may be 
sensibly affected ? Every one knows that with any coat the 
colour changes in tone and shade according to the locality where the 
animal lives, the stale of its health, the qualify of the water it drinks, 
and of the food it eats, and the care that is bestowed upon it. There 
is, perhaps, in all this a lesson in natural history not to be de- 
spised, for if the circumstances in wiiich a horse lives act upon his 
skin, ihcy must inevitably act also in the long run upon his form and 
qualities." * 

Truly does the author here remark, that there is " in all this a 
lesson in natural history not to be despised," thougli, doubtless, he 

* "The Horses of the Sahara," by Gen. Daumas, p. 20. English Trans- 
lation. 



Restoration of the Silkworm. 155 

little thought how applicable were his observations to the actual 
condition of an insect of such value and importance to his own 
countrymen as the Bombyx Mori, I have italicised those passages 
to which I wish more particularly to draw the reader's attention, 
and shall now proceed to show their applicability to my present 
subject. 

That the long-continued domestication of the silkworm has 
tended greatly to deteriorate its original constitution, the 
numerous diseases to which it is now subject, in every country 
where cultivated, furnish ample proof. That imperfect ven- 
tilation of the rearing houses produces a vitiated and impure 
atmosphere, higlily injurious to health ; that the nourishment 
derived from the mulberry leaves will be more or less good 
according to the condition of tlie tree from which they are 
gathered ; and that the tree itself will be influenced by the nature 
of the soil and the temperature of the climate in which it grows, 
are facts of which every observant cultivator is well aware. 

As with the horse, then, so with the silkworm ; an unhealthy 
state of the atmosphere in which it is reared, together with an in- 
sufficiently nutritious diet, combined with other disadvantages 
which are incidental to a state of servility or domestication, must 
sooner or later exercise a very marked effect upon the general 
health of the animals, and the constitution, being once impaired, 
will necessarily, by affecting the animal functions generally, not 
only act upon the skin and colour, but engender debility and 
disease. 

It is under such circumstances, and when the species threatens 
to become extinct, that nature's great Guide and Ruler, acting for 
the creature's good, and with a view to the preservation of the 
species, invariably makes efforts to restore it to its original 
characteristics, and tliese symptoms of reversion, if seized and 
followed up by judicious efforts on the part of man, may enable 
him, perchance, eventually to cast out disease, and restore 
the species to its natural colours and original strength of con- 
stitution. 

Herein consists the entire secret of my experiments with the 
Bnmh'jx Mori. Seeing that a very remarkable difterence in 
colour sometimes occurred, and being fully aware of the truth of 
General Daumas' remark, that " the colours and the qualities 
undergo no alteration or admixture except in a state of servitude, 
and under its influences," I determined to ascertain whether the 
dark colour of some worms was or was not occasioned by an 
efibit on the part of nature to revert to the original point at v\liich 



156 Captain T. Hutton on the 

domestication had commenced, and tliat it actually is such is 
proved, not only by the colours remaining permanent in the black 
race, which they do not in the white race, but by the acquisition 
of qualities which originally belonged to the species and which 
the pale-coloured worms do not exhibit. Thus, as the General 
truly observes, " the recovery of the colour of their first ancestors 
has caused them to be distinguished by more broadly defined 
natural qualities." 

Still further, we gather from the observations of M. Boitard, 
that " the black worm, which is so often met with in the north of 
France, is absolutely unknown in Italy ; and yet the eggs, which 
in France vvill produce them, are often purchased in Italy." 

Here it is plain, if my views are correct, that climate tells upon 
the constitution of the insect even in Europe, and that in Italy, 
where the temperature is high, the black worm is unknown, 
simply because the heat of the climate, combined, perhaps, with 
too high a temperature in the houses, enervates the worm and 
causes it to depart further from its original type than it does in 
France, where the climate is colder and more favourable to the 
general health of the insect. 

Again, the same writer informs us, that " in Lombardy the 
worm which produces the white silk will constantly furnish nine 
white cocoons to one yellow one, although in France, no matter 
how much care msy have been bestowed upon the worm, the 
yellow cocoons vvill always far out-number the white ones.' 
Now I have long entertained the idea, that the production of 
white cocoons is (except in cases where that colour is permanent 
in all climates) a strong sign of degeneracy, proceeding from 
weakness of constitution, the rather that such white cocoons are 
always more abundant where the temperature is higli, than in 
more temperate climates. Hence in Italy the worms, wliich in 
that high temperature will constantly produce an excess of white, 
vvill in a more favourable situation and circumstances produce an 
excess of yellow, cocoons. Thus, the Boro-pooloo of Bengal 
(Zj. textor, nob.), whicli there and in China, as a rule, produces 
white cocoons, when reared in the colder climate of Mussooree 
yields almost all yellow cocoons ; while to find a white cocoon 
among the worms of Cashmere (S. Mori) is altogether the ex- 
ception. 

Hence I come to the conclusion, that the whiteness of the 
worm and the white cocoons are both indications of failing con- 
stitution, evidencing the existence of a higher temperature and of 
a more thoroughly artificial treatment than are conducive to the 



Restoration of the Silkworm. 157 

lioalth of tlie insect. Were the white or the yellow colour to 
reiDaiii ])crmancnt in all climates and temperatures, the fact might 
reasonably he rejfarded as a specific character, but where, as in 
the above observations, we perceive these colours to be dependent 
upon temperature, we are compelled to regard the change as 
entirely dependent upon the state of health. 

Thus heat, by causing debility, undermines the constitution, 
and gradually changes the natural colours, of both the insect and 
tlie silk secreted by it, into a sickly white, while a restoration to 
a cooler climate will, under proper management, restore the 
colours to their natural shade, by imparting vigour to the droop- 
ing insect. 

Deterioration proved. 

Those W'ho possess any real knowledge of the subject under 
discussion will, I am fully aware, require no further proof of the 
worm's deterioration than has already been furnished above ; yet 
as there are not wanting some pretended savans, whose private 
interests proni])t them to conceal as much as possible the 
maladies under which all our worms are labouring, I shall 
])roceed yet further to show, even from their own arguments, 
how very little they really know upon the subject. 

Common sense will at once point out that a worm imported 
from the northern provinces of China will not long maintain its 
vigour in any part of the hot lowland provinces of India, and 
indeed this is fully shown by one cultivator proposing to preserve 
tlie eggs o? Bombyx Mori by sending them from the Punjab to 
the mountain station of Durrumsala, as well as by the fact that 
JafTer Ali of Mooltan invariably preserves his in a cool under- 
ground chamber or tijlcJiana. 

It is evident from this, that even the heat of the Punjab is far 
greater than the egg can bear, and il it be inimical and destructive 
to the egg, it will undoubtedly be equally so to the insect in every 
other stage. The loss annually sustained l)y tlie cultivator JaflTer 
Ali, even when the eggs are kept in the tijJchatia, is said to be 
" from a fourtli to a third," the heat (even under ground !) drying 
up the eggs without hatching the worms!* If this can be called 
successful cultivation then no one need despair ! 

From this admission it is clear that what actual disease effects 
in France, where " la muscardine" is said annually to destroy more 
t!;an one-fourth of the worms, is effected by heat, even in nn 

' Powlelt's Uepoi't in Proceedings A^ricult. Soc. of Imlia, 9lli July, 1862. 



158 Captain T. Hutton on the 

underground cellar, in the Punjab ; how then, in such a climate, 
can really good results be expected, since the same writer, while 
trumpeting forth the wonders performed in the Punjab, very 
naively winds up his laudations with the assurance that " out of 
iaiklianahs the eggs cannot be preserved in the plains at all." 

As to his assertion that those eggs " that survive the heat are 
not injured, but produce as healthy and fine worms as if the eggs 
had been kept in a cool climate," it actually amounts to nothing, 
unless at the same time we can feel assured that the writer is well 
acquainted with what the worms ought to be, and can prove that 
they are as large and produce the same quantity of silk as those 
of colder climates; and that such is not the case is proved by the 
testimony of Mr. C. J. Turnbull, who states that Umritsir-reared 
cocoons are 56 per cent, below the Cashmere standard ! 

Indeed this gentleman, who is imdoubtedly a good authority, 
pronounces the cocoons of Oudh and of Umritsir to be about equal, 
so that they had degenerated in those localities in one season 
56 per cent, below the standard of Cashmere as furnished by 
Mr. Cope himself a couple of years before ! 

Again, cocoons raised at Lucknow in Oudh by Dr. Bonavia 
required 5,200 to the pound of silk ; at Candahar in 1840 the 
Afghans reckoned about 4,500 to the pound of silk ; while in 
France, previous to the late epidemic, 2,500 cocoons were, on the 
testimony of Mr. Bashford,* equal to a pound of silk. 

Here, then, we have positive evidence that the climate of the 
Punjab and other parts of the plains of India is injurious to the 
health and general well-being of the insect. 

Now it is also the opinion of Mr. Turnbull that the Candahar 
and Cashmere yield of silk is pretty nearly on a par ; and as from 
the above statistics the Oudh and Punjab cocoons are at least 50 
to 56 per cent, below the Cashmere standard, which is itself con- 
siderably below that of France, we may safely say tliat the cocoons 
of the Indian-bred Bombyx Mori are little short of 75 per cent. 
below what they ought to be. 

What benefit then, I would ask, is likely to ensue from the 
introduction into Italy of the eggs lately purchased in Cashmere 
by Dr. Carlo Orio ? The worms reared from those eggs will no 
doubt be improved by the change of climate and more judicious 
treatment, but they will add nothing to the health and vigour of 
the European stock ! 

It has been justly remarked that "there are few individuals 

* Journal Hort. Soc. of India, vol. ix. part 3, p. 261. 



Restoration of the Silkworm. 159 

who have not watched the interesting changes which take place in 
the larva; of the Bomhijx Mori, or common silkworm, from the 
point of its exit from the egg until it has readied its full butterfly 
existence ; and many there are who have been sadly disappointed 
at the mortality which conies over a brood of silkworms in a 
single night from some cause or causes unknown, and conse- 
quently irremediable. Such epidemics are continually occurring 
in China as well as Europe, and constitute one of the greatest 
obstacles to the introduction of the culture of the silkworm into 
England. What occasions this sudden decimation of these insects 
has never been determined, but has long led to a wish, on the 
part of those interested, that a more hardy breed of silk-producing 
worms could be introduced into Europe, even though the produce 
was coarser and of a worse colour than the ordinary mulberry 
silk."* Here, then, is a further and very recent testimony to the 
diseased state of the worm. 

Good Qualiti/ of the Silk no Proof of general Health. 

I shall doubtless be told that " the proof of the pudding is in 
the eating," and thai as silk of the best cpiality and worth twenty- 
five shillings per pound has been produced in the Punjab, the 
worm cannot possibly be diseased or have lost its constitution. 

To this I reply, that in order to test " the pudding" properly 
and fairly, we require a judge possessed of some knowledge of 
what a pudding ought to be. 

In the introductory remarks to my " Monograph on the Genus 
Attacus" I have shown, after Kirby and Spence and other autho- 
rities, that the gum from the reservoirs being convened to the 
mouth by the constriction of certain muscles, passes through two 
small orifices in the lip, and the two fibres thus formed, being taken 
up and twisted together by the hook-like processes in the mouth 
appointed to that office, become one fibre of silk on coming into 
contact with the cold external air. Now these two orifices in the 
lip are expressly ap))ointed to the purpose of regulating the thick- 
ness of the silken fibre with which the cocoons are formed; they 
are a provision of Nature which determines the thickness of the 
silken thread, and that thickness, in worms of equal size, will be 
constantly uniform, so that a large and healthy worm will yield a 
thicker fibre than a smaller and degenerated worm. 

As long as the reservoirs contain gum, the thickness of the silk 
will be the same whether the worm is diseased or not, provided 

• Journal Soc. Arts, Nov. Cili, 1863, p. 776. 



160 Captain T. Hutton on the 

always that the worms are of equal size; and that simply owing 
to the regulating organ above mentioned. The quality of the silk 
comprises thickness of fibre, tenacity and elasticity, and where 
the secreting glands are not affected by disease, this quality, from 
worms equally well fed, will be the same even where the general 
health of the one is far inferior to the other ; indeed it is the 
quantity, rather than the quality, of the silk that is affected by the 
maladies under which the worms are now labouring. The cocoons 
reared in Oudh by Colonel Clark, and pronounced by Mr. Cope, 
in epistola, to be " the finest he had seen in India," produced, on 
being reeled, a silk of precisely the same quality as that produced 
at Umritsir, and by my Mussooree cocoons reared from Mr. Cope's 
supply of diseased eggs in IS62, and which, as cocoons, were 
absolutely worthless, there being little or no silk in them. Dr. 
Bonavia's cocoons, raised in Oudh in 1863, from seed furnished 
by Mr. Cope, yielded a silk in no respect inferior to the above, 
although the pound of silk requiring 5,200 cocoons to produce it 
proved how terribly deficient was the quantity of gum secreted. 
In cases where the glands are affected by disease, or where the 
leaf has not contained a proper proportion of silk-yielding matter, 
no silk at all will be secreted, and the worm will either die as 
such, or become a pupa without spinning. Many cases of this 
kind occur in all the broods, whether monthly or annual. 

To talk, as some do, of coarse leaves producing a coarse silk, 
and therefore recommending the use of such as are thin and 
tender, is at once to prove non-acquaintance with the anatomy of 
the insect and ignorance of the whole art of nourishing the worm, 
since, as already pointed out, the thickness of the silk fibre is 
regulated by Nature, and a thin fibre produced by a worm, which, 
like B. Mori, ouglit to yield one of a certain thickness, is a positive 
proof of the presence of disease, inasmuch as it indicates the 
decreasing size of the orifices, consequent on the deterioration 
and degeneracy of the worm. The orifices in the lip being of a 
regulated size, no extra-natural coarseness of fibre can be pro- 
duced, and no coarseness of leaf could ever make the fibre thicker 
than Nature intended it to be, or than those orifices were capable 
of admitting, simply because it is a well-ascertained fact that "a 
camel cannot pass through the eye of a needle." 

Remarhs on " the Diet of Worms.'^ 
Having been frequently applied to from different quarters for 
inforiTjation as to the best kind of mulberry leaf on which to rear 
the silkworm, it may be as well perhaps to give the result of my 



Restoration of the Silkworm. 161 

own experience, and leave eacli inquirer to please himself as to 
the species he may find it most convenient and most suitable to 
adopt. 

The question then is, " what species of mulberry tree is best 
adapted for the nourishment of the silkworm, and for the pro- 
duction of good silk?" 

Were all climates alike the question might be easily answered, 
but in its present form it is too vague and general; besides which, 
thus put, it assuredly implies a belief that we have only one species 
of silkworm under cultivation, and that whether monthly or annual, 
all come under the head of! Bonibi/x Mori. This, however, is not 
the case, the name of B. Mori belonging of right to the worm 
known in India as the Cashmere worm, which is an annual, and is 
cultivated in Afghanistan, Bokhara, Persia, Syria, Italy, France 
and other European countries. It was originally brought from 
the northern provinces of China, where the country is mountainous, 
and the climate, especially in winter, very severe and cold. There 
is also another worm cultivated as an annual in Bengal under the 
native name of Boro-pooloo, which means " large cocoon," it being 
the largest species of Boinbyjc under cultivation in Bengal. As 
compared with the cocoon of the Cashmere worm, however, it is 
very much smaller, of a different form and texture, and yielding 
generally a pure white silk, although, as already observed, in the 
colder temperature of Mussooree the yellow cocoons are at least 
quite as numerous as the white. This likewise is from China, and 
from its being an annual is supposed, with good reason, to be a 
native of the northern parts of that country. This species I have 
named Doiiibijx textor, as it is totally distinct from the Cashmere 
worm. 

'Three other species domesticated in Bengal are respectively 
termed the Madrassee or Nistry, — the Dasee, — and the small 
Chinese monthly worm ; these three are termed monthly worms 
because they yield from six to eight crops during the year. 
These I have respectively named Boinbyx Croesi, D. forlumdus 
and B. Sinensis, while from the fact of their yielding several crops 
a year I am inclined to regard them as belonging to the warmer 
and more southern parts of China, the number of broods indicating 
a climate in which food is abundant throughout the year, while the 
annuals on the contrary, as every naturalist is aware, indicate a 
iar more temperate climate. 

Besides these there is said to be another species cultivated in 
Arracan which yields a silk superior to that of the Bengal worms, 
but as I have been hitherto unable to procure it for examination. 



162 Captain T. Hutton on the 

I can do no more than indicate its existence and name it pro- 
visionally as Bomhyx Arracnne7isis. 

Seeing, then, that this diversity exists among the worms, it is 
but reasonable to infer that in their native countries and in a state 
of nature, they did not all feed upon the same species of mulberry 
leaf, but that the annuals, like the wild Bombyx Huiloni of the 
Western Himalaya, were originally restricted to the trees indi- 
genous to the cold mountainous regions of the north of China, 
while the monthly worms were in like manner confined to species 
adapted to the greater heats of the southern lowland provinces. 

The question, then, as to which is the tree best adapted, in India 
or elsewhere, for the production of good silk, although apparently 
a very simple one, is in reality not easily answered, since much 
must depend upon the species of worm under cultivation, as well 
as upon the climate itself, and the difficulty is enhanced by the 
fact that every one who, possessed of much zeal but little know- 
ledge of the subject, essays to rear silkvvorms, appears to think it 
necessary to extol some particular species of mulberry, and to 
pronounce it, for the time, the very ne -plus ultra of silkworm diet. 

One while it is the white-fruited mulberry only that can enable 
the insect to elaborate good silk, and anon, for some inexplicable 
whim, the white is discarded and another tree adopted in its stead. 
The purple-fruited species are unhesitatingly denounced, and to be 
" condemned without benefit of clergy."* 

And yet the white mulberry is found to be nothing more than 
an Albino variety of the purple-fruited tree. 

Count Dandolo long since pointed this out ; and I have myself 
sown the seed of the dark purple mulberry, known to the natives 
as the " Siali Toot," and found thnt several of the young plants 
produced therefrom eventually bore white fruit only, the shape 
and flavour being entirely changed, and in some respects the leaf 
also. To my surprise, moreover, three young trees, said to be 
from Cashmere, and which for the past three years had borne 
white fruit alone, were this season (1863) covered with purple 
fruit. 

The difference in the quality of silk reared respectively upon 
these two kinds — which are thus in reality not two, but one and 
the same — must be to a very great extent purely imaginary, and 
I will venture to assert that if two skeins of silk thus grown, that 
is to say, the one from the purple and the other from the white- 
fruited tree, were placed before any cultivator in India, he would 
not be able to distinguish between them. 

• Proc. Hort. Soc. of India, 10th August, 1859, vol. xi. part 1, p. 64. 



Restoration of the Silkworm. 163 

Of the Morns alba, Count Dandolo remarks, — " This species 
comprises the common wild mulberry, which has four varieties 
in the fruit — two have white berries, one red and the other black." 

Here, then, the merest tyro may perceive that the red berry 
merely forms the connecting link between the black and the white 
fruit, and consequently that there can be but little, if any, differ- 
ence in the qunlity of the leaf; indeed, all that the Count ventures 
to observe on the subject is, that " the leaf of the black mulberry, 
hard, harsh and tough, which is given to the silkworms in some of 
the warmer climates of Europe, in Spain, in Sicily, in Calabria 
and in some parts of Greece, &c., produces abundant silk, the 
thread of which is very stron^i, but coarse. The white mulberry- 
leaf of the tree planted in high lands exposed to cold dry winds 
and in light soil produces generally a large quantity of strong silk 
of the purest and finest quality." 

Now, if by the term " coarse," as here applied to the silk raised 
from the black mulberry, is meant thic/i as to Jibrc, the difference 
is seemingly of little importance, and would be overcome, I should 
imagine, in the reeling by assigning fewer fibres to the thread ; 
while that the produce of the white mulberry is not uniformly the 
same or to be depended upon is shown in its being only "generally," 
and not always, of the finest quality; and moreover "the finest 
quality" does not necessarily imply thinness of fibre, but may refer 
to other qualities, such as evenness, tenacity and elasticity ; while, 
with regard to the degree of coarseness above alluded to, it must 
be borne in mind that it could not possibly be coarser than nature 
intended it to be, because the regulating orifices in the lip would 
prevent it. Besides which it is extremely questionable whether 
" high lands exposed to cold dry winds" and with a "light soil" are 
suitable to the mulberry tree, especially in such high latitudes ; 
and if not, then the worms fed upon the leaves of such trees would 
be naturally less healthy and of smaller size than those reared 
under more favourable circumstances, and, consequently, the worm 
and the labial orifices being smaller, the silk would of necessity 
be finer. This, however, is not an argument in favour of the 
white mulberry, but against the locality in which it is grown. 
Seeing then that the silk cannot be coarser than nature intended 
it to be, while it may be much finer, the argument tends altogether 
to prove that great fineness of fibre is a consequence of decreasing 
size in the worm, produced by increasing debility of constitution. 

M. lioitard, a French writer on the cultivation of silk and of 
the mulberry tree, informs us that the white mulberry is often 
tinged with red, a statement which upholds and confirms my 

Vol. II. THIRD SERIES, PART II. — AUGUST, 1864. N 



164 Captain T. Hutton on the 

remark that the red holds an intermediate place between the black 
and the white fruit. 

In 1858 the white mulberry appears in some quarters to have 
fallen in estimation, and the Moras multicauUs was likewise con- 
demned, as it was said, " because it produces so few leaves, though 
they are larger, and partly because those few are too soft and 
milky for the worm, yielding a weak fibre."* 

This statement, however, unfortunately proved to be an egre- 
gious blunder, the tree thus denounced being in reality not the 
Moras mitllicaulis, which, as the specific name points out, instead 
of having few leaves of large size, has a multitude of branches 
thickly covered with a moderate-sized leaf. The large-leaved 
tree is now named Morus cuadlata, from the leaf taking the form 
of a skull cap, and strange to say, although pronounced to be 
worthless when supposed to be M. multicauUs, was subsequently, 
by the same authority, and under the equally erroneous name of 
Morus Sinensis, extensively cultivated as a first-rate silkworm 
diet. 

Whatever may be the value of 71/. multicauUs and M. cucullata 
in their own native climates, they do not appear to have given 
much satisfaction elsewhere, and certainly in a cold northern 
climate they can scarcely be expected to do so ; at Mussooree, I 
regard them both as trash, and although in Oudh, Dr. Bonavia 
found that B. Mori and B. Sinensis both ate them readily enough, 
yet in the later stages of the worm a leaf of greater substance was 
required. In such case I would recommend the coarser leaf from 
the very beginning, for if the young worm lacks sufficient 
nourishment in the two first stages of its growth, it will be next 
to impossible, by any amount of subsequent good feeding, to 
recover the ground thus lost. 

It is, I am convinced, precisely because in the early stages the 
worms have been fed upon chopped and thin watery leaves, that 
the constitution has been at length brought to the very extreme 
of weakness. Starvation in childhood is surely not the best 
method of eventually producing either a strong healthy man, or 
any other animal ! 

The climate, the tree, and the species of silkworm to be reared 
should all, as much as possible, be adapted to each other; 
whereas under tlie present system the cultivator appears to 
think that climate, food and the constitution of the insect are all 
mere secondary considerations to be set at naught, and dis- 

* Jouin. Hort, Soc. of India, vol.'Jf. part 2, p. 182. 



Restoration of the Silkworm, 165 

regarded with impunity, and then wonders, because lie has 
steadily pursued certain stereotyped rules, at the failure of his 
speculation. 

Lest, then, this blind laudation of certain species should lead to 
mischievous results and disappointment among those who are 
desirous of entering into the speculation, I shall here beg leave to 
call the attention of the sericulturist to the well-known fact, that 
" what is one man's meat is another man's poison," and remind him 
that the diet which is admirably adapted to keep up animal heat 
and to nourish an individual in the vicinity of the North Pole, 
will be found both unsuitable and highly injurious to health in 
lower and warmer latitudes. We have but to cast a glance 
around us in order to perceive that each nation, according to its 
climate, differs somewhat from another in the matter of food ; 
those of the warmer parts of the world being more frugal and less 
gross in their diet than those of the colder regions. Is it not 
proverbial, that where a Frenchman, content with thin wines and 
a few field herbs wherewith to make a salad, would thrive, an 
Englishman, addicted, as he is, to strong ale, with an unlimited 
allowance of beef and bacon, would starve outright ? The raw 
seal blubber, so palatable to the Esquimaux, would be wholly 
unsuited to the more temperate countries of Europe, and, as a 
rule, we find that the diet is the simplest in the hottest regions, 
and becomes gradually more gross as we approach the north, 
where the cold requires the use of more solid and stimulating 
food to promote and keep up the animal heat of the body. 

Something of the same kind is assuredly perceptible also 
among the feral tribes ; the bears, for instance, being far more 
carnivorous in high latitudes than near the tropics, where fruits, 
vegetables and insects constitute the animal's food ; but confining 
my remarks for the present to the larvae of the Bombt/cidcv or 
silkspinners, we find that nature has ordained that the species in 
different latitudes shall feed upon different trees. 

It may be said that this arises from the fact that the same trees 
are not found in these different localities, and consequently that 
the insects are compelled to seek another food, or to starve ; this, 
however, does not appear to disclose the true philosophy of the 
question, and it certainly does not prove that such food in 
southern regions is equally stimulating with that of northern 
climes, but rather that instinct teaches the insect to accommodate 
itself to the provisions provided for it, precisely as a traveller to 
the northern regions makes use of pemmican, which he discards 

N 2 



166 Captain T. Hutton on the 

on returning home. There are indeed not wanting proofs that 
even where the food of one latitude exists in another, the insect 
will refuse to eat it, as if aware that it is no longer suitable to its 
wants ! The truth seems to be this, that where a tree and an 
insect have existed together in, perhaps, a southern latitude, and 
the tree ceases to grow in some more northern locality where the 
insect is still found, it is because the tree in the colder locality 
would no longer be able to furnish a sufficiently stimulating diet, 
and is, therefore, replaced by one more suitable to the wants of 
the insect. And this after all is simply one of those wise pro- 
visions of nature whereby her productions and the conditions 
under which they exist are mutually adapted to each other. 

As a proof of this, we find that although the larvae of the 
beautiful Allacus Atlas are known in Kumaon to feed freely and 
principally upon the leaves of the yellow-flowering barberry 
{Berheris xdsialica'?), called at Mussooree Russote, yet with us, 
where the plant is equally common, I have never yet succeeded 
in inducing the worm to touch it, nor have I ever found either 
the larvae or the cocoons upon this shrub. And yet out of forty- 
six cocoons now before me from Kumaon no fewer than forty- 
three have been spun among the \ea\es of B. A siatica ! Surely 
this looks like a case in point; besides which it is an unques- 
tionable fact that among the mulberry trees which are known to 
be true species, and not mere varieties, the leaves of those from 
the north possess far greater thickness, consistency and nourish- 
ment than those from the tropics or warm lowland provinces. 
Take for example the leaves of Moms multicauUs and of M. 
cucullata, as compared with those of M. Sinensis, M. nigra ?, and 
the wild indigenous trees of the North Western Himalaya. 

At Pondicherry, according to information derived from my 
obliging correspondent M. Perrottet, the Aclias Selene is entirely 
restricted to the Odina Wodier of Roxburgh, while at Mussooree 
it is polyphagous, feeding on Coriaria Nipalensis, Carpimis 
bimana, Andromeda ovalifolin, Cedrela paniculala, the common 
walnut, Cerasiis puddiim, or wild cherry, Pyrus variolosa, and 
several others. Again, Altacus Cynlhia, which in China is 
nourished on the leaves of Ailanthus glandulosa, feeds in Cachar 
upon a tree called " Lood," and at Mussooree on Coriaria Nipa^ 
lensis, Xanthoxylon* hoside and some others; and so on, indeed, 
throughout the family. 

* In previous papers this word has invariably appeared as Xantho]>hyllum, 
which is an error. 



Restoration of the Silkworm. 1 67 

The wild indigenous mulberry of Mussooree, widi thick coarse 
leaves full of milky juice, is often so thickly covered with the 
larvae of Bomhijx I/iilloni, tliat by the beginning of May there is 
not a single leaf upon the tree wherein the worm can spin its 
cocoon ; yet although the thinner-leaved cultivated mulberry 
may abound in the immediate neighbourhood, it never by any 
chance experiences the same treatment ; so that taking the hint 
from nature, I am inclined to recommend for the Bmnhyx Mori, 
when cultivated in the upper provinces, and more especially in 
the hills, such leaves as those furnished by M. nigra ?, M. 
Sinensis, Beclana or seedless long white mulberry, and others of 
the thick rough-leaved kinds. 

At the same time it is highly probable that certain species, 
which are wholly unada})ted to a cold hill climate and the action 
of severe frost, may thrive well in the lowland provinces of India, 
where they will likewise be suitable to the worms of warm 
localities, such as I consider the Bengal monthly worms to be. 
But to extol in general terms one species above another, and 
endeavour, on wholly insufficient and often purely theoretical 
data, to persuade people that it is the best adapted for the 
nourishment of the silkvvoi"m, — the species of worm, moreover, not 
being specified, — is, in my opinion, the surest way of propagating 
j)ure sophistry and of insuring the failure of speculations in other 
districts, which, from the nature of their climates, require both a 
different diet and a different mode of treatment. 

There is, moreover, yet another point to be considered, for 
although certain trees, such as M. mulllcaidis and M. cuctdlata, 
may thrive well enough in the Punjab and the Gangetic provinces, 
yet it is more than doubtful whether the Cashmere worm will 
thrive upon them; for while the trees delight in and are adapted 
to a warm lowland temperature, the insect, whose cultivation is 
becoming fashionable in the upper provinces, is from the northern 
mountainous tracts of China, situated between 32° and 31° of 
north latitude, vi^hereas in our Himalayan regions frost and snow 
are the accompaniments of winter. The cultivator should re- 
member that a northern insect requires a northern tree, and the 
northern tree requires a northern climate, and that he himself 
requires a certain amount of knowledge and the exercise of 
common sense. 

Trees producing leaves of extreme thinness, like those of ^1/. 
midticauUs and M. ciicullata, are far from desirable on account of 
their containing but little nourishment, and necessitating a larger 



168 Captain T. Hutton on the 

and more frequent supply. A good and healthy leaf should con- 
tain the four ingredients of fibre, water, saccharine and resinous 
matter ; the two first go directly to the nourishment and growth 
of the worm, while from the two latter is secreted the supply of 
gum which eventually furnishes the silk. Where the tw^o former 
only are found, or where they are greatly in excess, as is some- 
times the case, the worm will grow and attain to a goodly size, 
but will produce little, or perhaps no, silk. In breaking off a good 
healthy leaf, a drop or two of thick milky viscous juice should 
exude from the stalk, and in this resides the silk-producing 
matter ; the Morus Sinensis and all the thick-leaved trees possess 
this in far greater quantity than either M. cucullata or M. multi- 
caulis, and indeed from the latter species, when grown in a cold 
climate, it is almost absent, being thin and watery. 

Yet after all, it has long since been laid down as an ascertained 
fact, that however much the quantity of silk may be dependent 
upon the presence of this juice, the qualitij is far less dependent 
upon the good properties of the leaf than upon the temperature in 
which the worms have been reared ; so that where this is higher 
than the constitution of the insect is fitted to endure, no matter 
how well it may have been fed, the yield will always be inferior to 
that produced in a more genial temperature ; and that the Bomhyx 
Mori of Cashmere is greatly influenced even by the heat of the 
Punjab, is proved beyond all contradiction by M. Perrottet's ob- 
servation, in epistold, that eggs deposited there and sent to him by 
Mr. Cope, of Umritsir, were inferior in size, and far more irregu- 
lar in form, than those sent by me from Mussooree, where the 
climate is better adapted to the species. The fact is moreover 
fully established by the annual loss sustained by Jaffer Ali as 
above narrated, as well as by Mr. Cope's expressed intention of 
sending his Punjab-bred eggs to the hills during summer, and of 
importing annually fresh seed from Cashmere. The same remark 
is equally applicable to Oudh. 

That the thinness of the leaf, both in M. multicaulis and M. cu- 
cullata, is a very serious defect may be gathered from Count 
Dandolo's remark, that *' the less nutritive substance the leaf 
contains, the more leaves must the silkworm consume to complete 
its development. The result must, therefore, be that the silkworm 
which consumes a large quantity of leaves that are not nutritive, 
must be more fatigued and more liable to disease than the silkworm 
that eats a smaller proportion of more nutritive leaves. The same 
may be said of those leaves which, containing a sufficiency of 
nutritive matter, contain little resinous substance ; in that case 



Restoration of the Silkworm. 169 

the insects would thrive and grow, but probably would not pro- 
duce cither a thick or strong cocoon proportionate to tlie weight 
of the silkworm, as sometimes occurs in unfavourable seasons. 
JNIy experiments," continues the Count, " prove in the ultimate 
analysis that, all things balanced, the qualities of the soil produce 
but a very slight difference on the quality of the leaf; that which 
will appear most evident is, that the ])rincipal influential cause of 
the fineness of the silk is the degree of temperature in which the 
silkworm is reared. It is neither the water nor the fibre of the 
leaf ihat nourishes the silkworm and renders the cocoon heavy, 
but the resinous and saccharine substances." 

The concluding sentence, however, is scarcely to be relied on, 
since the worm in its growth is undoubtedly nourished by the 
water and the fibre of the leaf, although it is equally true that the 
weight and thickness of the cocoon depend upon the presence of 
the other substances, while it is necessary to guard against the 
error of endeavouring to produce too much fineness in the silk, 
since I have already shown that to be an indication of too high a 
temperature and of the consequent degeneracy of the worm. 
Besides which, that the soil must in some measure act upon the 
quality of the leaf can scarcely be doubted w-hen we consider that 
it is from the soil that the tree derives its nourishment, and the 
changes which occur both in the shape and substance of the leaf 
and in the colour of the fruit can be attributed, I imagine, to 
nothing else. 

In regard to the treatment of the trees, it has been justly re- 
marked that they may be very seriously injured by too close 
plucking; it has been forgotten, however, by those who in India 
have laid some stress upon the fact, that the remark applies rather 
to the mulberry trees of Europe and other temperate climes, than 
to those of tropical regions ; for in the former there is too short a 
summer to enable the tree to produce fresh leaves without an 
injurious effort on the part of Nature;* whereas in tropical and 
neighbouring climates, where the summers are warm and long, 
and otherwise conducive to the growth of vegetation, the dread 
of injury need scarcely be entertained. Nature, indeed, herself 
points out that such is the truth, for in the Himalaya the indi- 
genous nudberry trees may often be seen in the early part of May 
without a single leaf upon them, all having been devoured by the 
first or spring-brood of the larvae of Bombyx Ilutloni ; and yet in 

• Mr. F. Moore informs rae that eggs of B. HuUoni hatched in April, when 
tliere were yet no leaves! 



170 Captain T. Hutton on the 

about three weeks afterwards, or even less, the same tree will be 
found to have again put on an abundant and healthy foliage ready 
for the second or autumnal brood of the same worm. This some- 
times goes on year after year without the least apparent injury to 
the tree, and even the cultivated kinds are often stripped of every 
leaf and berry by the monkeys (Semnopit/iecus schistnceus), and 
yet put forth a second crop of both. What, therefore, Nature 
does, man may surely, in similar situations and under similar cir- 
cumstances, imitate with like success. 

Many things, indeed, in regard to the rearing of the silkworm, 
have passed into laws without the persons who adopt them having 
the slightest notion why they have done so, or even caring to 
reason on the subject; — thus we have one law forbidding more 
than a certain degree of denudation of the foliage, which is strictly 
applicable to northern climates only, and necessitates the planting 
of an additional number of trees. Then, again, another law 
enjoins that no moisture must remain upon the leaf for fear of 
injury to the worm ; and yet in a state of nature we must feel 
assured that the leaves are often wet with rain and dew without 
doing injury to the worms that feed upon tliem ; why then are 
they injured when in a state of domestication? Simply because 
Nature always feeds her worms with the best and freshest leaves, 
and in that state no injury ensues, as I indeed have often proved 
even with domesticated worms ; but if the leaves, as is too gene- 
rally the case, from being closely packed, brought from a distance 
in the heat, and kept for hours before they are given to the 
worms, have begun to fade and lose their natural freshness, the 
moisture on them, by imbibing the exhaling gasses, will act as an 
active poison on the worm and kill it. 

Again, where the temperature of the rooms can be kept down 
to 80° of Fahrenheit, it is obstinately asserted that the constitu- 
tion of the worm cannot suffer ; yet such reasoners forget that in 
a warm climate they can only keep down the temperature by 
shutting up the house and excluding heat, and that in so doing 
they cause malaria to arise among the worms and ordure by the 
exclusion of every breath of that pure fresh air which is so 
essential to the insect's healthy existence. 

Lastly, chopped leaves must likewise be compassionately given 
to the new-born worms, for fear the hardness of the leaf should 
hurt their gums, and give the tender brats the tooth-ache * Not a 

• Journ. Hort. Soc. of India, vol. x. part 2, p. 182. 



Restoration of the Silkworm. 171 

breatli of wind, not a change of temperature, must pass over tlicse 
tender beings, for fear tlie destroying angel should stretch forth 
his hand and ruthlessly exterminate the whole. But common 
sense would fain inquire, — "Is the worm naturally of so tender a 
constitution that no cliange must be suffered to come nigh its 
dwelling? If so, how did the insect contrive to brave the storms, 
and outlive the daily changes of temperature, even from day to 
night, when exposed upon the trees in its own native and northern 
mountain climate ? Nay why was such change from day to night 
ordained if it were to prove injurious to organic structures?" 

I have proved, however, at Mussoorce, that the worms of 
different species, even in their present debilitated state, are not so 
delicate as it has hitherto been the fashion to suppose, and have 
successfully reared great numbers of worms that were night and 
day exposed to every change of temperature, to every gale that 
blew, and above all to the constant moisture of the mists which 
were permitted to pass through the room, saturating leaves and 
trays, and causing the worms themselves to sparkle through the 
moisture deposited upon them. Yet notwithstanding this rough 
treatment no deaths occurred, no particular diseases showed them- 
selves, and the cocoons produced were pronounced by comj)etcnt 
judges to be good and the silk of the best quality. 

They have likewise been successfully reared in France in the 
open air, and the cocoons are pronounced to be superior to 
those reared within the house. 

And yet, after all, seeing that the constitution of the insect has 
been completely destroyed, what wonder if it be found unable to 
bear up successfully against the sudden changes of temperature 
of a foreign climate ? Too great a degree of heat, — an improper 
system of feeding, — the exclusion of fresh air from the rooms, 
and, above all, the long-continued system of breeding in and in 
with debilitated stock, have at length reduced the worm to the 
condition of a leper, and have banished from its skin every trace 
of those colours with which Nature had originally ornamented it. 
Even in Europe it has been found that heat is inimical to its 
liealth, for not only in Italy is the best silk produced in the 
mountainous parts of Piedmont, but M. Guerin-Meneville, in a 
tour made in 1858 through France and Italy, likewise declares 
that it is in " those elevated localities where the vine and the 
mulberry escaped disease, that the worm was found to enjoy the 
best health." 

This indefatigable naturalist also notices a custom which has 



172 Captain T. Hutton on the 

long struck me as being most objectionable, and one which has 
most certainly contributed in no slight measure to destroy the 
streno-th and healthiness of the worm. " Nature," observes 
M. Guerin-Meneville, "distinctly shows that it is her wish that 
the sexes should remain coupled for a certain time, and that time 
is generally from ten to twelve hours, and often more." 

Yet, notwithstanding the truth of this remark, it has become 
the custom, after Count Dandolo, whose opinions are not always 
to be depended on, to separate the sexes at the end of five or six 
hours, and the unavoidable consequence is, that while half the 
eggs remain altogether unimpregnated and wasted, the otlier half 
will produce weakly and sickly worms. It naturally follows then, 
from this unnecessary interference with Nature's mysteries, that 
the worms produced are pre-disposed to disease, and as this goes 
on year after year, and has done so for centuries past, of course 
the worm becomes more and more degenerated and debilitated. 

Surely even here a useful lesson may be learned from the pro- 
ceedings of the wild species, since every one who has tied out the 
females of any of the larger Bomhycidce, such as AntJiercea or 
Attains, must have observed that the wild male found coupled 
with the female in the morning, will, if unmolested, remain so 
until after sunset, when a voluntary separation takes place. 

Conclusion. 
That matters, as regards the silkworm, are in a very critical 
and unsatisfactory condition, is fully acknowledged by the French 
cultivators, but I very much doubt if they have adopted the best 
means of checking the various maladies with which the insect is 
beset. Quacks, doubtless, will be found in numbers ever ready 
to extol some secret nostrum, but the remedies hitherto applied 
to cure particular phases of disease are calculated to exercise but 
a temporary effect, and do not by any means strike boldly home 
and remove the causes from which the maladies arise ; hence in 
1861, it was feared that the yield of silk throughout all France 
would scarcely rise to one-half the return given in previous years. 
Perfectly useless is it to seek in foreign lands for a healthier and 
more vigorous seed, since the loss of constitution is universal, and 
1 confidently aver that nothing short of the re-discovery of the 
insect in its original stale of nature, or of the complete restoration 
of the constitution of the domesticated stock by causing the worm 
to revert to its pristine colour and characteristics, will ever be 
able to avert the doom which now appears to be impending over 
the whole domestic stock of Bombijccs. 



Restoration of the Silhivorm. 173 

The mode of doing tliis is as simple as covdd be wished. 
Nature, ever watchful over the welfare of her productions, herself 
points out the course to be pursued, and invites us to profit 
by her wise suggestions, when she gives us so broad a hint of the 
true state of affairs as to place before us in almost every brood 
of domesticated worms a few dark individuals, as if for the 
express purpose of attracting and fixing the naturalist's attention, 
and compelling him to adopt a method of perpetuating that dark 
race. Let the sericulturist separate these from his general stock, 
and set them apart for breeding from ; let him annually weed 
them of all pale-coloured worms, and in the course of three or 
four years he will be enabled to cast aside his present sickly 
colourless stock, and rejoice in the acquisition of a worm far 
healthier than ever it has been since the day when it was first im- 
ported from the east by the enterprising monks to whom we are 
indebted for its introduction into Europe. 



( 175 ) 



V. Descriptions of some New Species of Butterflies found 
in Southern Africa. By Roland Trimen. 

[Read 4th July, 1864.] 

Thirteen of the following sixteen species of Rhopalocera will be 
figured in the forthcoming second part of my " Catalogue of the 
South African Butterflies." Ten of the species have been dis- 
covered by Mr. James Henry Bowker, Inspector of the Frontier 
Armed Mounted Police, a gentleman who has devoted his leisure 
for several years past to the collection and observation of the 
Fauna and Flora of KafTraria, and has specially given his atten- 
tion to the Lepidoptera, an order in which the densely-wooded 
valley of the Um-Bashee appears to be particularly rich. The 
new species enumerated are thus distributed among the several 
Families, viz. : — 

Pieridce . . . . . . . . . . 1 

Satyridce . . . . . . . . . . 1 

Lycccnidce . . . . . . . . . . 6 

HesperidcB . . . . . . . . . . 8 



Family PIEPxID^, Dup. 

Genus Eronia, Hiibn, 

Eronia varia. 

Exp. 2 in. 10 lin.— 3 in. 1 lin. 

$ . Fore-wing white, with contiguous (at apex confluent) hind- 
marginal black spots ; a basal orange-red suff^usion nearly fills 
cell ; hind-wing creamy-yellow with white nervures, and suflTused 
ill-defined hind-marginal spots. Underside. — Hind-wing and edges 
of fore-wing rich chrome-yellow : marginal spots small, ferru- 
ginous grey, some wanting ; basal red of fore-vving deeper ; a 
whitish, ferrnginous-grey-clouded blotch at apex of fore-vving and 
two similar blotches on hind-margin of hind-wing. 

? . Smaller : markings fainter ; basal red almost obsolete ; 
hind-wing of a deeper yellow. Underside. — Of a deeper yellow ; 
basal suflusion orange-yellow. 

//«6. — Bashee River, Kaflfraria. 



176 Mr. Roland Trimen's Descriptions of 

Family SATYRID^, Sws. 
Genus Erebia, Dalm. 
Ercb'ia Sabacus. 
Exp. 1 in. 3 lin. — 1 in. 8 lin. 
Allied to E. Hippia, Cram. 

Greyish-brown ; fulvous patch of fore-wing large, occupying 
cell (at end of which it is almost divided) and covering disc ; 
apical ocellus bipupillate with bluish, faintly yellowish-ringed ; 
patch of hind-wing small, enclosing two small white-unipupillate 
ocelli. Underside. — Hind-wing and apex of fore-vving whitisli- 
grey, hatched with minute dark lines ; hind-wing with three irre- 
gular transverse brown streaks. 
Hab, — Cape Colony and Kaffraria. 

Family LYCiENID^, Leach. 

Genus Iolaus, Hiibn. 

lolaus Sidus. 

Exp. 1 in. 2 lin. — 1 in. 3 lin. 

Allied (nearly) to /. Silas, Westw. 

^ . Bright pale-blue ; apical region of fore-vving broadly black; 
hind-wing with large, glistening-whitish, black-ringed, basi-costal 
circular patch, and two black-spotted, bluish-scaled, crimson-red 
spots at anal angle. Underside. — White tinged with greyish; one 
transverse ferruginous streak in fore-wing, two in hind-wing (the 
inner one becoming black and bi-angulated near inner margin) ; 
costa of fore-wing and hind-margin of hind-wing edged with 
orange. 

? . Violaceous-whitish, blue-suffused from bases ; apical black 
of fore-wing narrower and duller ; hind-wing with a blackish 
costal border (widest at apex), two dusky sub-marginal streaks, 
and three large anal-angular orange spots. 

Hab. — Kaffraria and Natal. 

lolaus Bowkeri. 
Exp. 1 in. 5 lin. 

? . Pale fuscous, suffused from bases with light blue; beyond 
middle a transverse, macular, white band ; fore-wing with a 
fuscous, white-bordered, disco-cellular streak ; hind-wing with 
a sub-marginal, lunular, bluish-white streak which, on lobe of 
anal angle, unites with a marginal white line to form a white 
space (marked with a black spot). Underside. — White, with the 



some New Species of Butterjlies. 177 

following oclireous, brown-cdgcd, irregular, transverse stri.iG in 
each wing, viz. : a disco-cellular streak, a stria before middle, a 
broad one beyond middle, and a liind-marginal and sub-marginal 
line ; the two striae of hind-wing acutely angulated, being diverted 
abruptly to base. 

liab. — Bashee River, Kaffraria. 



Genus LyCiENA, Fab. 
Lycccna Hintza. 

Exp. 11 lin. — 1 in. 1 lin.. 

Caudate. Allied to L. Rosimon, Fab. 

S. Shining violet-blue; a narrow hind-marginal blackish 
edging ; the ordinary blackish spot near anal angle of hind-wing. 
Underside. — White; in each wing the following black markings, 
viz. a stria (broad in fore-wing) closing cell, an irregular trans- 
verse row of spots beyond middle, two sub-marginal rows of spots 
(the inner of sub-linear, the outer of small rounded spots), and a 
black edging-line ; fore-wing with a sub-costal and an upward- 
curving basal inner-marginal stria ; hind-wing with six spots at 
base, and the last two spots of outer row faintly dotted with 
bluish-silvery. 

J . White, shot with violaceous-bluish from bases ; the black 
underside markings sufFusedly repeated above. Cilia in both 
sexes white, in fore-wing interrupted with blackish. 

Ilab. — British Kaffraria and Kaffraria. 

Genus Zeritis, Boisd, 
Zeritis Chrysaor, 

Exp. 10 lin. — 1 in. 1 lin. 

Allied to Z. Zeuxo, Linn. 

Glittering golden-orange ; each wing with a disco-cellular spot 
(small and faint in hind-wing) and an irregular row of spots beyond 
middle; no sub-marginal row of spots in hind-wing; hind -mar- 
ginal border much narrower than in Zeuxo, and in hind-wing 
macular or nearly so. Underside. — Varying from pale creamy- 
ochreous to pale ferruginous-ochreous ; inner-marginal region of 
fore-wing pale-orange, its spots with large steely centres ; spots 
of hind-wing small, slightly glistening. 

//«6. — Cape Colony, British Kaffraria and Kaffraria. 



178 Mr. Roland Trimen's Descriptions of 

Zeritis Pt/ro'els. 

Exp. 1 in. — 1 in. 4 lin. 

Allied to Z. Zeuxo and Chrymor. 

Orange-yellow (not metallic); spots as in Zeuxo; bases broadly 
blackish, densely blue-scaled; liind-wing of $ shot with a blue 
lustre ; in fore-wing a broad, very even, hind-marginal border of 
black ; in hind-wing only an interrupted edging. Underside. — 
Much as in Clirijsaor, pale creamy-ferruginous ; no basal cloud- 
ing ; a sub-marginal row of fuscous spots in fore-wing ; spots of 
hind-wing usually very indistinct, if not obsolete. 

Hah, — Cape Town, 

Zeritis Phosphor. 

Exp. 10 lin. 

Allied to Z. Pcriov, Cram, (see Hopffer in Peters* "Reise," &c.) 

Shining golden-orange ; bases suffused witli blackish-brown ; 
fore-wing with a very broad, dark, apical border, commencing on 
costa and narrowing near anal angle ; -hind-wing with a transverse 
row of dark spots beyond middle. Underside. — Very much as in 
Perion, J ; hind-wing and borders of fore-wing pale greyish- 
ochreous, hind-marginally tinged with reddish ; cellular and 
neighbouring spots in fore-wing with steely centres; spots of 
hind-wing steely, dark-edged. 

Hab. — Dashee River, Kaffraria. 

Family HESPERID^, Leach. 
Genus Pyrgus, Hiibn. 

Pyrgus Asterodia. 

Exp. 9 — 10 lin. 

Nearly allied to P. Findex, Cram., but paler, more glossy ; the 
spots smaller, not so white ; in fore-wing, the central of three 
cellular spots largest, nearer to outer than inner spot, — a trilinear 
spot just above central spot, — lowest spot of row beyond middle 
largest, — outer marginal row of spots wanting; in hind-wing 
transverse white stripe commences on costa, narrowing very much 
interiorly. Underside. — Hind-wing and apex of fore-wing less 
greyish, more inclining to fulvous. 

Hab. — Cape Colony. 

Pyrgus Sataspes. 
Exp. 9| lin. — 1 in. 

$ . Fuscous-brown; spots small, dull-whitish, rather suffused; 
only two cellular spots in fore-wing ; median band of hind-wing 



some New Species of Butterflies. 179 

very much narrower than in P. J'lndex ; a double marginal row of 
ochrey dots in each wing. Underside. — Costa of fore-wing pale 
greyish-yellow, apex pale reddish-yellow ; hind-wing pale-fuscous, 
clouded with reddish, crossed by two yellowish-white stripes (of 
which the outer unites at anal angle with an inner-marginal whitish 
stripe). 

? . Paler; spots more conspicuous. Underside of hind-vvin|r 
reddish-ochreous, only fuscous-tinged next to stripes. 
Hah. — Cape Colony and British KaflTraria. 

Genus Cyclopides, Hiibn. 
Cyclopides inornalus. 

Exp. 1 in. — 1 in. 1 lin. 

Allied to C. Lepcletierii, Godt. 

Dull-fuscous; cilia dull-grey ; from costa of fore-wing, beyond 
middle, a row of three indistinct pale dots. Underside. — Hind- 
wing, with costa and apex of fore-wing, reddish-brown ; in each 
wing a disco-cellular pale dot, succeeded by a transverse row (in 
hind-wing strongly curved) of similar dots. 

//a6. — Bashee River, KnfFraria. 

Genus Pamphila, Fab. 
PampJdla 1 niveostriga. 
Exp. 1 in. 2 lin. — 1 in. 3 lin. 

$ . Fuscous-brown, hind-wing darker ; fore-wing with a disco- 
cellular white spot, and a transverse row of white spots. Cnder- 
side. — All pale reddish-ochreous, marked with paler norvures, 
except inner margin of fore-wing, which is fuscous, and that of 
hind-wing, which is snowy-white, edged interiorly with black. 
Hab. — Bashee River, Kaffraria. 

Pamphila Zeno. 

Exp. 1 in. 5 lin. 

Dark brown : in each wing a large orange-yellow disco-cellular 
spot, followed by an irregular transverse row of six similar spots: 
bases irroratcd with orange-yellow. Underside. — Hind-wing and 
costa and apex of fore-wing greenish-yellow : hind-wing with a 
median and a submarginal, macular, fuscous band, — the latter 
joining the wider anal-angular portion of a blackish inner-mar- 
ginal stripe. 

//«/-».— Bashee River, Kaffraria. 

VOL. II. THIRD SERIES, PART II. AUGIST, 18Gi. -J 



180 Mr. R. Trimen on New Species of Butter Jiies. 

Genus Leucochitonea, Wlgr.* 
Leucochilonea hicolor. 

Exp. 1 in. 5 lin. 

$ . Ochreous-yellow, deeper in hind-wing: fore-wing universally 
black-bordered, hind-wing also (except along costa); fore-wing with 
four large black spots, viz., one at base, 2nd cellular, 3rd below 
and beyond 2nd, 4th (largest) costal and towards apex. Under- 
side. — Yellow deeper ; margins very narrow ; spots of fore-wing 
indistinct. 

Hab. — Bashee River, Kaffraria. 

Genus Caprona, Wlgr.j- 
Caprona Canopiis. 
Exp. 1 in. 4 lin. — 1 in. 7 lin. 

Semi-transparent creamy-white, with vitreous bands and spots : 
base in both wings and apical region of fore-wing ferruginous- 
ochreous. Underside. — White purer; markings indistinct; no 
basal colouring ; in fold of inner margin of hind-wing, near anal 
angle, a conspicuous black spot. 
Hab. — Kaffraria and Natal. 

Genus NisoNiADEs, Hiibn. 
Nisoniades Kohela. 

Exp. 1 in. 5 lin. — 1 in. 10 lin. 

Same group as N. Sabadius, Boisd. 

Dusky blackish-brown, clouded with paler scales : in each wing 
a disco-cellular dark spot (in fore-wing always vitreous-centred 
in ? and sometimes in ^ ), and a row of spots beyond middle (of 
which, in fore-wing, the three next costa are small and wholly 
vitreous in both sexes, and some of the others vitreous-centred in 
? ); near base of fore- wing, below cell, a large spot, sometimes 
pale-centred in ? . Underside. — Paler, more glossy : spots smaller, 
more distinct; inner margin of fore-wing dull-greyish; cell of hind- 
wing closed with a double streak, and spots bounded by, and often 
centred with, dull-yellowish scales. Cilia of fore-wing fuscous, of 
hind-wing greyish-yellow, regularly interrupted with fuscous. 

Hab. — Bashee River, Kaffraria. 

* Lep. Rhop. Caffr. (in K. Sv. Vetensk. Ak. Handlingar), p. 52. 
t Ibid. p. 51. 



( 181 ) 



VI. Characters of undescribed Species of Smiera (Cluiki- 
dites). By Francis Walker, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

[Read 6th June, 1864.] 

Smiera, of which a few species occur in various parts of tlie 
world, is most abundant in South America, and numerous forms 
of it inhabit the Amazon region, which seems to be especially 
adapted to the multiplicity of the species of that genus. All the 
species described in the following communication were discovered 
by Mr. Bates, and are in the collection of the British Museum. 

SYNOPSIS SPECIERUSr. 

A Femora postica dentibus magnis armata. 
A AntenncB filiformes. 

* Antennae apice non pallidiores. 
•f Abdomen nigrum. 

J Femora postica dentibus 4 magnis armata. aS". con- 
c'llala. 
\\ Femora postica dentibus 5 magnis armata. 
§ Tibiae anticae flavae. S. cerla. 
§§ Tibiae anticae nigrae. S. efficia. 
ft Abdomen flavo- aut luteo-varium. 

;}; Femora postica dentibus 3 magnis armata. 5. con- 
tacta. 
W Femora postica dentibus 4 magnis armata. 
§ Abdomen immaculatum. S. dest'inala. 
§§ Abdomen nigro-bimaculatum. S. crocuta. 
XXX Femora postica dentibus 5 magnis armata. 
§ Antennae subtus non ochraceae. 

X Abdomen nigro-fasciatum. S. appressa. 
X X Abdomen maculis lateralibus piceis. S. 
aperta. 
XXX Abdomen fasciis piceis. S. cerina. 
§§ Antennae subtus ochraceae. S. basilica. 
XXXX Femora postica dentibus 6 magnis armata. 
§ Caput nigrum. S. composita. 
§§ Caput flavum aut luteum. 

X Abdomen vitta nigricante. 5. adimxta^ 
X X Abdomen fasciis rufescentibus. S. de- 
fiuicla. 
+++++ Femora postica dentibus 7 magnis armata. 5. 
adaplala. 

VOL. II. TIIIKD SERIES, PART III. — NOV. 1861'. P 



182 Mr. F. Walker's Characters of 

XXXXXX Femora postica dentibus 8 magnisarmata. S. cor- 
recta. 
XXXXXXX Femora postica dentibus 9 magnis armala. 5'. exi- 

nanicns. 
** Antennas apice rufescentes. 

-j- Abdomen nigrum, basi flavum. S. scissn. 
■\'\ Abdomen fasciis interruptis nigris. S, cemula. 
-|"j 'j- Abdomen flavum, immaculatum. S. adsita. 
*** Antennee apice luteae. S. allallca. 
AA Antennae extrorsum crassiores. 

* Abdomen fusiforme. S. contermina. 
** Abdomen lanceolatum. S, commoda, 

AAA Antennas subclavatae. S. allennla. 
B Femora postica dentibus parvis armata. 
A Antennse filiformes. 

* Antennse apice non rufescentes. 

-f" Abdomen flavum, immaculatum, 

+ Abdomen thorace multo brevius. S. dimota. 
XX Abdomen thorace paullo brevius. 5. dispoxila. 
■ff Abdomen flavum, apice nigrum. 
X Alae venis fulvis. S. explela. 
XX Alas venis nigris. 

§ Tibias posticae luteas. S. descr'ipta. 
§§ Tibiae postica) basi apiceque nigrae. S. cx- 
hauriens. 
iff Abdomen fasciatum. 

X Corpus nigrum, flavo-varium. 
§ Petiolus non brevissimus. 

X Abdomen luteum, nigro-bifasciatum. S. 
adjuncla, 
X X Abdomen nigrum, fasciis flavis. S.hlanda. 
§§ Petiolus brevissimus. aS". vacillans. 
XX Corpus flavum, nigro-varium. 

§ A]a2 anticas apice nigricantes. S. tcrmmaUs. 
§§ Alae anticae apice non nigricantes. 
X Alas cinereas. 

H- Antennae scapo flavo. 

++ Petiolus metathorace longior. 
S, cequalis. 
■j-f-f-f- Petiolus metathorace brevior. 
S. contriOiita. 
-f.-f- Antennae scapo subtus flavo. S.celsa. 
X X Alas limpidas. S, dctracfa. 



iindescrihed Species of Smiera {Chalcidiies). 183 

** Antennae apicc rufescentes. 

f Corpus nigrum, flavo-varium. S. annuUfcra. 
'\\ Corpus flavum aut luleum, nigro-varium. 
I Abdomen luteum. S. dep'wta. 
W Abdomen notatum. 

§ Corpus flavum, iS". annexa. 
§§ Corpus luteum. S. cognata. 
*** Antennas ochraceae. S. demola. 
A.v Antennae extrorsum crassiores. 

* Abdomen basi rufescens. 5. apparota. 
** Abdomen basi non rufescens. 
-|" Alse cinereae. 5. deducta. 
•\-\ Alae limpidai. 5, altacta. 

To tlie above species of Smiera I have added a single new spe- 
cies of the genus Chalcis, C, eurylomoidcs. 

1. Smiera concitata. 
Feem. — Nigra; antennae scapo subtus flavo ; prothorax luteo- 
bistrigatus ; parapsides et scutcllum luteo-notata ; pedes 
postici coxis flavo-vittatis, femoribus flavis apice nigris ; 
tarsi intermedii fiavi, apice picei ; alae obscure cinereae. 

Female. — Black. Antennae filiform ; scape yellow beneath. 
Prothorax with a luteous transverse streak on each side. Parap- 
sides of the mesothorax with a luteous streak on the outer side; 
scutellum with a small luteous dot on each side, and with a pro- 
minent rim which is slightly bidentate. Petiole nearly as long as 
the metathorax. Abdomen slightly lanceolate, shorter and much 
narrower than the thorax. Hind-coxae beneath with a broad 
yellow stripe, which does not extend to the tips; hind-femora 
yellow, black towards the tips, armed with four large and two 
very small black teeth ; anterior knees and middle tarsi yellow, 
the latter piceous towards, the tips; fore-tarsi piceous. Wings 
dark cinereous ; veins piceous ; ulna a little less than half the 
length of the humerus ; radius as long as the ulna ; cubitus short. 

Length of the body 5 lines ; of the wings 9 lines. 

2. Smiera certa. 
Mas. — Nigra; antennae subtus rufescentes, scapo subtus flavo; 
prothorax flavo-bistrigatus ; mcsothoracis segmenta flavo- 
strigata ; tibiae posticae luteo-strigatae 3 tarsi lutei ; aloe ob- 
scure cinerea?. 
i\[alc, — Dlack. AntennoG filiform, reddish beneath ; scape with 

p 2 



184 Mr. F. Walker's Characters of 

a yellow stripe beneath. Prothorax with a small transverse yellow 
streak on each side. A small yellow streak on each of the pa- 
rapsides and paraptera of the mesothorax ; scutelliim with an 
interrnpted transverse yellow line on its fore-border, forming on 
its hind-border a slightly excavated rim. Metathorax vertical. 
Petiole a little longer than the metathorax. Abdomen nearly 
oval, shorter and narrower than the thorax. Hind-femora with 
one small and five very large teeth ; hind-tibiae with a luteous 
streak above towards the base ; tarsi luteous ; fore-tarsi piceous 
above towards the base. Wings dark cinereous ; veins piceous ; 
ulna about half the length of the humerus ; radius a little longer 
than the ulna ; cubitus rather short. 

Length of the body 4g lines ; of the wings 9 lines. 

Female ? — Prothorax with a yellow line along each side and on 
the hind border, where it is widely interrupted. Scutellum with 
a yellow line along the hind-border. Metathorax oblique. Petiole 
a little shorter than the metathorax. Abdomen dingy luteous 
beneath. Hind-coxae yellow on the inner side towards the tips ; 
hind-femora with a yellow streak, which is largest on the inner 
side ; hind-tibiae luteous on the inner side towards the base ; 
anterior knees and tarsi yellow; hind-tarsi black. 

^ &uJU,<?«*--«^^ ) 3. Smiera efficta. 

Man. — Nigra ; oculi flavo-cincti ; antennae subtus picese, scapo 
subtus flavo ; thorax scuti margine antico, parapsidum lituris 
dnabus transversis, scutellique margine postico flavis ; ab- 
domen supra luridum ; pedes anteriores flavi, ex parte picei ; 
alae cinereas. 
ISIalc. — Black, stout. Head yellow about the eyes. Antennae 
filiform, piceous beneath ; scape yellow beneath. Scutum of the 
mesothorax bordered with yellow in front ; a yellow transverse 
mark on each of the parapsides ; scutellum yellow on the hind 
border, which is armed with two very small teeth. Petiole as long 
as the metathorax. Abdomen elongate-oval, lurid above, shorter 
and much narrower than the thorax. Hind-femora armed with 
seven teeth, of which five are large; anterior legs yellow; anterior 
femora and middle tibiae mostly piceous above. Wings cinereous; 
veins black ; ulna half the length of the humerus; radius as long 
as the ulna ; cubitus moderately long. 

Length of the body 4 lines ; of the wings 7 lines. 

4. Sni;era contacta. 

Mas. — Lutea ; caput postice nigrum ; antennae nigrae, subtus 
rufescentes, scapo subtus luteo ; prothorax fascia nigra luteo- 



vndescribed Species of Sniiera (C/talcidites). 185 

bipunctata ; mesothorax vittis tribus, guttis duabus vittaque 
scutclli postice dilalata nigris ; pectus nigro-bistrigatnm ; 
abdomen supra nigrum ; pedes postici coxis apice nigris, 
femoribus nigro-triguttatis ; alae cinereae. 

Mctlc. — Luteous. Head black bebind. Antennae black, filiform, 
reddisli beneatb ; scape luteous beneatb. Hind-border of the 
])rotborax witb a narrow black band, wbicb is sligbtly arcbed in 
front, and contains two luteous points. Mesotborax witb tbree 
broad black stripes, one on tbe scutum and one on eacb of tbe 
parapsides ; parajitera black towards eacb otber ; scutellum armed 
witb two small teetb, adorned witb a black stripe, whicb is dilated 
and al)breviated bindvvard. Pectus wiib a black transverse streak 
on eacb side. Petiole a little longer tban tbe metatborax. Abdo- 
men elongate-oval, mostly black above, mucb shorter and narrower 
tban tbe tborax. Hind-coxse witb black tips; bind-femora armed 
witli three large teeth, adorned with three black dots, of which 
one is above, the second below, and the third apical. Wings 
cinereous ; veins black ; ulna more than half the length of the 
humerus ; radius as long as the ulna; cubitus short. 

Length of the body 3 lines ; of the wings 5 lines. 

5. Smiera dcstinata. 

Fcem. — Lutca ; caput flavum, sulco antico margineque postico 
nigris ; antennae nigrse, subtus rufescentes, scapo flavo; tho- 
rax scuti margine antico lineaque, parapsidum vittis duabus, 
parapteris ex parte, scutellique macula nigris; pedes postici 
coxis tibiisque apice nigris, femoribus nigro-bimaculatis et 
unistrigatis ; alae cinereae. 

Female. — Luteous. Head yellow, black behind and on the 
furrow for the reception of the scape. Antennae black, filiform, 
reddibb beneath and towards the base ; scape yellow. Scutum of 
the mesothorax with a black line, which is connected with a short 
transverse black line on the fore-border ; a black stripe on each 
of the parapsides ; paraptera yellow, black towards each other ; 
scutellum armed with two small teeth, adorned at its tip with a 
black spot, which emits a line to the fore-border. Petiole a little 
longer than the metatborax. Abdomen oval, about twice the 
length of the petiole, very much shorter and narrower than the 
thorax. Hind-coxae with black tips; hind-femora armed with 
four very large teeth, which are mostly black, adorned on each 
side with two black spots (one apical, the other contiguous to the 
first tooth), and on thi' outer side above with a small black streak; 
liinil-tibia? with black tips. Wings cinereous; veins black ; ulna 



186 Mr. F. Walker's Characters of 

hardly half the length of the humerus ; radius a little longer than 
the ulna ; cubitus very short. 

Length of the body 3^ lines; of the wings 6 lines, 

6. Smiera crocala. 
Fcem. — Lutea, subtus flava ; caput postice nigrum ; antennao 
piceae, subtus fulvae, scapo subtus flavo ; thorax scuti mar- 
gine antico lineaque, parapsidum maculis duabus elongatis, 
parapteris ex parte, scutellique macula tetragona nigris ; ab- 
domen maculis duabus lateralibus nigris ; pedes postici coxis 
apice nigris, femoribus nigro-bimaculatis ; alae cinereae. 

Female. — Luteous, yellow beneath. Head black behind. An- 
tennas piceous, filiform, tawny beneath ; scape yellow beneath. 
Scutum of the mesothorax with a black line, which is connected 
with a short transverse line on the fore-border, and is abbreviated 
hindward ; an elliptical black spot on each of the parapsides ; 
paraptera black towards each other ; scutelliim armed with two 
rather large teeth, adorned with a tetragonal black spot, which is 
attenuated towards the scutum. Petiole much longer than the 
metathorax. Abdomen elongate-oval, hardly twice the length of 
the petiole, with a black spot on each side near the tip. Hind- 
coxse with black tips ; hind-femora armed with four very large 
teeth, which are mostly black, adorned beneath with two black 
spots, one before the middle, the other apical. Wings cinereous ; 
veins black ; ulna hardly half the length of the humerus ; radius 
as long as the ulna ; cubitus very short. 

Length of the body 3 lines ; of the wings 5 lines. 

> Ka>*-V\m.*.<a^ 7. Smiera appressa. 
cem. — Flava; caput snico margineque postico nigris; an- 
tennae nigrae, scapo flavo apice nigro ; prothorax strigis 
duabus transversis nigris ; mesothoracis segn>enta nigra, flavo 
lat^ marginata ; metathorax antice nigro-marginatus ; abdo- 
men nigro-quadrifasciatum ; pedes postici femoribus tibiis- 
que basi apiceque nigris ; femora intermedia piceo-strigata ; 
alae cinereae. 

Female. — Yellow. Head black behind and on the furrow for 
the scape. Antennae black, filiform ; scape yellow, black towards 
the tip above. Prothorax with a minute transverse black streak 
on each side. Scutum and parapsides of the mesothorax black, 
broadly bordered with yellow ; paraptera black towards the 
scutum and along the hind-border; scutellum armed with two 
very short teeth, adorned with a nearly hexagonal black spot. 



undescribed Species of Smiera (C/ialcidites). 187 

Metathorax with a black line along its fore-boriler. Disk of the 
pectus black. Petiole stout, much shorter than the metathorax. 
Abdomen lanceolate, slightly compressed towards its tip, much 
longer and narrower than the thorax ; middle part adorned with 
four slender black bands. Hind-femora black at the tips and 
towards the base, whence the black hue extends along half the 
length of the upper border and along the whole of ihe lower 
border, which is armed with five large black teeth ; middle femora 
with a short piceous streak on the outer side ; hind-tibiae black 
towards the base and towards the tips. Wings cinereous; veins 
black ; ulna about half the length of the humerus ; radius as long 
as the ulna ; cubitus very short ; spurious veins very distinct. 
Length of the body 5 lines ; of the wings 9 lines. 

V i.'-'J " 8, Smiera aperfa. 

Foem. — Flava; caput nigro-bipunctatum; antennae piceac, subtus 
rufescentes, scapo subtus flavo ; thorax scuti punctis duobus 
lineaque transversa postica et parapsidum guttis duabus 
elongatis nigris ; abdomen maculis octo lateralibus piceis ; 
pedes postici coxis tibiisque apice nigris, femoribus nigro- 
uniguttatis ; ala? cinerea?. 

Female. — Yellow. Head with two black points behind. An- 
tennae piceous, filiform, reddish beneath ; scape yellow beneath. 
Scutum of the mesothorax with a black point on each side of the 
fore-border, and with a short transverse black line on the hind- 
border ; an elongated black dot on each of the parapsides ; scu- 
tellum with two stout teeth. Petiole as long as the metathorax. 
Alidomen fusiform, with four piceous spots on each side, much 
shorter and narrower than the thorax. Hind-coxaj with black 
tips ; hind-femora with a black dot on the outer side at the base, 
armed beneath with seven black teeth, of which five are very 
large ; hind-tibiie black on the outer side at the tips. Wings 
cinereous; veins black ; ulna fully half the length of the humerus; 
radius nearly as long as the ulna ; cubitus short. 

Length of the body 1^ lines ; of the wings 8 lines. 



9. Smiera cerina. 

Alas. — Flava ; antennae nigrae subtus rufescentes, scapo subtus 
flavo ; thorax scuti punctis duobus, parapsidum strigis duabus, 
scutellique striga nigris ; abdominis segmenta piceo-fasciata ; 
pedes postici coxis tibiisque apice nigris ; alae cinereae. 

Male. — Yellow, Antennae black, filiform, reddish beneath ; 
scape yellow beneath. Scutum of the mesothorax with a black 



188 Mr. F. Walker's Characters of 

point on each side of the fore-border ; a short black streak on 
each of the parapsides ; scutellum with a short black streak, armed 
with two minute teeth. Petiole fully as long as the metathorax. 
Abdomen fusiform, with a piceous band on tlie fore-border of each 
segment, rather shorter and much narrower than the thorax. 
Hind-coxae and hind-tibiae with black tips ; hind-femora armed 
with six teeth, five of which are large. Wings cinereous ; veins 
black ; ulna about half the length of the humerus ; radius as long 
as the ulna ; cubitus short. 

Length of the body 4 lines ; of the wings 8 lines. 

\^(>Ai,v/i s'. . I -jQ^ Smiera basilica. 
J _ 

Fcem. — Flava ; caput nigrum, orulis flavo-cinctis ; antenna? 

nigrae, subtus ochraceae, scapo pallide flavo ; scuti discus, 
parapsides apud marginem interiorem, paraptera ex parte, 
scutelli vitta postice dilatata pectusque nigra ; abdomen 
nigro-sex-fasciatum ; femora postica nigro-vittata ; tibiae pos- 
ticae rufescentes, apice flav£B ; alae anticae cinereae, apud 
costam subkiridae. 

Female. — Yellow. Head black, except about the eyes and 
towards the mouth. Antennae black, filiform, rather long and 
slender, ochraceous beneath ; scape pale yellow, ochraceous 
above towards the tip ; second joint ochraceous. Scutum of the 
mesothorax black, except along each side ; parapsides black along 
the inner side ; paraptera partly black ; scutelhmi with a black 
stripe, which is dilated on the hind-border. Pectus black. Petiole 
as long as the metathorax. Abdomen lanceolate, a little longer 
and much narrower than the thorax, adorned with six black 
bands. Hind-femora black, except above and towards the tips, 
armed with five large teeth ; hind-tibise reddish, yellow towards 
the tips. Wings cinereous, with a lurid tinge towards the costa; 
veins ochraceous ; ulna less than lialf the length of the humerus ; 
radius as long as the ulna ; cubitus moderately long. 

Length of the body 5 lines ; of the wings 8 lines. 

11. Sviiera comjwsila. 

Foem. — Nigra; oculi flavo-cincti ; antennae scapo subtus flavo; 
prothorax flavus, strigis duabus transversis nigris ; meso- 
thoracis segmenia flavo-marginata ; metathorax et petiolus 
nigri ; abdomen basi fasciisque tribus flavis ; pedes flavo- 
varii ; alse cinereas. 

Female. — Black. Head yellow about the eyes. Antennae fili- 
form ; scape yellow beneath. Prothorax yellow above, with a 



undescribvd Species of Smiera (Chalcidiles). 189 

black transverse streak on each side. Scutum and parapsidcs of 
the mesotliorax yellow along the outer side ; paraptera yellow 
towards the wings ; scutellum yellow, with a black disk, armed 
with two very minute teeth. Metathorax and petiole yellow, the 
latter as long as the former. Abdomen lanceolate, much narrower 
and a little longer than the thorax, yellow at the base and with a 
yellow band near the lip ; first and second segments with yellow 
liind-borders. Hind-coxae irregularly yellow above towards the 
base ; hind-femora irregularly yellow above towards the tips, 
armed with six very large teeth ; anterior femora yellow towards 
their tips, this hue predominating most in the fore-femora; hind- 
tibiae with a yellow streak above towards the base; tarsi and 
anterior tibia; yellow, the former with black tips. Wings cinereous ; 
veins black ; ulna a little more than half the length of tlie humerus ;' 
radius a little longer than the ulna; cubitus very short. 
Length of the body 4 lines ; of the wings 7 lines. 

12. Smiera adm'ixtn. 
Alas. — Lutea; caput postic6 nigrum; anfenna3 nigra;, scapo 
subtus luteo ; prothorax nigro-biguttatus ; mesothoracis 
segmenta nigra, luteo-marginata ; abdomen nigricante 
vittatum ; pedes postici coxis apice nigris, femoribus nigro- 
bimaculaiis, tibiis piceo-vittatis ; alae cinerese, apud costam 
subluridse. 

Male. — ^Luteous. Head black behind. Antennae black, fili- 
form ; scape luteous beneath. Prothorax with a black dot on 
each side. Scutum and parapsides of the mesothorax black, with 
the exception of the borders; paraptera black towards the 
scutum ; scutellum armed with two very short teeth, adorned 
with a nearly triangular black spot. Petiole as long as the meta- 
thorax. Abdomen fusiform, with a short irregular blackish 
stripe, shorter and much narrower than the thorax. Hind-coxae 
black above towards their tips ; hind-femora black beneath at 
their base and at their tips, armed beneath with six large black 
teeth ; hind-tibiae with a piceous stripe, which is widely inter- 
rupted towards the base. Wings cinereous, with a lurid tinge 
towards the costa ; veins black; ulna fully half the length of the 
humerus; radius as long as the ulna; cul)itus very short. 

Length of the body 41 lines; of the wings 8 lines. 

] 3. Sinicra defuncta. 

Fcem. — Flava ; antenna? nigrae, subtus rufaj, scapo flavo ; pro- 
thorax linca transversa rufescente-nigro-notata ; mesothorax 



190 Mr. F. Walker's Characters of 

vittis tribus, parapteris apud angulos interiores, sciitellique 
vitta trigona nigris ; petiolus vitta nigra furcata ; abdominis 
segmenta rufescente fasciata ; tibiae posticse nigro-lineatse ; 
alae cinereae. 

Female. — Yellow. Antennae black, filiform, red beneath ; 
scape yellow. Prothorax with a reddish-black-marked trans- 
verse line. Mesothorax with a black stripe on the scutum, and 
one on each of the parapsides ; paraptera black towards the 
scutum ; scutellum with a black triangular stripe resting on the 
hind border. Petiole linear, slender, much longer than the meta- 
thorax, with a black stripe, which is forked hindward. Abdomen 
fusiform, with a broad reddish band on each segment, narrower 
and a little longer than the thorax. Hind-femora armed with six 
large black-tipped teeth ; hind- tibiae with a black line on the 
outer side beneath. Wings cinereous ; veins tawny ; ulna hardly 
half the length of the humerus; radius as long as the ulna; 
cubitus very short. 

Length of the body 5 lines ; of the wings 9 lines. 

'.^ ■' ^- -"^^ 14. Smiera adaptata. ^ ' 

Fcem. — Lsete flava ; caput postice nigrum ; antennae piceae, 
subtus rufescentes, scape subtus flavo ; mesothorax scuti 
linea furcata, parapsidum guttis duabus, parapteris ex parte, 
scutellique vitta lanceolata nigris ; pectus strigis quatuor 
lateralibus nigris ; abdomen strigis utrinque quatuor trans- . 
versis nigris ; pedes postici coxis apice nigris, femoribus 
maculis duabus nigris strigaque picea ; alae cinereje. 

Female. — Bright yellow. Head black behind. Antennae 
piceous, filiform, rather short and stout, reddish beneath ; scape 
yellow beneath. Scutum of tlie mesothorax with a black longi- 
tudinal line, which is forked in front ; parapsides with an 
elongated black dot ; paraptera and epimera partly black ; 
scutellum armed with two very minute teeth, adorned with a 
lanceolate black stripe, which is attenuated in front. Pectus with 
two black transverse streaks on each side. Petiole not longer 
than the metathorax. Abdomen fusiform, much shorter and very 
much narrower than the thorax, with four transverse black 
streaks on each side. Hind-coxae black towards the tips; hind- 
femora armed with seven large black-tipped teeth, adorned near 
the lower edge with two black spots, and on the outer side above 
with a fusiform piceous streak. Wings cinereous; veins black; 



undescribed Species of Smiera (C/iulcidites). 191 

ulna less than half the Icngtii of the humerus ; radius as long as 
the ulna ; cubitus very short. 

Length of the body iJg lines; of the wings 6 lines. 

15. Smiera correcla. 
Teem. — Flava ; antennfc nigrse, scapo subtus flavo ; linea abbrc- 
viata maculscque duse transversae scuti, macuke quatuor 
laterales posteriores trigonce, maculaque scutelli quadratu 
nigros ; abdomen apice nigrum ; coxeg posticae apice tibiaeque 
posticte basi nigrre ; femora postica nigro-bimaculuta ; akc 
cincrt'SD. 

Female. — Yellow, rather slender. Antennae black, filiform ; 
scape yellow beneath. Scutum of the mesothorax with a black 
line, which is abbreviated towards the fore-border, where there is 
a transverse black dot ; a black triangular spot on each of the 
parapsidcs, and another on each of the paraptera; scutellum with 
a black tetragonal spot near the hind-border, which is armed with 
two minute teeth. Petiole not longer than the metathorax. Ab- 
domen lanceolate, narrower but hardly longer than the thorax ; 
tip black. Hind-coxae with black tips ; hind-femora with two 
black spots by the lower side, armed with eight rather largo 
black teeth ; hind-tibiae black at the base. Wings cinereous ; 
veins piccous ; ulna about half the length of the humerus; radius 
a little shorter than the ulna ; cubitus short. 

Length of the body 1- lines ; of the wings 7 lines. 

16. Smiera exinanicns. 

Fcevi. — Nigra ; oculi flavo-cincti ; antennae scapo subtus flavo ; 

prothorax flavo-fasciatus ; mesothoracis segmenta flavo-mar- 

ginata ; metathorax flavus, nigro-fasciatus ; petiolus flavus, 

nigro-bivittatus ; abdomen basi fasciisque quatuor flavis ; 

pedes flavo-varii ; alae cinereae. 

Female. — Black. Head yellow about the eyes. Antennae 

filiform ; scape yellow beneath. Prothorax with a yellow band. 

Scutum and parapsides of the mesothorax yellow along the outer 

side ; paraptera yellow towards the wings ; scutellum yellow, with 

a black disk and with two minute teeth. Metathorax yellow, 

with a black band on the fore-border. Petiole yellow, with a 

black stripe on each side, much shorter than the metathorax. 

Abdomen lanceolate, much narrower but not longer than the 

thorax; yellow towards the base, and with four yellow bands, of 

which the three first are interrupted and the fourth is abbreviated. 



192 Mr. F. Walker's Characters of 

Hind-coxae irregularly yellow towards the base ; hind-femora 
irregularly yellow towards the base and towards the tips, armed 
with about twelve teeth, of which nine are large ; anterior femora 
yellow towards their tips; hind-tibiae yellow above towards their 
tips ; tarsi and anterior tibiae yellow, the former with black tips. 
Wings cinereous, veins black ; ulna about half the length of the 
humerus; radius as long as the ulna; cubitus short; spurious 
veins very distinct. 

Length of the body 4^ lines ; of the wings 8 lines. 

17. Sni'wra schsa. 

Mas. — Nigra; caput antice flavum ; antennae apice rufescentes, 
scapo subtus flavo ; prothorax fascia flava nigro-bistrigata ; 
mesotliorax segmentis flavo-marginatis, scutello fascia flava 
nigro-uniguttata ; metathorax postice luteus ; petiolus flavus ; 
abdomen basi flavum ; pedes flavi, coxis femoribusque pos- 
ticis nigris basi flavis, femoribus posticis fascia arcuata flava, 
tibiis posticis basi nigris ; alae cinereae. 

Male. — Black. Head yellow about the eyes and in front. 
Antennae filiform, reddish at the tips; scape yellow beneath. 
Hind-border of the prothorax with a yellow band, which on each 
side is much dilated, and contains a black streak. Scutum and 
parapsides of the mesotliorax bordered with yellow on the outer 
side ; scutellum with a deeply angular yellow band, which con- 
tains a small black dot on the hind-border, the latter armed with 
two short teeth. Metathorax luteous towards the petiole. Petiole 
yellow, longer than the metathorax. Abdomen elongate, oval, 
yellow towards the base, very much shorter and narrower than 
the thorax. Hind-coxae and hind-femora yellow towards the 
base ; hind-femora with a yellow arched subapical band, armed 
with two small and five very large teeth ; hind-tibiae yellow for 
fully half the length from the tips ; anterior legs and hind-tarsi 
yellow. Wings cinereous ; veins black ; ulna less than half the 
length of the humerus; radius as long as the ulna; cubitus mode- 
rately long, clouded with brown. 

Length of the body 3^ lines; of the wings 6 lines. 

18. Sm'iera cemula. 

Fcem. — Lutea ; caput postice nigrum ; antennae nigrae, apice 
rufescentes, scapo subtus flavo ; mesothorax niger, segmentis 
luteo-marginatis ; metathorax antice fascia angusta nigra; 



U7idescrib(d Species of Smiera {C/ialcidiies). 193 

abdomen fasciis qiiatuor intcrruptis nigris ; coxa; posticae 
nigro-vittatae ; alao anticae cinereae, apud costam subluridas. 

Female. — Luteous. Head black behind. Antennne black, 
slender, filiform, reddish at the tips ; scape yellow beneath. 
Mesothorax black ; scutum, pniapsides, paraptera and scutellum 
bordered with luteous; scutellum armed with two minute teeth. 
Metathorax with a narrow black band at the base. Petiole as 
long as the metathorax. Abdomen lanceolate, narrower but not 
longer than the thorax, with four interrupted black bands. Hiud- 
coxas with a black stripe, which is dilated towards the lip ; hind- 
femora armed beneath with six large black teeth. Wings cine- 
reous, with a lurid tinge towards the costa ; veins brown ; ulna 
more than half the length of the humerus ; radius shorter than 
the ulna ; cubitus short. 

Length of the body 5 lines ; of the wings 9 lines. 



'hJ. 



( /^^|vA^>'44</-^H^. Smiera adsila. 

Fcem. — Flava ; caput postice nigrum; antennae nigroe, apice 

rufescentes, scapo subtus flavo ; mesothoracis segmenta 

nigra, flavo lat^ marginata ; metathorax lineola transversa 

nigra ; peiles postici cox is femoribusque apice nigris ; alas 

cinereae. 

Female. — Yellow. Head black behind. Antennae black, slender, 

filiform, reddish at the tips ; scape yellow beneath. Scutum and 

parapsides of the mesothorax black, broadly bordered with yellow ; 

paraptera black, except towards the wings ; scutellum armed with 

two very short teeth, adorned with a nearly triangular black spot. 

Metathorax with a short black transverse line on the fore-border. 

Petiole as long as the metathorax. Abdomen lanceolate, narrower 

but not shorter than the thorax. Hind-coxae and hind-femora 

with black tips ; hind-femora with seven teeth, which are mostly 

black, and of moderate size, with the exception of the second, 

which is small. Wings cinereous ; veins tawny ; ulna half the 

length of the humerus ; radius a little longer than the ulna ; 

cubitus short. 

Length of the body i lines ; of the uings 7 lines. 

20. Smiera attalica. 
Mas. — Lutea ; caput flavum, vittis tribus anticis nigris ; antennae 
piceae, subtus apiceque luteae, scapo flavo ; prothorax flavus; 
scuti discus flavus; parapsides nigro-strigata' ; paraptera 



194 Mr. F. Walker's Characters of 

nigro-guttata; scutellum linea nigra postice dilatata; abdomen 
piceo-qiiadrifasciatmn ; coxee tibiseqiie posticse apice nigrse ; 
femora postica nigro-varia ; alee anticfe cinerese, apud costam 
subluridse. 

Male. — Liiteous. Head yellow, with three black stripes in front, 
one on the furrow for the reception of the scape, and one on each 
side. Antennae piceous, filiform, luteous beneath and at the tips ; 
scape yellow. Prothorax yellow. Scutum of the mesothorax 
yellow, except on each side ; parapsides with a broad black streak, 
which is abbreviated hindward ; a black dot on each of the 
paraptera ; scutellum armed with two minute teeth, adorned with 
a black line, which is dilated hindward. Petiole as long as the 
metathorax. Abdomen elongate, elliptical, shorter and very much 
narrower than the thorax, adorned with four or five piceous bands. 
Hind-coxse with black tips ; hind-femora black towards the base, 
adorned on the outer side with two abbreviated black lines which 
proceed from the black part, armed with eight large teeth ; hind- 
tibiae black towards the tips. Wings cinereous, with a lurid tinge 
towards the costa ; veins ochraceous ; ulna less than half the length 
of the humerus ; radius as long as the ulna ; cubitus moderately 
long. 

Length of the body 4 lines ; of the wings 7| lines. 

This may be the male of S. basilica (ante, p. 188). 

21. omiera conlermina. 
Fcem. — Flava ; caput sulco antico inargineque postico nigris ; 
antennae nigrae, scapo subtus flavo ; mesothoracis segmenta 
nigra, flavo-marginata ; metathorax nigro-bipunctatus ; ab- 
domen nigrum, basi flavum ; pedes postici coxis supra 
nigris, femoribus nigro-vittatis ; alae cinerese. 

Female. — Yellow. Head black behind and on the furrow for 
the reception of the scape. Antennae black, very slightly increas- 
ing in thickness to the tips ; scape yellow beneath ; scutum and 
parapsides black, with the exception of their borders ; paraptera 
black towards the scutum and along the hind-border; scutellum 
armed with two short teeth, adorned with a large triangular black 
spot. Metathorax with a black point on each side. Petiole as 
long as the metathorax. Abdomen black, fusiform, yellow towards 
the base, shorter and much narrower than the thorax. Hind- 
coxae black above, except towards the base; hind-femora with a 
black stripe along the five very large black teeth. Wings cine- 



undescribed Species of Smiera {Chalcidites). 195 

reous ; veins black; ulna about half the length of the humerus; 
radius a little longer than the ulna ; cubitus short. 
Length of the body 4^ lines; of the wings S lines. 

This species much resembles S. commoda, but may be distin- 
guished by the different shape of the abdomen and by the mark- 
ings on the hind-femora. 



(it/^l, 



Al S(iK'„eA> ) 22. Snucra commoda. 
Fcem. — Flava ; caput postice nigrum ; antennae nigrse, scapo 
flavo ; mesothoracis segmenta nigra, flavo-marginala ; ab- 
domen nigrum, basi flavum ; pedes postici cox is femoribus- 
que apice nigris ; alae cinerea?. 

Female. — Yellow. Head with a black band behind. Antennae 
black, slightly increasing in thickness to the tips ; scape yellow. 
Scutum and parapsides of the mesothorax black, bordered with 
yellow ; paraptera black on the inner side ; scutellum with a large 
black spot, armed with two short teeth. Petiole a little longer 
tiian the metalhorax. Abdomen black, lanceolate, yellow towards 
the base, shorter and much narrower than the thorax. Hind- 
coxae and hind-femora with black tips, the latter armed with five 
large teeth which are mostly black. Wings cinereous; veins 
blackish ; ulna about half the length of the humerus ; radius a 
little shorter than the ulna ; cubitus short. 

Length of the body 3 lines ; of the wings G lines. 

23. Smiera alknata. 
Fcem. — Nigra; caput antic^ flavum, oculis flavo-cinctis ; an- 
tennae apice truncatae, scapo flavo ; thorax prothoracis mar- 
gine postico, parapsidum strigis duabus, parapteris ex parte, 
scutellique margine flavis ; petiolus flavus ; abdomen supra 
flavum, nigro-quadrifasciatum ; pedes flavo-vittati ; ala) ob- 
scure cinereae. 

Female. — Black. Head yellow about the eyes and in front. 
Antennae subclavate, obliquely truncate at the tips; scape yellow. 
Hind-border of the prothorax yellow. An oblique yellow streak 
on each of the parapsides, and a yellow triangular dot on each of 
the paraptera; scutellum bordered with yellow except on each 
side in l>ont, armed with two small yellow teeth, Metathorax 
rugose. Petiole yellow, nearly as long as the metathorax. Ab- 
domen lanceolate, a little shorter and much narrower than the 
thorax, yellow above, with the exception of four black bands, of 
which the first is widely interrupted. Hind-coxae with two yellow 



196 Mr. F. Walker's Characters of 

stripes, one above much longer and broader than the other, which 
is on the outer side ; hind- femora with a widely-interrupted longi- 
tudinal yellow line on the outer side, and with an oblique yellow 
band on the inner side, armed with six large teeth ; anterior tibiae 
striped with yellow; anterior tarsi yellow, with black tips. Wings 
dark cinereous ; veins black ; ulna less than half the length of the 
humerus ; radius longer than the ulna ; cubitus moderately long ; 
spurious veins very distinct. 

Length of the body 5 lines ; of the wings 9 lines, 

24. Smiera dimota. 
Mas. — Flava ; antennse nigrae, subtus fulvse, scapo subtus 
flavo ; mesothorax scuti margine antico lineaque, parap- 
sidum strigis duabus, parapteris ex parte, scutellique gutta 
nigris ; pedes postici coxis nigro-unimaculatis, femoribus 
apice nigris ; alae cinereae, 

Male. — Yellow. Antennas black, filiform, pale tawny beneath; 
scape yellow beneath. Scutum of the mesothorax with a black 
longitudinal line, which joins a transverse black line on the fore- 
border ; a broad black streak on each of the parapsides ; paraptera 
black on the angle towards the scutum ; a small black dot near 
the tip of the scutellum, which is armed wiih two very short teeth. 
Petiole as long as the metathorax. Abdomen slightly lanceolate, 
much shorter and narrower than the thorax. Hind-coxae with a 
large black spot on the outer side ; hind-femora with black tips, 
armed with one large and with about twelve very minute teeth, 
which are mostly black. Wings cinereous ; veins black ; ulna 
about half the length of the humerus; radius fully as long as the 
ulna ; cubitus very short. 

Length of the body 3 lines ; of the wings 5 lines. 

25. Smiera disposita. 
Alas. — Lutea ; antennae piceae, subtus rufescentes, scapo subtus 
luteo; mesothorax scuti linea, parapsidum punctis duobus, 
parnpterisque ex parte nigris; coxae posticae piceo-strigatae ; 
alac cinereae. 

Male. — Luteous, yellow beneath. Antennae piceous, filiform, 
reddish beneath; scape luteous beneath. Scutum of the meso- 
thorax with a black longitudinal line, which is continued on the 
fore part of the scutellum ; a black point on each of the parap- 
sides ; paraptera black along the hind-border; scutellum armed 
with two extremely minute teeth. Pectus with a transverse black 



vndescribed Species of Smieru (ChalcidUes). 197 

streak on each side. Petiole as long as the metalhorax. Abdomen 
slightly lanceolate, a little shorter and much narrower than the 
thorax. Ilind-coxas with a short pictoiis streak on the outer 
side ; hind- femora armed with sixteen or more extremely minute 
black teeth. Wings cinereous ; veins black ; ulna a little less than 
half the length of the humerus ; radius a little longer than the 
ulna ; cubitus very short. 

Length of the body 2^ lines ; of the wings 4 lines. 

20. Sm'iera explcta. 
Fcem. — Flava ; antennae nigrae, scapo flavo ; scutellum piceo- 
lineatura ; abdomen apice nigrum ; alae subcinereae, venis 
fulvis. 
TeniaJc. — ^ eWow . Antennae black, long, slender, filiform ; scape 
yellow. Scutellum of the mcsothorax with a piceous longitudinal 
line which does not extend to the tip, the latter armed with two 
very short teeth. Petiole stout, much shorter than the metathorax. 
Abdomen lanceolate, black at the tip, narrower and a little longer 
than the thorax. Hind-femora armed with one large and about 
twelve very minute teeth, which are mostly black. Wings slightly 
cinereous ; veins tawny ; ulna fully half the length of the humerus ; 
radius as long as the ulna ; cubitus very short; stigma black. 
Length of the body 4| lines ; of the wings 7 lines. 

27. Sniicra descr'ipta. 
Fcem, — Lutea ; caput flavum, linea postica transversa nigra ; 
antennae nigrae, scapo subtus luteo ; mesothorax vittis duabus, 
strigis duabus exterioribus, linea transversa, guttaque postica 
nigris ; abdomen apice nigrum ; pedes postici coxis supra 
femoribusque apice nigris ; alee cinereas. 
Female. — Luteous. Head yellow, with a black transverse line 
behind. Antennae black, filiform, rather slender ; scape luteous 
beuLath. Scutum of the mesothorax with two black stripes, 
which are abbreviated hindward ; a black streak on each of the 
parapsides ; a black line on the hind-border of the scutum, ex- 
tending to the paraptera ; a black dot near the hind-border of the 
scutellum, which is armed with two very small teeth. Petiole 
shorter than the metathorax. Abdomen lanceolate, much longer 
and narrower than the thorax ; tip black. Hind-coxae black 
above at the tips ; hir.d-femora with black tips, armed with many 
very minute teeth. Wings cinereous ; veins black ; ulna a little 

VOL. II. THIRD SERII S, PART III. NOV. 18Gi. Q 



198 Mr. F. Walker's Characters of 

more than half the length of the humerus ; radius as long as the 
ulna ; cubitus short. 

Length of the body 4| lines; of the wings 7 lilies. 

28. Smiera exhauriens. 
Foem. — Flava ; caput postice nigrum; antennae nigrse, scapo 
subtus flavo ; mesothorax scuti vittis duabus, parapsidum 
strigis duabus, parapteris ex parte, scutellique gutta nigris ; 
abdomen apice nigrum ; pedes postici coxis femoribusque 
apice nigris, tibiis basi apiceque nigris ; alae subcinerese. 

Female. — Yellow. Head behind with a short transverse black 
line. Antennae black, filiform ; scape yellow beneath. Scutum 
of the mesothorax with two black stripes which converge hind- 
ward ; an elliptical black streak on each of the parapsides ; 
paraptera black by the scutum ; scutellum with a black dot near 
its tip, which is very slightly bidentate. Petiole stout, much 
shorter than the metathorax. Abdomen lanceolate, black at the 
tip, longer and much narrower than the thorax. Hind-coxffi and 
hind-femora with a black apical spot on the upper side ; hind- 
femora armed with one large tooth near the base, and with about 
sixteen very minute black teeth ; hind-tibiae black at the base and 
at the tips. Wings slightly cinereous ; veins black ; ulna much 
less than half the length of the humerus; radius longer than the 
ulna ; cubitus very short. 

Lengh of the body 4^ lines ; of the wings 7 lines. 

29. Smiera adjuncla. 
Mas. — Nigra; caput flavum, sulco antico margineque postico 
nigris ; prothorax flavus, nigro-bistrigatus ; mesothoracis 
segmenta flavo-marginata ; abdomen luteum, nigro-bifas- 
ciatum ; pedes flavi, nigro-varii ; alae cinereae. 
Male. — Black. Head yellow, black behind and on the furrow 
for the scape. Antennae filiform. Prothorax yellow, with a 
little transverse black streak on each side. Scutum and parapsides 
of the mesothorax yellow along the outer side ; paraptera yellow 
towards the wings ; scutellum yellow, with a black disk and with 
two very short teeth, Metathorax yellow, black along the fore- 
border. Petiole yellow, shorter than the metathorax. Abdomen 
luteous, much shorter and narrower than the thorax, with two 
black bands which are connected in the middle and on each side 
and occupy the 2nd and 3rd segments. Legs yellow ; hind-coxso 
with black tips ; hind-femora with three black spots on each side 



undescrihed Species of Smiera {Clialcidites). 199 

(the 1st and 2ik1 spots connected at tlie base, tlie 3rd apical), and 
with about sixteen very minute black teeth ; hind-tibiae black, with 
a broad yellow band near the base; middle femora and fore-tibiai 
with a piceous streak. Wings cinereous ; veins black ; ulna fully 
half the length of the humerus ; radius as long as the ulna ; 
cubitus short. 

Length of the body 4 lines ; of the wings 7 lines. 

This species has a close resemblance to 5. blanda. 

30. Smiera bhinda. 

Nigra; caput anticc^ flavum, oculis flavo-cinctis; antennae scapo 

subtus flavo; prothorax flavus, nigro-bistrigatus ; meso- 

thoracis segmenta flavo-marginata ; metathorax flavus, nigro- 

bifasciatus ; petiolus flavus ; abdomen basi fasciisque flavis ; 

pedes flavi, nigro-varii ; aloe cinereae. 

Male — Female. — Black, Head yellow about the eyes and in 

front. Antennae filiform ; scape yellow beneath. Prothorax 

yellow, with a transverse black streak on each side. Scutum and 

parapsides of the mesothorax yellow along the outer side, the 

former with a small yellow dot in the middle ; paraptera with a 

yellow spot towards the wings; scutellum yellow with a black disk 

and with two minute teeth. Metathorax yellow, black along the 

fore-border and in the middle. Petiole yellow, as long as the 

metathorax. Abdomen elongate-oval, much shorter and narrower 

than the thorax, yellow towards the base, and with a yellow band 

on the hind-border of each segment. Legs yellow ; hind-coxa; 

with black tips, and with an elongate black spot on the outer side; 

hind-femora with a black spot on the outer side above and with 

two black spots on each side by the lower edge, which is armed 

with one large and with about nine minute black teeth; hind-tibia3 

black towards the base. Wings cinereous ; veins black ; ulna less 

than half the length of the humerus ; radius longer than the ulna ; 

cubitus short. 

Length of the body 4 lines ; of the wings 7 lines. 

31. Smiera vacillans. 
Fcem. — Nigra ; caput antice flavum ; antennae robustae, scapo 
subtus flavo ; prothorax et raesothoracis segmenta flavo- 
marginata ; petiolus flavus, brevissimus ; abdomen dimidio 
antico flavo; pedes fcinoribus posticis flavo- trimaculatis, 
tibiis tarsisque anterioribus tarsisque posticis flavis ; alse 
cinereae. 
Female. — Black. Head yellow about the eyes and in front. 

Q 2 



200 Mr. F. Walker's Characters of 

Antennae stout, filiform ; scape yellow beneath. Hind-border of 
tlie prothorax with a yellow band, which is dilated on each side. 
Scutum and parapsides of the mesothorax bordered with yellow 
on the outer side ; scutellum with a deeply angular yellow band 
on its hind-border, which is armed with two short teeth. Petiole 
yellow, very short. Abdomen slightly lanceolate, yellow for 
nearly half the length from the base, much narrower but not 
longer than the thorax. Hind-femora with a large yellow spot 
above on both sides, and with two small yellow spots on the outer 
side by the lower border, which is armed with several very minute 
teeth ; anterior knees, tibise and tarsi, and hind-tarsi yellow. 
Wings cinereous; veins black; ulna less than half the length of 
the Jiumerus; radius longer than the ulna; cubitus moderately 
long. 

Length of the body 4 lines ; of the wings 7 lines. 

32. Smicra terminul'ts, 

Mas. — Lutea ; antennae piceae, filiformes, subtus rufescentes, 
scapo luteo ; mesothorax nigro-quadrimaculatus ; abdomen 
supra nigrum ; pedes coxis posticis supra, femoribus posticis 
apice, tibiisque posticis basi apiceque nigris j alse anticse 
cinereae, apice nigricantes. 

Male. — Luteous. Antennae piceous, filiform, reddish beneath ; 
scape luteous. Mesothorax with an elongated black spot on the 
scutum, and with a black callus at the base of each fore-wing; 
scutellum armed with two very small teeth, adorned with a black 
disk. Petiole slender, longer than the metathorax. Abdomen 
elliptical, shorter and narrower than the thorax, black above, 
except towards the base ; hind-coxae black above, except towards 
the base ; hind-femora with black tips, moderately incrassated, 
armed with about sixteen very minute teeth ; hind-tibiee black 
at the base and towards the tips. Wings cinereous. Fore-wings 
with blackish tips ; veins black ; ulna about half the length of 
the humerus; radius longer than the ulna ; cubitus very short. 

Length of the body 3 lines ; of the wings 5 lines. 

S3. Smiera cequalis. 

Mas. — Flava ; caput postice nigrum ; antennae nigrae, scapo 
flavo ; mesothorax vittis tribus latis, parapteris ex maxima 
parte, scutellique macula tetragona nigris; abdomen strigis 
lateralibus transversis nigris ; pedes postici coxis nigro-uni- 
rnaculatis, femoribus nigro-trimaculatis ; alae cinereae. 

Male. — Yellow. Head black behind. Antennee black, filiform ; 



undescribed Species of Smiera (C/uilcidUes). 201 

scape yellow. Mesothorax with three broad black stripes, one 
on the scutuai and one on each of the parapsides ; paraptera 
mostly black ; scutcUum with a tetragonal black spot, which is 
attenuated in front. Petiole linear, much longer than the meta- 
thorax, and more than half the length of the abdomen. Abdomen 
elliptical, much shorter and narrower than the thorax, with some 
transverse black streaks on each side. Hind-coxte with a black 
spot on the outer side ; hind-femora with three black spots on 
e.ich side, armed beneath with several minute teeth. Wings 
cinereous ; veins black ; ulna a little more than half the length of 
tlie humerus; radius as long as the ulna; cubitus very short. 
Length of the body 2^ lines ; of the wings 4 lines. 

3l\ Smiera contr'ibuta. 

Mas. — Flava ; caput macula antica nigra ; antennae nigrae, 
subtus rufescentes, scapo flavx) ; prothorax fascia abbreviata 
nigra; mesothorax niger, vittis duabus maculisque duabus 
exterioribus flavis, scutello flavo, macula postica nigra ; pedes 
postici coxis femoribusque nigro-vittatis, tibiis posticis basi 
apiceque nigris ; alac cinereae. 

Male. — Yellow. Head paler in front, with a black spot between 
the base of the antenna? and the mouth. Antennae black, filiform, 
reddish beneath, shorter than the thorax; scape yellow. Pro- 
thorax with a black abbreviated band in front. Mesothorax 
black ; scutum with two yellow stripes, which converge hindward; 
parapsides yellow towards the fore-wings ; scutellum yellow, with 
a black spot hindward, armed with two very minute teeth. Petiole 
a little shorter than the metathorax. Abdomen fusiform, b'ack 
above, except towards the base, much shorter and narrower 
than the thorax. Hind-coxae with a broad black stripe on each 
side ; hind- femora with a black stripe on each side, that on the 
inner side interrupted; teeth numerous, very minute; hind-tibiae 
black at the base and towards the tips. Wings cinereous ; veins 
black ; idna hardly half the length of the humerus, which is 
yellow ; radius fully as long as the ulna ; cubitus very short. 

Length of the body 3 lines; of the wings 5 lines. 

Sa. Smiera celsa. 
Fcem. — Laete flava ; antennae nigrae, scapo subtus flavo ; meso- 
thorax scuti macula trigona, strigis duabus parapsidum, pa- 
raptcris apud margines, scutellique vitta interrupta nigris ; 
metathorax fascia angulata nigra; pectus nigrum; abdomen 



202 Mr. F. Walker's Characters of 

fasciis quinque apiceque nigris j pedes nigro - varii ; ala2 

cineresB. 
Female. — Bright yellow. Antennse black, filiform, not longer 
than the thorax; scape yellow beneath. Mesothorax with a 
black triangular mark on the scutum, and with a black streak on 
each of the parapsides ; paraptera bordered with black ; scutellum 
with an interrupted black stripe. Metathorax with an angular 
black band. Mesopectus and metapectus black. Petiole not 
longer than the metathorax. Abdomen lanceolate, pubescent 
towards the tip, longer and narrower than the thorax, with five 
black bands, which are aeneous on each side, tip black. Legs 
pubescent; hind-coxae with a black spot on the outer side and 
with black tips; hind-trochanters black; hind-femora with many 
minute teeth, and with one large tooth near the base, black at the 
base and at the tip, with a black transverse spot on the middle of 
the outer side ; hind-tibiae black at the base. Wings cinereous ; 
veins black; ulna about half the length of the humerus; radius as 
long as the ulna ; cubitus very short. 

Length of the body Sg lines; of the wings C lines. 

36. Smiera detracta. 
Mas. — Flava ; antennae nigrae, subtus rufescentes, scapo subtus 
fiavo ; abdomen luteum, fasciis quinque obscurioribus ; pedes 
postici lutei ; alae limpidae. 

Male. — Yellow. Abdomen and hind-legs luteous. Antennae 
black, filiform, reddish beneath; scape yellow beneath. Scutellum 
of the mesothorax armed with two extremely small teeth. Petiole 
neatly as long as the metathorax. Abdomen slightly lanceolate, 
much shorter and narrower than the thorax, adorned with five 
darker bands on the fore-borders of the segments. Hind-femora 
armed with one large and twelve very minute teeth, which are 
mostly black. Wings limpid ; veins piceous; ulna about half the 
length of the humerus ; radius a little longer than the ulna ; 
cubitus very short. 

Length of the body 2j lines; of the wings 4g lines. 



37. Smiera annullfera. 

Fcem. — Nigra; caput antice flavum ; antennae apice subtusque 
rufae, scapo subtus flavo ; prothorax fascia flava nigro- 
biguttata ; mesothorax segmcntis flavo-marginatis, scutello 



undescribed Species of Smiera {Chalcidites). 203 

flavo, fasciis diiabus vittaque nigiis ; petiolus brevissimus ; 
pedes flavi, femoribus posticis nigris flavo- fasciatis, tibiis pos- 
ticis nigris ; alte cinereae, striga costali apicibusqiie fuscis. 

Female. — Black. Head yellow about the eyes and in front. 
Antennae fdiform, red at tbe tips and beneath ; scape yellow 
beneath. Hind border of the prothorax with a yellow band, 
which on each side is dilated and forked, and contains a black 
dot. Scutum and parapsides of the niesothorax bordered with 
yellow on the outer side ; a large black spot on each of the yellow 
paraptcra ; scutellum yellow, armed with two short teeth, adorned 
with two black bands, which are connected by a black stripe; first 
band semicircular, much broader than the second. Petiole very 
short. Abdomen lanceolate, much narrower but very little longer 
than the thorax. Hind-femora adorned with a curved transverse 
yellow line on each side near the tips, armed with about twelve 
very minute teeth ; hind-tarsi and anterior legs yellow. Wings 
cinereous, brown along the ulna and towards the tips ; veins black, 
ulna less than half the length of the humerus ; radius much longer 
than the ulna ; cubitus moderately long. 

Length of the body 3| lines ; of the wings G lines. 

38. Smiera depicia. 

Fccm. — Flava ; caput postice nigrum ; antennae nigree, apice 
rufescentes, scapo subtus luteo; mesothoracis segmenta 
nigra, flavo late marginata ; abdomen luteum ; pedes 
postici coxis femoribusque apice nigris ; alse cinerecc. 

Female. — Luteous. Head and thorax yellow. Head black 
behind. Antennae black, slender, filiform, dark reddish at the 
tips ; scape luteous beneath ; scutum and parapsides of the 
mesothorax black, broadly bordered with yellow ; paraptera 
black towards the scutun) ; scutellum armed with two very short 
teeth, adorned with a large black spot, which is acutely angular 
towards the scutum. Petiole stout, much shorter than the meta- 
thorax. Abdomen lanceolate, narrower and a little longer than 
the thorax ; sheaths of the oviduct with black tips. Hind-coxae 
and hind-femora with black tips ; hind-femora armed with one 
large and with about twelve very minute teeth, which are mostly 
black. Wings cinereous; veins piceous ; ulna about half the 
length of the humerus ; radius longer than the ulna ; cubitus 
short. 

Length of the body 1^ lines; of the wings S lines. 



204 Mr. F. Walker's Characters of 

39. Sniicra onnexa. 

Fcem. — Flava ; caput postic^ nigrum ; antennae nigrae, apice 
subtusque rufescentes, scapo flavo ; prothorax nigro-bipunc- 
tatus ; mesothoracis segmenta nigra, flavo-marginata ; abdo- 
men piceum, basi flavescens ; pedes poslici coxis apice tibiis- 
que basi nigris, femoribus nigro-bimaculatis ; alse anticse 
cinereae, apud costam subluridge. 
Female. — Yellow. Head black behind and about the ocelli. 
Antennae reddish, black above, except towards the tips ; scape 
yellow. Prothorax with an elongated black point on each side by 
the hind-angle. Scutum and parapsides of the mesothorax black, 
broadly bordered with yellow ; paraptera black towards the 
scutum ; scutellum armed with two short teeth, adorned with a 
black spot, wliich forms a short transverse ellipse. Petiole 
piceous towards the tip, as long as the metathorax. Abdomen 
piceous, elongate-oval, yellowish towards the base, much shorter 
and narrower than the thorax. Hind-coxae with black tips ; hind- 
femora with twelve minute teeth, with two black spots beneath, 
the first extending from the first to the fifth tooth, the second 
apical ; hind-tibiae black towards the base. Wings cinereous, 
with a lurid tinge towards the costa ; veins black ; ulna hardly 
half tbe length of the humerus ; radius longer than the ulna ; 
cubitus rather short. 

Length of the body 4 lines ; of the wings 8 lines. 

40. Smiera cognala. 

Fccm. — Lutea ; caput antice flavum, postice nigrum ; antennas 
piceae, subtus apiceque rufae, scapo flavo ; tliorax punctis 
duobus anticis, scuti vitta cyathiformi, parapsidum vittis 
duabus, parapteris ex parte, scutellique mactda nigris ; abdo- 
men plaga postica nigricante ; pedes postici coxis apice 
tibiisque basi nigris, femoribus nigro-bimaculatis ; alae 
cinereae. 
Female. — Luteous. Head yellow in front, black behind and 
between the ocelli. Antennae piceous, filiform, red beneath and 
towards tlie tips ; scape yellow. Prothorax with a black point 
on each side. Scutum of the mesothorax with a cyathiform black 
stripe ; a black stripe on each of the parapsides ; paraptera 
yellow, black where they approach each other ; scutellum with a 
large black spot on the disk, armed with two very short teeth. 
Petiole as long as the metathorax. Abdomen elongate-oval, very 
much shorter and narrower than the thorax, with a blackish patch 



undescribed Species of Sniiera {Chulcidites). 205 

on tlie liiiul part above. Ilind-coxae with black tips ; hiiul- 
fcmora armed with eleven small teeth, adorned on each side witli 
an apical black spot, and on the outer side with a black spot near 
the base ; hind-tibiae black towards the base. Wings cinereous ; 
veins black ; ulna a little less than half the length of the 
humerus; radius a little longer than the ulna; cubitus short. 
Length of the body 4 lines; of the wings 8 lines. 

41. Smicra demola. 
Fcem. — Flava ; caput postice nigrum ; antennae ochraceae, basi 
supra piceae ; prothorax fascia antica punctiscpie duobus 
posticis nigris ; scuti discus, parapsidum vittae duae latae, 
paraptera ex parte, scutellique macula conica nigra; abdomen 
rufescens nigro-quadrifasciatum, apice flavum ; pedes postici 
piceo-strigati ; alae anticae cinereae, apud costam subluridee. 

Female. — Yellow. Head black behind. Antennae filiform, 
ochraceous, piceous towards the base above. Prothorax with a 
black band in front, and with a black point on each side hindward. 
Scutum of the mesothorax black, except along the outer side ; a 
broad black stripe on each of the parapsides ; paraptera partly 
black ; scutellum with a conical black spot. Petiole a little longer 
than the metathorax. Abdomen fusiform, a little longer and very 
much narrower than the thorax, reddish except towards the tip, 
with four black bands, of which the 1st and the 4th are inter- 
rupted. Hind-coxae with a piceous streak on the outer side; 
hind-femora with a piceous streak on the inner side, armed with 
several minute teeth. Wings cinereous. Fore-winas with a lurid 
tinge towards the costa ; veins piceous ; ulna about half the length 
of the humerus ; radius as long as the ulna ; cubitus moderately 
long. 

Length of the body 4 lines ; of the wings 7 lines. 

42. Smiera apparata. 
Fcem. — Lutea ; caput antic6 flavescens, linea postica transversa 
nigra ; antennae nigrae, basi rufescentes, scapo flavo ; pro- 
thorax linea transversa interrupta nigra ; mesothorax seg- 
mentis nigris luteo-marginatis, scutello luteo macula tetragona 
nigra; abdomen nigrum, basi luteum ; pedes coxis posticis 
apice nigris, tibiis posticis linea abbreviata nigricantc ; alae 
cinereae, apud costam subluridac. 

Female. — Luteous. Head pale yellowish in front, with a black 
transverse line behind the vertex. Antennae black, reddish 



206 Mr. F. Walker's Characters of 

towards the base, slightly increasing in thickness towards the tips; 
scape yellow. Prothorax with a black transverse interrupted line. 
Mesothorax with the scutum and the parapsides black, bordered 
with luteous ; paraptera black except on the outer side ; scutellum 
with a black tetragonal spot, armed with two small teeth. Petiole 
linear, fully as long as the metathorax. Abdomen lanceolate, 
black, luteous towards the base, narrower but not longer than the 
thorax. Hind-coxae black towards the tips ; hind-femora armed 
with several minute black teeth ; hind-tibiae with a blackish ab- 
breviated line on the upperside. Wings cinereous, with a lurid 
tinge towards the costa ; veins tawny ; ulna rather more than 
half the length of the humerus ; radius a little longer than the 
ulna ; cubitus rather short. 

Length of the body 5 lines ; of the wings 9 lines. 

43. Sniiera dedacta. 
Fcem. — Flava ; caput gutta antica fasciaque postica nigris ; 
antennae nigrae, scapo subtus flavo ; mesothorax scuti disco, 
parapsidum vittis duabus, parapteris, scutelHque macula conica 
nigris ; pectoris discus niger ; abdomen fasciis tribus con- 
nexis apiceque nigris ; pedes postici coxis, femorum maculis 
duabus, tibiisque basi nigris ; alae cinereae. 
Female. — Yellow. Head black behind, and with a black dot 
between the base of the antennae and the mouth. Antennae black, 
slightly increasing in thickness to the tips ; scape yellow beneath. 
Scutum of the mesothorax black, except along each side ; parap- 
sides black along the inner side ; paraptera black ; scutellum with 
a black conical spot which rests on the hind-border. Metathorax 
with a black transverse line at the base. Disk of the pectus black. 
Petiole not longer than the metathorax. Abdomen lanceolate, 
much longer and narrower than the thorax, with three black con- 
nected dorsal bands, the 3rd band connected with the apical black 
part, which comprises about two-fifths of the whole length. Hind- 
coxae black ; hind-femora armed with several very minute teeth, 
adorned with two black spots, which are connected below on the 
outer side ; hind-tibise black at the base. Wings cinereous ; veins 
black ; ulna a little more than half the length of the humerus ; 
radius as long as the ulna ; cubitus very short. 

Length of the body 2 lines ; of the wings 3 lines. 

44. Smiera ailacla. 
Fcem. — Flava ; caput postice nigrum ; antennae nigrse, subtus 
rufescentes, scapo flavo; prothorax gutta antica nigra; meso- 



undescribed Species of Chalcidites. 207 

thorax gnttis diiabus vittaque, strigis cUiabiis guttisque diiabus 
posterioiibus, vittaque scutelli nigiis ; pedes postici coxis 
nigro-guttatis, fernoribus aj)ice nigris; alac limpidos. 

Female. — Yellow. Head black behind. Antennae black, red- 
dish beneath, slightly increasing in thickness to the tips ; scape 
yellow. Prothorax with a black dot in front. Scutnm of tlie 
mesothorax with a black dot on each side in front and with a 
black stripe ; a black streak on each of the parapsides and a black 
dot on each of the paraptera; scutelliim with an abbreviated black 
stripe. Metathorax with a black stripe. Petiole as long as the 
tnetathorax. Abdomen lanceolate, pale reddish, much narrower 
but hardly longer than the thorax ; hind-borders of the segments 
paler. Hiiid-coxEe with a black spot on the outer side; hind- 
femora with black tips, armed with many very minute teeth. 
Wings limpid ; veins black ; ulna little more than one-third of the 
length of the humerus; radius a little longer than the ulna; 
cubitus very short. 

Length of the body 3 lines ; of the wings 4 lines. 

Genus Chalcis. 
Chalcis eurytomo'ides. 
Fcenu — Nigra; antennae robustse, scapo flavo ; tliorax callis 
duobus flavis, scutello inermi ; abdomen subsessile, sublanceo- 
latum ; pedes flavi, coxis posticis supra nigris, fernoribus 
posticis nigro-fasciatis, fernoribus anterioribus basi nigris, 
tibiis anterioribus nigro-strigatis ; alae cinereae. 
Female. — Black. Antennae stout, filiform; scape yellow. 
Thorax with a yellow callus at the base of each fore-wing ; 
scutellum unarmed. Abdomen subsessile, slightly lanceolate, 
longer and a little narrower than the thorax. Legs yellow ; hind- 
coxae black above; hind -femora armed with about six very 
minute teeth, adorned with a broad black band which extends 
above to the base and on the lower side to the tip; anterior 
femora black towards the base on the outer side ; anterior tibiae 
with a black streak on the outer side. Wings cinereous; veins 
black; ulna more than half the length of the humerus; radius 
less than one-third of the length of the ulna ; cubitus very short. 
Length of the body -l^ lines; of the wings 7 lines. 



A'rtte. — I am indebted to l\Ir. Dunning for observing that I have applied the 
name Soixelra to two genera of insects. See Tians. Knt. Soc, Third Series, 
\'ol. 1. pp. 84, 370. Tlie name Eudoiiuua may be substituted for Soixelra. 



( 209 ) 



VII. JVotes on the Genus Ilydaticus (Leach), with De- 
scriptions of new Species. By the Rev. Hamlet 
Clark, M.A., F.L.S., V.-P. Ent. Soc. 

[Read Isl August, 1864.] 

During Dr. Scliaiim's late visit to England, lie was good cnono-h 
to propose to me that we should combine together to prepare 
a complete and accurate Catalogue of all the known species of 
Hydrocantharidce, with the object of offering our manuscript to 
the trustees of the British Museum as a second edition of their 
Catalogue of this interesting group (the first edition, prepared in 
1847 by Dr. Schaum and Mr. Adam White, having long since been 
exhausted) : very willingly I accepted his suggestion, and hence 
liave occupied myself in examining the exotic species of the 
different genera, being not without hope that the Museum autho- 
rities would receive such a contribution, especially as Dr. Schaum 
has, with infinite labour, succeeded in mastering the most difficult 
portion of the work, the elucidation and determination o^ ihe Eur q- 
pean species, for his forthcoming volume of Erichson's Naturgesch. 
d. Ins. Deutschl. The following notes are the result of my exa- 
mination of the species of Ilydalcus, a genus which, in coloration 
of the forms composing it, is the most beautiful of all. I ought 
to add, that Dr. Gray, some months ago, most liberally placed at 
my disposal for examination the undescribed species of the genus 
in the Museum Collection. At that time, however, I was unable 
to enter upon the subject, and therefore returned the specimens. 
The following paper, being prepared in the country, does not con- 
tain descriptions of those new species referred to in the British 
Museum Catalogue under manuscript names. 

It is worthy of remark, that the most important additions that 
have been made during the last few years to my collection of this 
group have been made by wo?i- entomological friends residing 
abroad, who have kindly interested themselves in sending iiome, 
from time to time, the results of their examination of their re- 
spective neighbourhoods. Englishmen, like water-beetles, are 
found in every region of the globe. There are few Entomologists 
who have not one oi more friends living for a lime in some foreign 



210 Rev. H. Clark's Notes on the 

country. If only these could be induced to pay attention to the 
beautiful forms of insect-life around them, the advantage would be 
twofold: not only would they find, to their surprise, that such 
a rational pursuit would beguile many weary hours, and give real 
interest to a locality which perchance otherwise would be the 
opposite of interesting, but science itself would be the gainer, for 
we might thus obtain some knowledge of the life-history of insects 
of which at present we know nothing, except the external forms. 
When we are told that upwards of thirty species of Coleoptera 
have been found in the court of the British Museum itself, in the 
very heart of London, we may be sure that there is no spot on 
the earth, however apparently uninviting, that will not amply repay 
investigation. 

1. H. Bakervellii, n. sp. (PI. XIV. fig. 1.) 

Ovalis, depressus, niger, flavb-maculatus : capite flavo, ad 
apicem vel nigro-bimaculato, vel omnino nigro ; ihorace nigro, 
lateribus vittdque transversali in medio interrupta flavis ; 
elytr'is ovalibus, pone medium depressis, subti!i=i5iime punc- 
tatis, punctorum etiara seriebus duabus obscuris (hac juxta 
medium penitus obsoleta), nigris, maculis utrinque 4 flavis 
magnis, 1""^ ad scutelhim subcirculari, 2"''^ apud humeros 
juxta marginem longitudinaliter insequali, 3^ fascia lata pone 
medium (baud suturam attinente) transversim disposita, 4**^ 
subcirculari juxta apicem, baud suturam sed marginem ap- 
proximante, apice quoque subtiliter flavo-maculato ; antenn'is 
flavis : corpore subtus nigro ; pedibus rufo-flavis, femoribus 
posticis fuscis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 7 ; lat. lin. 4. 

The species may be recognized by its tolerably even post-medial 
oroad transverse bar of flavous, which, in form, is unlike that of 
any other species of the genus. I have received several examples 
at different times, which present only two forms of pattern ; the 
typical one, of which the above is the diagnosis, and a darker 
pattern, in which all the maculae are considerably reduced in size, 
and the transverse bar of the elytra commuted into two trans- 
versely-arranged spots. The transverse flavous bar of the thorax 
is also, in this latter pattern, obliterated. 

This handsome species appears to be not uncommon in the 
neighbourhood of Moreton Bay, whence I have received it from 
my valued correspondent, Mr. Diggles. I name it after my friend 
II. Bakewell, Esq., who kindly supplied the first example to my 



Genus Hydaticus. 2 1 1 

collection, and to whose courteous liberality I am much indebted 
for assistance in my entomological researches. 

In the cabinets also of the British Museum, and R. Bake- 
well, Esq. 

2. H. hihamatus (Esch. Dej. Cat.); Aube (Spec. Gen. 174). 

This species is the same as //. Gortji, Aube (Spec. Gen, 175), 
and also is identical witli //. scr'/pliis of Blanchard in Ilomb. et 
Jacq. ;* the insect has a very extended range, being found in the 
Philippine Islands (wlience I have received it from Mr. Thorey), 
in Aru (taken by Mr. Wallace), New Holland, Moreton Bay 
(received at different times by Mr. Stevens), Amboina, in New 
Guinea, Batchian and Ceylon. I have also a fine series of the 
insect taken by the late lamented M. Moiihot, in Cambodia, in 
which the flavous markings are almost entirely absent. 

3. H. Adamsi'i, n. sp. 

Lat^ ovatus, satis rotundatus, medio dilatatus, fiisco-cinercus, 
flavo-irroratus: capile flavo, ad basin transverse nigro, eliam- 
que apud medium macula angulata litteram V formanti ; 
ihorace flavo, antice tenuiter et ad basin latins nigro-margi- 
nato ; scutello nigro ; elijtris latis, nigris, levibus, nitidis ; 
undique punctorum tres series apparent, puncta ipsa rara, 
hand profunda, aliquando (et prsesertim serie £^ ad mar- 
ginem) obsoleta ; elytra multitudine macularum minutarum 
irrorata sunt; maculae conferta?, flavac, juxta latera et basin 
confluentes ; margines ipsi flavi, sutura tenuiter nigra ap- 
parel: corpore sublus nigro; pedibus rufo- vel fusco-flavis, 
tarsis tibiisque posticis nigris; anlennis rufis. 
Long. Corp. lin. C| ; lat. lin. k 

A species which at first sight reminds us of the European 
species //. hUlneatus, De Geer; but while in general pattern it 
exactly resembles tliis species, it is entirely distinct : in size it is 
much shorter ((S^ lin. instead of 7| lin.), the head is less produced, 
the apical margination is narrower and the basal broader, and the 
underside is black instead of rufo-flavous. 

I received this form with other interesting species from Mr. 
Adams, who took two specimens of it on the coast of China. I 

• I believe that //. paciftcus also of M. Aub(} (Spec. Gen. 177) will uliimalely 
prove to be but a variety of it. I have in my cabinet one or two examples of 
H.bihamalui, which alinost accurately agree with his description of //. pacijictis. 



212 Rev. II. Claik's Notes on the 

with many others have to thank Mr. Adams for much precious 
information respecting species of eastern Coleoptera. 

4. H. quadr'ivitlaiux, Blanchard (Voy. au Poh Sud. p. 48, pi. iv. 

fig. S). 
I have examined carefully all the reputed examples of this 
insect in the British Museum, as well as in the cabinet of Mr. 
Bakewell and my own, and confess that I am unable to discover, 
either by examples within my reach or by Blanchard's description, 
any material difference between this form and the widely dispersed 
and somewhat variable H. v'lttatus of Fabricius ; the two are 
identical in size and shape and degree of punctuation ; the only 
difference seems to me to consist in the character 'of the longi- 
tudinal marking, which in H. v'lttalus is expressed by one broad 
marginal band, more or less longitudinally interrupted from the 
shoulder, and in H. 4-vittatus by two marginal bands with 
some little interval between them : how nearly the two approach 
each other it does not require the aid of a long series of examples 
to discover; in 4-vitlritus the bands are parallel to each other, the 
outer one being considerably abbreviated ; in vitiatus the two 
bands are medially confluent. Whether, however, the two forms 
may ultimately prove to be distinct or not, the retention of the two 
names may be desirable ; the former representing a modification 
of the external marginal band which only obtains in Australasia. 
Blanchard gives as the nearest affinity to his insect H. Hijhnerl of 
Europe, with which it has very little indeed, in common. 

5. H. aruspex, n. sp. 

Oblongo-ovalis, parailelus, punctato-striatus, subnitidus, niger : 
cap'ite flavo, ad basin late nigro (inter oculos, apud vittae 
nigrse marginem, flavo-biraacujato); tliorace lateribus rotun- 
datis, marginem juxta undique impresso, et antice transverse 
(sed obsolete et tenuiter) depresso, et punctalo ; quoad colorem 
flavo, ad basin late et transverse nigro (vitta nigra ad medium 
lata, latera versus tenuior, baud margines attinet); sculello 
transverso-triangulari, nitido, nigro ; elytris parallelis, crebre 
subtilissime punctatis, etiamque seriebus 3 punctorum 
(quorum externa penitus obsoleta est) ornatis, colore nigris, 
marginibus undique late et aequaliter a humeris penitus ad 
apicem flavis ; corpore subtus nigro-fusco ; pedibus rufis ; an- 
tennis rufo-flavis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 6| ; lat. lin. 3^. 



Genus Hydaticus. 213 

Parallel in form, like n/ficollis, Fab., tlioiigli much narrower 
than that insect : tlie species before us is remarkable also by its 
broadly llavmis or testaceous thorax combined with the uniform 
blackness of the elytra, relieved only by the broad and evenly- 
disposed flavous margination, which extends from the humeral 
angles nearly to the apex. 

I obtained a single example some years ago in the Gory Col- 
lection, from China. 



6. H. verccundus, n. sp. 

Ovalis, parallclus, punctato-striatus, nitidus, niger, flavo-notatus : 
capite^SLVO, ad basin transversa nigro, inter oculos maculae duae 
flavae triangulares, sese attingentes, apparent; tliorace hrev\, 
Interibus rotundatis, antic^ transverse tenuiter depresso, 
flavo, marginibus antico posticoque late nigris (margo anterior, 
latitudine aequalis, baud latera attinet ; margo basalis, ad 
medium anteriore latior, sensim angustior fit, et tenuis latera 
pertingit) ; scutello triangulari, nigro ; elytris sat parellelis 
(pone medium sublatioribus), apice rotundato, baud at- 
tenuato ; punctorum tres series undique apparent, puncta 
distantia, minijne profunda, attamen perspicua et in seriebus 
gnda gj 31a minus obsoleta ; quoad colorem elytra nigra ap- 
parent ; vitta basalis a scutello ad humeros extendit, baud 
basin attingens, tenuis, tequalis, recta (aut S!i6-circularis et 
ad marginem medium leviter sese flectens), ad vittae terminum 
margo usque ad humerum late flavescit ; pone medium inter 
seriem punctorum 3^°* et marginem macula flava apparet, sub- 
quadrata aut aliquando in duas divisa ; ad apicem quoque altera, 
major, figura et statura incerta (nunc macula insularis ad ipsum 
marginem, nunc vitta transversalis, inasqualis, communis, lata, 
et ad apicem ipsum pertingens) : corpore siibtiis nigro-fusco ; 
anleimis flavis ; pedibus flavis, posticis fusciset flavo-annidatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 4 ; lat. lin. 2i. 

One of the smallest species of the genus ; and to be also re- 
cognised by its more than usually distinct punctuation, as well as 
by the pale regular transverse band on its black elytra. It is 
nearly allied to a species in my collection, ^'basalis, Dcj.," from 
North America, but much smaller. I am sorry to say that the 
two examples in my possession forbid ine to register the habitat 
of this insect with certainty : one of them is labelled South 
Ainerica, the other (from tlic Gehin Collection) Java. 

VOL. II. THIRD SKRIES, PART H!. NOV. 18G4. R 



214 Rev. H. Clark's Notes on the 

7. H. BoivringH, n. sp. (PI. XIV. fig. 3.) 
Ovalis, convexus, baud parallelus, latus, sat rotundatus, puncta- 
tus, niger, flavo-maculatus : cap'tte inter oculos supern^ un- 
dique impresso, flavo, basi late transverse nigro ; thorace sub- 
tilissime punctate, antice punctis etiam majoribus sparse, 
flavo, margine basali nigro, ad medium latiori, margine 
frontali etiam nigro sed attenuatiori, et plerumque baud 
latera attingenti ; elylris latis, sat rotundatis, subtilissime 
punctatis, punctis etiam seriebus duabus ordinatis majoribus 
(serie externa aiiquando obsoleta), nigris, vittis undique duabus 
maculaque flavis — vittarum hac media, inter strias 1^"° et S'^am^ 
lineari, cum sutura subparallela, et marginem juxta apicem 
penitus attinenti, ilia marginali sed baud marginem attingenti, a 
humeris usque ad apicem producta — macula apud scutellum 
undique circulari insulari, inter suturam et striam 1*": 
corpore sublus rufo-fusco; pcdlbus rufo-flavis, femoribus pos- 
ticis rufo-fuscis ; antcnnis rufo-fuscis, articulorum basibiis 
flavis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 7| — 7 ; lat. lin. 4| — 4|. 

I received a single example of tbis species from tbe Gory Col- 
lection some years ago, taken in New Holland ; more recently it 
has been taken by Mr. Diggles at Moreton Bay ; and also on tbe 
coast of China by Mr. Adams, to whose great kindness I am in- 
debted for a fine series. It was taken also by Mr. Bowring, to 
whom I dedicate tbe species. 

In tbe cabinets of the British Museum, Dr. Scbaum and the 
Rev. H. Clark. 

8. H. decorus, Klug (Symbolae Physicae, tab. xxxiii. fig. 5). 
(PI. XIV. fig. 4.) 

The figure of this species bad already been engraved for me by 
Mr. Robinson, when Dr. Scbaum informed me of an admirable 
figure that already existed of it in King's magnificent folio ; tbe 
species, however, well deserves a repetition of figure, not only on 
account of the costliness of King's work, but also of the extreme 
apparent rarity of tbe insect, as well as its beauty of coloration. 

The species is taken in Arabia. 

9. H. Ussherii, n. sp. (PI. XIV. fig. 2.) 
Ovalis, postice depressus, obscure undique bi-punctato-striatus, 
niger vel rufo-niger, maculis quibusdam flavis : capite flavo, 
ad basin late et transverse fusco ; thorace flavo, ad medium 



Genus IJydaticus. 215 

(et praesertim apud basin) fii'sco-adumbrato, basi ipsa usque 
ad margines tenuiter fusco-nigra ; ehjtiis subparallelis, sub- 
liliter uiidique puncta in stiiis duabus ordinata disponuiitur ; 
hae striae interdum penitus obsoletae sunt ; ad suturam etiam 
rare puncta minuta scrie ordinata apparent; elytra nigra vel 
fusco-nigra, margo autem usque ad apicem ipsum rufo-flavus, 
vitta etiam transversa Hava ad basin (boec, forma ajquali, 
tenuis nee suturam nee marginem attinet) ; tres alia3 maculee 
undique apparent (nee forma distinctffi nee omnino flavas 
sed nigro-macul;itce aut irroratae), l""* apud marginem ante 
medium, baud vittam mediam attinet, nigro-mixta, scd ad 
marginem omnino flava, 2*^" pone medium vitta arcuata baud 
suturam attingit, figurd inajqualis, nigro-maculata, 3* ad 
apicem plaga etiam flava baud suturam attinet ; antenn'is 
flavis : corpore sublns rufo-fusco; i)edibus rufo-flavis, fe- 
moribus posticis fuscis. 
Long. corp. b'n. 7 ; lat. lin. 4^. 

A very distinct and well-marked species, and quite unknown to 
Dr. Scbaum (to wbom I sent a specimen for examination), as 
well as to myself, until it was received by me from my friend 
Mr. Ussber from Cape Coast Castle in 18C3 ; Mr. Ussber reported 
tbat after many montbs of severe drought, during wbicb time every- 
thing had been dried up, the early rains left a small puddle of 
dirty fresh water, not much bigger than an ordinary hat ; one- 
third water, two-thirds mud and slime. This single little bole 
was absolutely alive with water-beetles : upwards of 300 specimens 
were taken from it by Mr. Ussber, chiefly of one or two common 
species; but among them this, with three or four other novelties. 
I dedicate it to its captor, in recognition of his ardent love of 
Entomology, and of his hearty efforts to aid his brother naturalists 
by enriching their collections with African species. 

In the cabinets of Dr. Scbaum and the Rev. H. Clark. 

10. //. paganus, n. sp. 

Oblongo-ovalis, parallelus, punctorum tri-serie ornatus, niger, 
nitidus : capile laevi, rufo, ad basin transverse nigro ; tharace 
baud ad basin sinuato, antice excavato, rufo-flavo, ad medium 
subtiliter fusco-adumbrato, marginibusque antico et postico 
nigris (hoc ad mediimi latiori, illo transversooequali attenuato); 
ehjlns parallelis, sat productis, punctorum seriebus 3 (puncta 
intervailo distantia, baud profunda, et aliquando obsolcta 
r2 



216 Rev. 11. Clark's Notes on the 

sunt), quoad colorem nigris, humeris (macula parvaangulata) 
marginibusque irregulariter testaceis vel rufo-flavis : corf ore 
subtus fusco-nigro ; pedibus antennisque flavis, illorum fcmo- 
ribus tibiisque posticis fuscis. 
Long, Corp. lin. 6h ; lat. lin. 3g. 

Nearly allied to H. Capicola, Aube (Spec. Gen. 196); but 
differing from it by its more parallel form and entirely rufo-flavoiis 
head and thorax ; the elytra also, instead of being more or less 
flavous irrorated with black, are entirely black, the humeral angle 
being flavous, and also the line of margination, obscurely and in- 
terruptedly, but more distinctly flavous near the apex. 

I have received a single specimen from the Gold Coast, through 
Mr. S. Stevens. 

11. H.matnielts, n. sp. 

H. sobrino (Aube) valde affinis, sed elongatior, grandior, et 
notis distinctior ; paralielo-ovalis, flavus, nigro-maculatus et 
irroratus : capite omnino flavo, margine basali tenuiter nigro ; 
thorace forma ut in H. sobrbio, disco autera toto flavo ; basi 
ad medium transverse et subtiliter nigra ; elytris parallelis, 
lateribus vix rotundatis, subelongatis, punctorum seriebus 2 
penitus obsoletis ; flavo-testaceis, rnaculis subtilibus circu- 
laribus confertis ornatis ; hee maculae apud discum medium 
confluunt, ita ut vitta transversa lata plane apparet (antice 
suffusa, ad marginem posteriorem distinct^ definita), apicem 
juxta etiam vitta attenuatior vix conspicua baud margines 
attinet ; margine ipso undique tenuiter flavo : corpore sublus 
rufo-fusco ; pedibus rufo-fuscis ; antennis flavis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 4| ; lat. lin. 3\. 

Sufficiently distinct from the Madagascarian H. sobrinus. In 
general form it is decidedly larger, as well as more parallel in 
outline, and more marked in coloration. The head, instead of 
being fuscous with divers flavous markings, is entirely flavous, 
with a black transverse margin (the same as in H. sobrinus) at the 
base. The thorax also is different in pattern ; it too is entirely 
flavous, with a narrow basal margin of black, instead of being 
medially and broadly transversely black, without any such basal 
margin. The elytra are comparatively narrower and more 
parallel; and while the manner of coloration is the same in both 
(that is, a flavous ground irrorated with thickly-aspersed circular 
black spots, and these spots, by becoming confluent, forming two 
transverse bars of black, medial and apical), in the species before 



Genus IJydulicus. 21.7 

us, by reason of the post-medial iiroration being less heavy ai.d 
more sparingly distributed, these transverse bars are more clearly 
defined and obvious; \n form they seem to agree the one wiili 
tlie other (the anterior margin is more or less sufifused, and hence 
indistinct, while the posterior is more marked and more sharply 
defined ; this posterior margin is obliquely tiansverse and wavy 
in outline, tending somewhat towards the apex as it a])proachts 
the suture ; the suture also between the transverse bars is narrowly 
black) ; the position, however, of the medial band diflfers from 
that in H. sohriniis, being medial rather than post-medial. 

I am indebted to my good friend jMr. Ussher, of the Com- 
missariat, for a fine series of this species, which he took at Cape 
Coast Castle, in West Africa. Upwards of 100 specimens are 
before me, which present no variety in form or degree of 
coloration. They all appeared suddenly after rains, in a locality 
where there had been previously no water at all, and where a 
short time after all traces of water entirely disappeared. 

12. H. Leander, Rossi (Fn. Etrusc. i. 212). 
A species found in the south of Europe ; and also, as it would 
seem, throughout the whole of Africa. Lucas reports it as found 
in Algeria, Aube in Senegal, Boheman in Caffraria. In 1860 I 
received a series of a H ijdat'icus from Mr. Cuming from the 
W hite Nile, which I cannot but refer to this species : the question 
however is not without difEculty, for certainly there is a clearly- 
marked difference between my White Nile examples and the Caf- 
frarian type which I have received from M. Boheman. as well as 
the ordinary European form. Tlie examples before me are con- 
siderably shorter and relatively broader than the South African, 
and a trifle shorter as well as much paler than the ordinary Eu- 
ropean exponents: the basal marking of the thorax, referred 
to in Aube's description and present in all other examples that 
have come before me, is absent in the White Nile specimens. 
I have not however sufficient evidence before me to warrant the 
erection of them into a separate species. 

1.3. //. grammicus, Sturm (Germ. Fn. xiii. 1). 
I am unable to separate from this well-known European species 
certain examples of the genus which were taken by Mr. Adams 
near the coast of China, and by Mr. Wallace in the Eastern 
Archipelago. The insect would seem hence to have not only a 
broad but a vcrv unusual range. It is reported by Aube as also 
found in Armenia. 



218 Rev. H. Clark's Notes on the 

1-k H. b'lmttatus, Lap. (Etud. Ent. 97). 
A species which, apparently confined to the South African 
region, is notable among its congeners (unless I am much mis- 
taken) for the aberrations of pattern and variation in size which 
it presents ; its typical character is well described by Aube 
(Spec. Gen. 207). I have an example from the Cape, in which 
a broad and well-defined transverse basal band connects the 
medial longitudinal marking with the scutellinn ; and another 
example from Ovampo Land, Lake N'Gami, resembling in all 
respects the typical pattern, but strangely aberrant in size, being 
only 5| instead of 7 lines in length. The species differs from 
//. vittatus of Fabricius, and also (if this species be really distinct) 
from H. 4-vitfatus of Blanchard, in the relative position of its 
two marginal bands, which never approximate (as in the former), 
and never are abbreviated (as in the latter), but are continued, 
each parallel to the other, to the apex of the elytra. 

15. //, stagnaUs, Fab. (Syst. El. i. 265); Aube (Spec. Gen. 201). 

This species would seem to have an extended range. Hitherto 
it has been known only in Europe, and as a rare species, but I 
have a single example, identical in all respects with the European 
form, from the Cape of Good Hope. 

IG. H. vittatus, Fab., var. (PI. XIV. fig. 6.) 

Dr. Aube (Spec. Gen. 208) points out the variation of pattern 
which occasionally is met with in this common eastern insect. 
I received from Mr. S. Stevens some years ago two ex- 
amples from North Lidia, which, diflPering somewhat from each 
otlier, and also in some respects in puncturing from the usual 
type, present (as it seems to me) an additional and remarkable 
variety of pattern. Of the three rows of striae-like punctures on 
the elytra, one only is apparent ; and moreover there are certainly 
sparsely scattered punctures between the suture and the first 
stria which I cannot discover in any of the usual examples of 
H. vitlatus, and which are not noticed in Aube's excellent descrip- 
tion. The peculiarity however of the variety before us consists 
in the form of the Jlavous hand: it extends (as will be seen from 
the figure) from the margin to the region of the scutellum (the 
scutellum itself and a narrow border line of the elytra being black) ; 
it then narrows considerably (its inner boundary line crossing the 
first row of punctures obliquely), and is continued, parallel to the 
suture, as far as the apex ; the outer boundary line leaves the 



Genus Hydaticus. 219 

line of marrjination a little behind the shoulder ; near the base a 
narrow lonj^itudinal marking of black extends midway within the 
flavoiis band for about one-fifth of the length of the elytra. I 
agree with my friend Dr. Schaum that the form before us can 
only be viewed as an interesting and eccentric variety of //. vit- 
tatus, although in a considerable series of examples of this com- 
mon species I possess no individuals which offer a connecting link 
between it and the normal pattern. 

1 7. H. parallelus, n. sp. 

Oblongo-subovalis, parallelus, punctate - striatus, rufo-niger, 
nitidus : capite impunctato, fusco, ad apicem rufo, rufa etiam 
macula transversali brevi inter oculos (hsec fortasse aliquando 
maculis duabus contiguis divisa est); thorace lateribus rotun- 
datis, antice profunde excavato, basi subtilitcr sinuato ; juxta 
latus anterius fossa transversalis punctis minutis ornatur; ad 
latera et basin versus rimae longitudinales velut acuductae 
apparent; facies rufa vel rufo-brunnea, macula ad medium 
transversa nigro-fusca adumbrata; sculello triangulari, laevi, 
nigro ; ebjtris parallelis, subelongatis, seriebus 2 undique 
punctorum (punctis sparsis et minutis), fusco-rufis, ad latera 
rufo-irroratis, marginibns ipsis omnino rufis: corpore subtus 
fusco; anlcnnis flavo-rufis ; pedibus flavo-rufis, posticis rufo- 
fuscis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 6| ; lat. lin. 3|. 

I believe that this species is distinct from Hj/dalicus Capicola of 
Aube, though the foregoing diagnosis will show that the two are 
closely allied ; and I am confirmed in this opinion by a note which 
I made some years ago, that the species before us was almost 
(probably quite) identical with a IMS. species in the British 
Museum Collection, Fordii* (Brit. Mus. Cat. Hydrocan. p. 18). 
Now Fordii (ranked, by the by, accidentally in the British 
Museum Catalogue as a Colymbefes, instead of a Hydaticus) 
was thus named by Dr. Schaum as a new species when he had 
also before him //. Capicola, Aube. I have thus his excellent 
authority for erecting it into a separate species. The insect 
before us is more parallel ; it is also larger in size, and the elytra 
are completely fuscous- black, the sides only being narrowly 
sprinkled with rufous; not " elytris rufo-testaceis, crebre nigro- 
irroratis," as in Aube's description of his insect. 

The range of the habitat of //. parallAus is, however, open to 

* Unfortunately, in tlie I\Iu?eum tliis species lias been for tlie time mislaid. 
I am thus unable to verify my note by a second examination. I have no reason, 
however, to doubt its accuracy. 



220 ' Uev. H. Clark's Notes on the 

somevvliat greater difficulty. I liave in my collection two 
examples almost identical in size and colouring, as well as in 
pattern ; of these I received one from Mr. Stevens, from New 
South Wales, the history of the example being quite undoubted ; 
the other 1 obtained at the dispersion of the Entomological 
Society's Collection in 1858, labelled Cape of Good Hope! It 
would naturally have been supposed that one of these labels 
must be incorrect. We have clear evidence, however, that 
H. Capicola, Aube, originally from the Cape, is found at Moreton 
Bay (twice I have received examples from that locality) ; and if 
Capicola is common to both continents, H. parallclus may be well 
supposed to be common to both continents also. 

18. H. nigro-marmorafus, n. sp. 

Oblongo-ovalis, depressiusculus, Isevis, rufo-testaceus, nigro- 
maculatus : capke rufo, ad basin transverse et ad interiorem 
oculorum marginem nigro ; thorace lato, subtilissime punc- 
tulato, antice excavato (angulis anticis prominulis et acutis), 
ad basin sub-sinuato ; quoad colorem rufo-testaceo, ad basin 
tenuiter nigro ; scutello triangulari, laevi, nigro ; elijtr'is sat 
latis et ad apicem sat acuminatis, undique seriebus punc- 
torura rarorum tribus distinctis ornatis, rufo-testaceis, sutura 
aequaliter et seriebus macularura 3 inaequalibus nigris; hae 
maculae sinuatae, longitudinaliter productas, interruptae, in 
vittis apud punctorum series elytra ornant, et puncta ipsa 
plerumque maculis minoribus circularibus cinguntur: corpore 
suhiiis tusco ; pedibus flavis, tibiis posticis fuscis ; antennis 
flavis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 6; lat. lin. 3|. 

A single specimen of this fine African species I received for 
examination, through the kindness of my friend Mr. John Gray, 
when at Lisbon, from Dr. Bocage, the head of the National 
Museum. It was received by him from Angola. 

H. nigro-marmoratus will take its place near H. Dregii, which 
it generally resembles in*pattern ; it is however abundantly dis- 
tinct; the sutural line is very evenly black; along the first row of 
punctures (which are distinct but widely separated) runs an un- 
even, irregular, longitudinal marking from the base to the apex 
(in some places broader than but for the most part about equal in 
breadth to the sutural marking); this is interrupted in front of the 
middle ; the second longitudinal marking is more irregular still, 
it is placed rather within the second line of punctures, is narrower 



Genus Hydalicus. 221 

than the first, and confluent with it near tlie base and apex ; the 
punctures themselves (being on tlie outer side of tliis marking), 
and also the punctures of the third row, are each surrounded by 
a regular and circular marking ; the third line of black coloration 
is between the second and third rows of punctures, and consists 
of three markings — one near the shoulder, which is confluent 
with the first at the base, one medial, which is sliorter and more 
minute, and a third post-medial, which is much broader, extend- 
ing from the second row of punctures to the margination ; at the 
medial margination there is also another fuscous marking. 

There is no other species of the genus known to me with which 
77. nigro-marmoratus can be confounded. 

19. 77. fulco-notatus, n. sp. 
Ovalis, depressus, nitidus, niger, fulvo-notatus : capite rufo, ad 
basin laife et transverse nigro ; tliorace antice excavato, ad 
basin sinuato-rotundato, latcribus vix rotundatis, apicem 
versus transverse leviter punctato, nigro, lateribus late 
flavo-rufis ; scute/lo triangulari, Irevi, nigro ; elytris latis, 
subtilissime punctatis, etiamque punctorum seriebus 3 nigris; 
basi, fascia post-media, et apice rufo-flavis ; basis fascia 
ornatur nee baseos marginem nee suturam attingenti, latiori 
ad latera, attenuatiori versus scutellum ; fascia post-media 
interrupta est, latior ad marginem, deinde irregularis et 
angulata macula minori continuitur, macula secunda etiam 
minori suturam mediam approximat ; anicem juxta sed baud 
attingens, macula latior ad marginem, attenuatior versus (sed 
neque pertingens) suturam ; margo quoque ipse flavus est : 
corpore sublus fusco ; pcdibus rufo-fuscis, anticis flavis ; an- 
tcHuis flavis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 5\ ; lat. lin. 3\. 

I received two examples of this pretty species from my friend 
Mr. Ussher, who took them with other Hydatid during the short 
rainy season at Cape Coast Castle, in Western Aliica. The 
species may easily be recogtnzed by the three transverse fulvous 
markings on its dark-coloured elytra. 

20. H. hisirio, n. sp. (PI. XIV. fig. 5.) 

Ovalis, modice attenuatus, modic^ convexiusculus, niger, flavo- 

ornatus : capite flavo, ad basin lat^ et transverse nigro ; 

thorace nigro, ad latera late flavo; scutcllo triangulari, nigro; 

elytris subparallelis, punctorum seriebus duabus undique 



222 Rev. H. Clark's Notes on the Genus Hydaticus. 

(punctis confertis, minutis, et insequaliter dispositis), quoad 
colorem nigris, apud basin (sed baseos marginem baud om- 
nino attingens) macula subtriangularis ante medium elytrorunn 
inter strias P™ et 2''''™ sese dirigit, vitta etiam marginalis a 
humeris propemodum apicem attingit : corpore subtus rngxo ; 
pedibus flavis, posticis fuscis ; antennis flavis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 6 ; lat. lin. 3. 

A distinct species from northern India, an example of which I 
received some years ago in the Gory Collection. It is allied to 
villains, Fab., but besides being of a pattern which it seems almost 
impossible to place as an extreme variety of that variable species, 
it is manifestly narrovi'er and more constricted in form. 

21. //. nigro-vitlatus, n. sp. 

Ovalis, convexiusculus, sat latus, et ad latera nonnihil rotun- 
datus : t/iorace leviter punctato et ad latera apud basin re- 
ticulato vel quasi irregulariter acuducto, quoad colorem 
testaceo-rufo, marginibus ad apicem et basin tenuiter nigris ; 
scutello triangulari, lasvi, nigro ; ehjlris undique punctorura 
seriebus duabus (punctis raris et aliquando obsoletis), om- 
nino subtilissime et crebre punctatis, testaceis vel rufo- 
testaceis ; vitta suturali alteraque (vel duabus approxima- 
tis) undique nigris ; inter vittas et margines elytra quasi 
nigro- irrorata maculis subtilissimis sparguntur ; hae maculae 
autem non confus^ aggregatae, sed plus minus ordinibus 
dispositae sunt : corpore subtus, pedibusque rufo-fuscis. 

Long. corp. lin. 5; lat. lin. 2^. 

Allied to H. Lecmder of South Europe, and, at first sight, only 
a variety of that species. The only example that I have seen was 
received by Mr. Wallace from Japan, and is in my collection. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE XIV. 

Fig. 1. Hydaticus BakeweUii, Clark. 

Fig. 2. „ Ussherii, Clark. 

Fig. 3. ,, Bowringii, Clark, 

■^'g- 4. ,, decorus, Klug. 

Fig. 5. ,, histrio, Clark. 

Fig. 6. ,, vittalus, Fab., var. 



( 223 ) 



VIII. Descriptions of uncharacierized Genera and Species 
o/ Phytopbaga. By J. S. Baly. 

[Read 1st August, 1864.] 



List of New Species. 

I.ema gravida.. ••.... Port Natal 1 5. Clitena (n.g.) limhala 
Clylhra[Diapromnrphti) 16. ,, melaiicholica 
Zambesi 



]Valleri 
Cluthra (Peploptera) 

libialis Port Natal 

Dorijphnra Salvinii ... . Panama 

Ceralce.s Walleri Zambesi 

„ spilota ,, 

Cliryfomela (Atechiia) 

Clcirkii ,, 

AustraUca (Slethomela) 

Pariyi Australia 

Goiiiuctena Mnrrayi ., OldCalabar 

( China 
Gastrolinn ihtyracira ,. , Japan 

Liiia Adiinisii Cliusan 

Plugiodera ccleslina . ,. HongKong 

,, ciipiea i ^J:,'^^^ . 

' I N Garni 



Siam 



17. Laphrh(B.g.)emurgmata [ Northern 

' ^ " ' " I China 

18. Cerochroa maculicoUis., OldCalabar 

19. Ltrtaiia (n.g.) histrio.. S.Africa 

20. Ptatyiaiitha(n.g.)a])icalis Sumatra 

21. ,, vigricornis Java 

22. ,, ventralis,. Singapore 

23. Doridea (n.g.) insignis Tringanee 

24. Theopeu (n.g.) pulchella Sumatra 

25. ,, elegaiitiila .... Sarawak 

26. „ Mouhoti Siam 

27. Atysa (n.g.) terminalis M^'soi 

28. ALipena (n g.) collaris NewGuinea 

29. Calopepla Liiingstonii. Zambesi 

30. Doliihittoma Salvinii .. Panama 

31 . Mesomphalia Saliiiiii . . ,, 

32. Butonoia Godmanii ,.,. „ 



Fam. CRIOCERID^. 

Genus Lema, Fab. 

Lema grnvida, 

Robusfa, fulva, nitida ; aiitennis (articulo basali excepto), thoracis 
puncto utrinque, elytrorum punctis sex, femoribus basi et 
apice, tibiis tarsisque nigris ; thorace subquadrato, lateribus 
modice constrictis, vix pone medium transversim sulcato, 
dorso antico bifoveolato et ibi subcrebre punctato ; elytris 
ampliatis, tliorace mnlto latioribus, convexis, fortiter punctato- 
striatis, striis sulcatis, interspatiis convexis, ad apicem costatis. 
Long. 4 lin. ; lat. elytr. 2 lin. 
Hab. Port Natal. 

Antennae slender, entirely filiform, half the length of the body. 
Thorax scarcely broader than long ; transverse snlcation impressed 
in the middle with a distinct fovea, the rest of its surface covered 
with nearly obsolete transverse wrinkles ; the two black spots are 
placed one on either side just behind the anterior angles. Elytra 



224 Mr. J. S. Baly's Descriptions of uncharucterized 

broader with relation to the thorax than in any other species vvitli 
which I am acquainted ; the usual depression below the basilar 
space wanting; the black spots, three on each elytron, are arranged 
as follows, viz., one on the humeral callus, the second just before 
the middle of the disk, rather nearer the suture than the outer 
border, and the third nearly half-way between the middle and the 
apex of the elytron, placed in the middle of the disk. 



Fam. CLYTHRID^. 

Genus Clythra, Fab. 

Chjthra (^Diapromorpha) JValleri. 

Elongata, cylindrica, postice paullo attenuata, nigra, subtus 
pube argentea adpressa dense vestita ; tibiis tarsisque obscure 
fulvis ; thorace fortiter subcrebre punctato, apice lateribusque 
(illo medio interrupto) flavis; elytris grosse punctatis, utriscjue 
plagd basali inter callum humerale et suturam posita, viita 
marginali a basi ad medium ducta, ibi introrsnm flexa ct 
fasciam transversam ante suturam abbreviatam formante, 
maculisque duabus subapicalibus, oblique transversim positis, 
flavis. 

Long, 6 lin. 

Hab. Zambesi River. 

This species is most nearly allied to D. argentata; the thorax 
is rather less closely but more coarsely punctured, and the pattern 
both of thorax and elytra is different. 

Clythra (Peploptera) tibialis. 

Subconico-cylindrica, nitida, nigra, subtus cinereo-sericea ; tibiis 
(basi exceptis) fulvis; thorace elytrisq\ie obscure fulvis, illo 
laevi, vitta lata nigra, his distincte punctatis, punctis confuse 
striatim dispositis, utrisque maculis quatuor, duabus ante 
medium oblique, duabus vix pone medium (exterior! parva) 
transversim positis, nigris. 
Long. 5 lin. 
Hab. Port Natal. 

Head slightly concave and rugose-punctate between the eyes ; 
base of antennse fulvous. Thorax very convex, smooth and im- 
punctate, with the exception of two or three small foveas on either 
side near the lateral margin ; sides rounded and narrowed from 
base to apex. Scutellum broad, triangular. Elytra coarsely 
punctured, punctures near the suture arranged in irregular striae. 



Genera ami Species of Phyto'phaga. 225 

Fam. CIIRYSOMELID.E. 

Genus DuRvriioRA, Illig. 

Doryphora Salv'inii. 

Ovata, valde convexa, soidiJe fulv:i, nitida ; elytris sat fortiter 
gemellato-punctato-striatis, flavis, vitta siiturali vix ante 
apicem maculam parvam coeunte, limboque laterali angusto 
postice fere evanescente, rufo-luscis ; utrisque maculis irregu- 
laribus novem, 1-3-3-2 positis, castaneis, instructis. 

Long. 6 lin. 

Hab. Panama. 

Head broad, finely punctured, upper portion of face irregularly 
but at the same time lightly excavated. Antennas slightly 
thickened towards their apex, terminal joints longer than broad. 
Thorax more than twice as broad as long, sides nearly straight 
and parallel, rounded and narrowed in front ; apex deeply ex- 
cavated, the anterior angles subacute ; above strongly punc- 
tured, the punctures being irregularly scattered over the surface. 
Elytra broader than the thorax, subparallel along the sides, their 
apex regularly rounded ; surface strongly punctured, the punctures 
being arranged in irregular gemellate strite: the chestnut patches 
on the disc of each elytron are arranged as follows, viz., one in the 
middle of the base, three transversely before the middle, three 
immediately behind the latter, and two others also placed trans- 
versely just before the apex. Mesosternal spine more than half 
the length of the metasternum. 

This new and beautiful species ought to be placed close to 
Donjphora n'lgrogutlata, Stal. 

Genus Ceralces, Gerst. 
Ceralces ferrugincus, Gerst. 

Some years ago I described in the Transactions of this Society 
(N. S. iv. 88) a species of Ceralces from Old Calabar, under the 
name of Pseudumela Murraiji ; subsequently, on reading Ger- 
stacker's description, and seeing also the figure of his insect in 
Peters' Reise nacli Mossambique, I concluded that the two species 
were identical, and that, from his name having the priority, mine 
must sink into a synonym. 

The arrival, however, of a specimen of C- ferrugincus in the 
Zambesi Collection which is now before me, enables me to show 
that the two insects, although closely allied, are really distinct, and 
present clear points of difference. 



226 Mr. J. S. Baly's Descriptions of uncharacterized 

In C. fcrrugineus the thorax is more convex, and, together 
witli the head, more coarsely punctured ; the basal joints of the 
antennae, instead of being entirely red, as in C. Miirrayi, are 
obscure rufo-piccous ; and the elytra are irregularly punctured 
over their whole surface. In C. Murrayi the elytra are irregularly 
punctured on the disk, but near the suture the punctures are 
arranged in longitudinal rows, the puncturing being also finer 
than in Gerstacker's insect. 

Ceralces Waller i. 

Oblongo-ovata, convexa, rufo-fulva, nitida ; antennis nigris, 
pectore, pedibus, antennarumque basi nigro-piceis ; thorace 
elytris latitudine fere aequali, dorso leviter punctato, utrin- 
que unifoveolato ; elytris subcrebre punctatis, piinctis prope 
suturam subseriatim dispositis. 

Long. 4^ — 5 lin. 

Hab. Zambesi River. 

Mouth nigro-piceous, epistome and vertex closely punctured ; 
lower portion of face just above the epistome impressed with three 
short longitudinal grooved lines. Thorax twice as broad as 
long, nearly as broad at the base as the elytra, sides rounded and 
narrowed from base to apex ; disk somewhat distantly, sides 
rather more closely, punctured. 

The broad thorax at once distinguishes this species from either 
of the two mentioned above ; the punctuation of the thorax is also 
much finer, more especially on the disk. 

Ceralces sjnlota. 

Breviter ovata, convexa, fulva, nitida ; antennis extrorsura, oculis, 
thoracis maculis tribus transversim dispositis, elytrorumque 
maculis octo, harum quatuor infra basim et quatuor vix pone 
medium positis, nigris; scutello nigro-piceo ; thorace trans- 
verso, irrcgulariter punctato; elytris crebre punctatis, punctis 
prope suturam in seriebus gemellatis dispositis. 

Long. 3| lin. 

Hab. Zambesi River. 

In form of thorax and body closely resembling C. Wallcrl ; 
rather shorter, however, and stouter than that species. Head 
coarsely punctured. Thorax feebly excavated on either side the 
disk. The black patches on the elytra, which are arranged in two 
transverse rows, vary in my specimens somewhat in size, and it 
is probable that in some individuals they are considerably enlarged 



Genera and Species of Phytoyhaga. 227 

and cover a much greater portion of the elytra ; in that case they 
would approach in pattern C. ornata, described by me from Lake 
N'Gami. Tiie present species, however, is nearly twice the size 
of C. ornata, and mucli less coarsely punctured. 

Genus Chrysomela, Auct. 
Chryaomela {Atechna) Clarkiu 
Ovato-rotundata, valde convexa, rufo-picea, nitida ; pedibus 
obscurioribus ; antennis nigris, capite thoraceque obscure 
rufis ; elytris obscure rufo-violaceis, subfortiter punctato- 
striatis, interspatiis planis, subremote tenuiter punctatis ; 
utrisque pustulis rotundatis quatuor S-2 oblique positis flavis. 
Long. 4g lin. 
Hab. Zambesi River. 

This lovely insect, the finest of the known species of Atechna, 
is at once to be distinguished from all its congeners by its much 
greater size ; I have named it after my friend the Rev. H. Clark, 
who is just now engaged on a monographic paper of the genus 
Aleclina. 

The four spots on each elytron form two obliquely transverse 
rows on the disc ; the first placed before, the second below the 
middle. 

Genus Australica, Chevr. 
Australlca [Stethomela) Parryi, 
Subquadrato-oblonga, parallela, valde convexa, cuprea, nitida, 
seneo-micans, subtus cupreo-eenea ; antennis basi pedibusque 
obscure rufo-fulvis, illis apice nigris ; elytris pone medium 
declivibus, apice angulatis, profunde punctatis, punctis in striis 
remote dispositis. 
Long. 4| lin. 
Hab. Australia. 

Head smooth, impressed just above the epistome with a few 
deep foveas. Clypeus fulvous, epistome fulvo-seneous. Thorax 
more than twice as broad as long, sides straight and nearly pa- 
rallel, narrowed and rounded in front; disk smooth, very minutely 
punctured, impressed here and there on the sides and hinder 
half with large deep punctures, which have a metallic green re- 
flexion. The punctures on the elytra, also metallic green, are 
similar in size to those of the thorax ; they are arranged in nine 
rows, being placed at somewhat irregular and distant intervals in 
each row ; in this respect they approach the punctaiion of Slelho- 



228 Mr. J. S. Baly's Descriptions of uncJiaracierized 

mela gibbosa, but the punctures in the present species are much 
smaller and also closer than in that insect; on the side just below 
the shoulder is a large deep somewhat transverse excavation. 

Genus Gonioctena, Redt. 
Gonloctena Murrayi. 
Oblonga, valdeconvexa, subparallela, fulva,nitida; mandibular um 

apice oculisque nigris ; elytris castaneis, confuse punctatis. 
Long. 3 lin. 
Hab. Old Calabar. 

Head somewhat closely punctured ; thorax twice as broad at the 
base as long, sides rounded and narrowed from base to apex ; 
apical margin obsoletely bisinuate ; upper surface subremotely but 
distinctly punctured. Scutellum semirotundate. Elytra irregu- 
larly punctured. 

Gonioctena Fortiinei. 
Breviter oblongo-ovata, convexa, pallide fulva, nitida ; oculis 
mandibularumque apice nigris ; thoracis maculis duabus 
elytrorumque singulorum maculis sex, piceis; elytris punctato- 
striatis, interspatiis subcrebre punctatis. 
Long. 2g lin. 
Hab. Northern Cbina. 

Very nearly allied to Gonioctena nigroplagiafa, but separated 
from that insect, in addition to the different number of spots on 
the elytra, by its shorter form, its pale scutellum, and more 
coarsely-punctured elytra. 

Genus Gastrolina, Baly. 
Gastrolina thoracica. 
Oblonga, depressa, seneo-nigra, nitida; thoracis lateribus flavis; 
elytris fortiter subcrebre punctatis, interdum obsolete cos- 
tatis, nigro-cseruleis aut purpureis, margine elevato laevi, 
aeneo-nigro ; abdominis apice piceo. 
Long. 3| lin. 
Hab. Japan. 

This pretty species is perhaps only a local variety of Gastrolina 
deprcssa : it differs chiefly in the coloration of the thorax, which 
is in the present insect brassy-black with broad lateral margins ; 
this character is constant, witl.out the slightest attempt at variation. 
The raised vitts, always more or less visible on the elytra of G. 
dcpressa, are usually obsolete in the present species. 



Genera and Species of P/iytophaga. 229 

Genus LiNA, Redt. 
Liiia Adamsii. 
Ans^uste oblonga, convexa, viritli- aut caeruleo-metallica, niti- 
dissima ; abdominis limbo, pedibiis, thorace antennisque rufo- 
fidvis, his ungiiibusque extrorsum nigris; elytris subcrebre 
piinctatis, viiidi-a^neis aut cseruleis. 
Long. 4 — 5 iin. 

Hab. Chusan. This beautiful insect was collected in some 
abundance by Messrs. Bowring and A. Adams. After this latter 
gentleman I have named it, as a slight token for his exertions in 
obtaining, and liberality in dispersing, the Phytophagous Coleoptera 
of Japan and Mantchuria. 

In size this species approaches closely to Llna cuprea, but in 
sculpture and form of thorax^ viz., in the absence of the thickened 
literal border, it resembles Lina cenea. The totally different colora- 
tion will easily separate it from either insect. 

Genus Plagiodera, Redt. 
Plagiodera celestina. 
Late ovata, modice convexa, rufo-testacea, nitida; vertice an- 
tennisque extrorsum nigris; elytris tenuiter subcrebre punc- 
tatis, cupreis. 
Long. 2^ Iin. 

Hab. Hong Kong. Collected by Mr. Bowring. 
Narrower and more ovate than P. cinctipcnnis ; the elytra also 
more closely punctured and wanting the pale lateral border. 

Plogiodeia cuprea, 
Ovata, vakle convexa, cuprea, nitida; thorace disco tenuiter, 
irregulariter, lateribus rude, subcrebre punctato ; scutello 
laovi ; elytris confuse punctatis. 
Long. 4g Iin. 
Hab. Lake N'Gami. 

Sides of thorax nearly straight and parallel behind, narrowed 
and rounded in front; scutellum semi-rotundate ; elytra rather 
broader at their base than the thorax, their sides rounded. 

Fam. GALLERUCID/E. 

Genus Clitkna. 

Corpus elongato-oblongum, convexum, opacum, supra pube 
brevissinta vestitum. Caput thorace insertum, perpendicu- 

VOL. II. THIRD SEKIES, PART HI. NOV. 1 8G4-. S 



230 Mr. J. S. Baly's Descriptions of uncharacterized 

lare ; ardennis robustis, articulis 4'" ad 11"™ modice dilatato- 
compressis ; oculis ovatis, integris ; palporum maxillarium 
articulo ultimo conico, acuto. Thorax transversus, irregu- 
lariter excavatus. Elytra thorace paullo latiora, parallela, 
convexa. Pedes modice robusti, simplices ; coxis anticis fere 
perpendicularibus, contiguis \femoribus posticis non incrassatis, 
tibi'is posticis apice inermibus, lu/guiculis bifidis. Mesosler- 
num angustum, acutum. 

Type Clitena limbata. 

The dilated antennae at once separate this genus from Galleruca, 
near to which it must be placed. 

Clitena limbata. 

Subelongata, subparallela, fulva, subtus nitida ; pedibus 
(femorum basi excepta) obscure seneis ; antennis nigris ; 
thorace elytrisque crebre punctatis, obscure seneis, sub- 
opacis, illo limbo vittdque lata centrali, his limbo angusto, 
fulvis. 

Long. 5 lin. 

Hab. Pachybouri, Siam. Collected by the late M. Mouhot, 

Head coarsely punctured, front impressed by a longitudinal 
groove, which extends downwards as far as the apex of the 
epistome ; just below the upper margin of the eyes it is traversed 
by a deep transverse groove, either extremity of which curves 
downwards and runs parallel with the inner edge of the eye ; on 
either side, placed immediately above the insertion of the antennae, 
is a smooth slightly-raised semi-lunate space, bounded above and 
outwardly by the transverse, within by the longitudinal, groove; 
antennae more than two-thirds the length of the body ; vertex 
marked with a large obscure viridi-aeneous patch. Thorax twice 
as broad as long ; sides nearly straight and parallel, narrowed 
and rounded in front, anterior angles produced into an obtuse 
tooth ; surface rugose-punctate, impressed on either side with a 
short transverse excavation ; middle of the disc impressed with a 
longitudinal groove, which extends from just behind the apical 
margin nearly to the base, its basal portion dilated. Elytra sub- 
parallel, scarcely dilated posteriorly, their apex broadly rounded, 
very closely punctured, and clothed with short adpressed hairs ; 
on the surface of each elytron are three or four indistinct, nearly 
obsolete, raised vittae. 



Genera and Species of P/iytophaga. 23 1 

Clitcna melancholica. 

Siibelong;ita, convexa, nigra, subopaca ; thorace rugoso, irregu- 
lariter cxcavato, elytris crebre piinctatis, pube brevi adpressa 
concolori dense vestitis. 

Long. 5^ lines. 

Hub. Laos, Siam. 

Head coarsely punctured, excavated on the front ; antennae more 
than two- thirds the length of the body, sixth and following joints 
compressed and dilated, ninth, tenth and eleventh very short, 
decreasing in width. Thorax scarcely twice as broad as long, 
sides rounded at the base, nearly straight and subparallel along 
their middle, thence quickly narrowed to the apex, anterior angles 
thickened ; surface irregular and excavated. Elytra subparallel 
in front, scarcely dilated" posteriorly, much more finely punctured 
than the thorax. 

Genus Laphris. 

Corpus oblongo-elongatum, convexum. Caput exsertum, facie 
perpendiculari ; antenn'is modice robustis, filiformibus, arti- 
culo secundo brevissimo; palporum articulis duobus ultimis 
conjunctim ovatis. Thorax transversus, dorso utrinque trans- 
versim sulcatus. Elytra oblonga, irregulariter punctata. 
Pedes modice robusti ; coxis anticis fere contigius, perpen- 
dicularibus, femoribus posticis non incrassatis ; tibiis posticis 
apice spina brevi armatis, unguicuUs appendiculatis. ]\Ieta- 
stcrninn antrorsum ultra coxas intermedias productum. 

Type Laphris emarginata. 

Nearly allied to Aplosonyx, separated by the appendiculated 
claws and produced metasternum. 

• 

Laphris emarginata. 
Oblongo-elongata, parallela, convexa, pallide fulva, nitida; oculis 
elytrorumque vitta lata, mox infra basin fere ad apicem 
extensa, extus sat profunde emarginata, nigris ; antennis 
(basi excepta) fuscis. 
Long. 5 lin. 
Hab. Northern China. 

Thorax nearly twice as broad as long, coarsely punctured, 
impressed in the middle of the base with a large fovea ; sides 
nearly parallel, sinuate behind the middle, posterior angles pro- 
duced, the anterior angles thickened and rounded, very obtuse. 
Scutellum smooth, triangular. Elytra convex, their apex slightly 



232 Mr. J. S. Baly's Descriptions of uncharacterized 

dehiscent, indislinclly impressed transversely below the basilar 
space, somewhat closely punctured. 

Genus Cerochroa, Gerst. 
Cerochroa macuUcollis, 
Elongata, convexa, nitida, subtus cum antennis nigra; capite, 
thorace, antennarum articulo basali, scutelloque sordide 
flavis, ore verticisque plaga pallide piceis ; thoracis punctis 
quinque, 4-1 transversim positis, nigris ; elytris castaneis. 
Long, (i lin. 
Hab. Old Calabar. 

Antennae longer, more slender, and less compressed than in any 
other known species of the genus ; nearly half the length of the 
body. Thorax narrovved and slightly rounded from base to apex; 
disc coarsely but subremotely punctured. Scutellum subtrigonate, 
distinctly punctured. Elytra somewhat closely punctured. Meta- 
sternum produced anteriorly into a strong spine, which reaches to 
the front edge of the anterior coxae. Extreme apex of abdomen 
obscure fulvous. 

Genus L^tana. 

Corpus subelongatum, convexum, non metallicum. Caput modice 
exsertum, perpendiculare ; oculis prominentibus, rotundato- 
ovatis, integris ; anlennis corporis longitudiui fere asqualibus, 
$ robustis, ad apicem attenuatis, articulis 3-8 incrassato- 
dilatatis, 7-8 latitudiue decrescentibus, 9-11 gracilibiis, fili- 
formibus; ? gracilibus, filiformibus; in utroque sexu articulis 
primo incrassato, secundo brevi. Thorax transversus, dorso 
impressus. Elytra thorace sat latiora, oblonga, postice paullo 
ampliata, convexa, confuse punctata. Pedes mediocres, ro- 
busti, simplices; cox'ts anticis erectis, contiguis ; femoribus 
posticis non incrassatis ; tib'ns posticis aj)ice spina validd 
armatis ; ungu'icul'is bifidis. Prosternum ohsoletum. 

Type Ijcetana histrio. 

The spine at the apex of the hinder tibiae, the peculiar form of 
the antennae in the niale, together with numerous other characters, 
separate this genus from Diamph'tdla and other allied forms. 

Lcetaiia histrio. 
Subelongata, postice paullo ampliata, convexa, pallide fulva, 
subnitida ; oculis, antennis (harum articulis basalibiis infra 
exceptis), pectore, pedibus, scutello, elytrisque nigris; lu's 



Genera and Species of Pliijloi)haga. 233 

crebre punctatis, margine basali plagisque tvihiis, diiabus 
transversim ante medium, tertia magna pone medium, super- 
ficiem fere amplectente, positis, pallida fulvis ; thorace punctis 
duobus fuscis notato. 
Var. A. Thoracis punctis fuscis obsoletis, clytrorum plagis 
inter so confluentibus. 

B. Elytris totis fidvis. 

C. ? Abdomine nigro, disco obscure fulvo. 
Long. 4 — \\ lin. 

Hah. Port Natal. 

Epistome strongly raised into a longitudinal ridge between the 
insertion of the antennae ; between the upper portion of the eyes 
extends a transverse groove, from the middle of which a longi- 
tudinal grooved line runs downwards to join the apex of the 
e})istome ; on either side this medial line, and bounded above by 
the transverse groove, is a smooth, slightly raised, subtriangidar 
space; vertex minutely but not closely punctured. Thorax trans- 
verse, nearly twice as broad as long ; sides narrowly margined, 
nearly straight and parallel, slightly narrowed and rounded just 
behind the anterior angles ; disc impressed on either side by a 
large deep fovea, surface finely punctured. 

Genus Platyxantha. 

Corpus elongatum, depressum, non metallicum, nitidum. 
Caput exsertum, subelongatum, compressum, perpendiculare ; 
antennls robustis corpore brevioribus, ant filiformibus, aut api- 
cem versus perparum incrassatis, articulis duobus ultimis(^ ) 
dilatatis, saepe diftormibus ; ocuUs modice prominentibus, in- 
tegris ; mento a basi ad apicem angustato, subconico ; ligtild 
elongatTi, 5-angulata; pnlp'is prope apicem insertis, palporum 
maxillarium articulis duobus ultimis conjunctimovatis. Thorax 
subquadratus, disco deplanato, leviter excavato, angulis anticis 
defllexis. Elytra thorace latiora, modice convexa, dorso 
leviter depressa, parallela, confuse punctata. Pedes elongati, 
modice robusti ; coxis crassis, erectis, contiguis; femoribus 
non incrassatis ; tih'ns posticis apice non spinosis, intus vix 
ante apicem in processum validum productis ; ungukulis 
acute appendiculatis. Prosternum obsoletum. Mesosternum 
apice subacutum, integrum. Abdominis apice exserto. 

Type Platyxanlha apicalis. 

This genus is one of the most remarkable in the whole group 
of Gcdlerucida:. The peculiar depressed form of the head and 



234 Mr. J. S. Baly's Descriptions of uncharacterized 

thorax, the dilated joints at the apex of the antennge, together 
with the pecuhar lobe or process at the apex of the hinder tibia?, 
will readily separate it at once from all other known genera. 
Although I possess three distinct species, all collected by Mr. 
Wallace, I unfortunately know apparently only the male sex. 



Plalyxantha apicalis. 
Angustato-elongata, pallide fulva, nitida ; antennarura articulis 

duobus ultimis, scutello, genubus, tibiis, tarsisque nigris. 
Long. 4 lin. 
Hab. Sumatra. 

Head flattened and strongly compressed, oblong-elongate ; epis- 
tome slightly thickened, triangular, truncate at the base, its sur- 
face smooth, the centre being traversed by a longitudinal ridge ; on 
the front, just above the insertion of the antennae, is a short per- 
pendicular groove, which is bounded above by a transverse im- 
pressed line; at the point of junction between the two is a 
single fovea. Antennae moderately robust ; third and six follow- 
ing joints gradually decreasing in length, the ninth, tenth and 
eleventh joints moderately thickened, the tenth nearly equal in 
length to the ninth, the eleventh somewhat longer, its apex pointed : 
on the upper edge of each joint from the third to the ninth in- 
clusive is a raised ridge, this is replaced on the last two joints by 
an elevated, ovate, cup-like space. Thorax scarcely longer than 
broad ; sides nearly parallel, running slightly outwards from their 
base to beyond their middle, then curving slightly inwards to their 
apex ; upper surface deflexed on the sides, especially in front, 
remotely and finely punctured ; disc flattened and impressed with 
three large ill-defined fovese, the first larger than the others, 
broadly ovate and extending from the apex to below the middle, 
the two others smaller but more deeply impressed, placed trans- 
versely one on either side the hinder portion of the disc, just in 
front of the posterior margin. Scutellum triangular, its apex 
rounded. Elytra not depressed below the base, finely punctured. 
Hinder tibiae produced on the inner edge, just before the apex, 
into a slightly curved lobiform process, the apex of which is armed 
with a small incurved tooth. 

Platyxantha nigricornis. 

Elongata, parallela, rufo-picea, nitida; capite thoraceque obscure 
fulvis ; oculiy, pedibus antcnniii(pie (articulo basali excepto) 



Genera and Species of Phytophaga. 235 

nigrls ; hariim articiilis duobus ultimis magnis, valde in- 
crassatis, difTormibus. 

Long. 3| lin. 

Hab. Java. 

Head as in the last species ; antennae very robust, joints in- 
creasing in thickness from the fourth to the ninth, fourtli to the 
eighth inclusive short, sliglitly compressed, subtrigonate, fur- 
nished, as in P. apicalis, with an acute ridge on their inner edge ; 
ninth rather thicker, equal in length to the fourth ; tenth and 
eleventh large, greatly thickened, nearly equal, forming conjointly 
more than a third of the whole length of the antenna, the inner 
surface of each deeply excavated, the excavations smooth and 
shining, the one on the tenth irregular and armed with two coarse 
teeth ; terminal joint acute. Thorax more narrowed in front 
than in P. apicalis; surface smooth, impressed in front with a 
longitudinal groove, and on either side, behind the middle, with a 
broad transverse depression. Elytra very minutely punctured ; 
basilar space bounded below by a curved depression. Hinder 
tibiae armed on the inner edge, just before the apex, with a curved 
styliform process. 

Platyxantha ventralis. 

Elongata, modice convexa, parallela, fulva, nitida; pedibus 
antennisque i)alIi(lioribus; harum articulis duobus ultimis 
crassis, intus excavatis, concoloribus ; oculis abdomincque 
piceo-nigris. 

Long. Sg lin. 

Hab. Mount Ophir, Singapore. 

Head shorter than in either of the two preceding species ; fore- 
head less depressed, the part above the insertion of the antennae 
between the upper portion of the eyes occupied by two indistinctly- 
raised subquadrate spaces ; antennae intermediate in size between 
those of P. apicalis and nigricornis, joints coarsely punctured, 
third to the eighth nearly equal both in length and thickness, the 
ninth much shorter than the eighth, tenth and eleventh much 
thickened, together nearly equal in length to a third part of the 
whole antenna, the eleventh half as long again as the tenth, its 
apex acute, both joints deeply excavated on their inner sides. 
Thorax distinctly but finely punctured ; disc impressed on either 
side behind the middle with an oblique fovea ; sides nearly straight 
and parallel, narrowed just behind the anterior angles. Elytra 
distinctly punctured ; basilar space bounded beneath and laterally 



236 Mr. J. S. Buly's Descriptions of uncharacterized 

by a curved depression. Hinder tibite armed within, just before 
the apex, with a slightly curved styliform process. 



Genus DORIDEA. 

Corpus anguste oblongum, convexum, non metallicum, nitidum. 
Caput exsertum, facie perpendiculari ; ocidis prominulis, in- 
tegris ; antennis $ robustis, articulis 9-10 valde incrassatis, 
difformibus ; $ minus robustis, filiformibus ; mcnto trans- 
verso-quadrato ; palporum articulis duobus ultimis conjunc • 
tim ovatis. Thorax transverso-quadratus, dorso impressus. 
Elytra thorace latiora, subparallela, rnodice convexa, dorso 
subdepressa, saepe elevato-vittata, confuse punctata. Pedes 
robusti ; eoxis anticis crassis, ei'ectis, fere contiguis ; femoribus 
posticis non incrassatis ; tiiiis posticis $ apice in processum 
acutum productis, $ simplicibus ; iarsorum anticorum arti- 
culo basali S valde dilatato ; unguiculis appendiculatis. Pro- 
sternum fere obsoktum. Mesoslernum apice non emargi- 
natum. 

Type Dor'idea insignis. 

Doridea is very closely allied to Platyxantha ; they both agree 
in having a certain number of joints dilated in the antennae of the $ , 
but in the present genus these joints are the ante-penultimate and 
penultimate, not the two ultimate as in the former; Doridea is also 
more robust and less depressed than Platyxantha. 

Doridea insignis. 
Subelongata, modice convexa, nitida, picea; pedibus atitennisque 

obscure fulvis, antennarum articulis 9-10 sat dilatatis, com- 

pressis. 
Long. 3g lin. 
Hab. Tringanee. 

Head short, apex of epistome forming a perpendicular ridge, 
which passes upwards between the insertion of the antennae ; front 
smooth, impressed with three small foveae, placed in a triangle on 
its surface, from the centre one a perpendicular groove runs down- 
wards to join the apex of the epistome. Antennae nearly as long as 
the body, robust ; basal joint incrassate, curved, clavate, second 
short, third to the seventh cylindrical, each gradually thickened 
from base to apex, nearly equal in length, the third being rather 
longer than the others ; all gradually increasing in width from the 
fourth to the eighth, this latter joint very short and transverse ; 
niuih and tenth largely dilated and thickened^ irregular in shape, 



Genera and Species of Phytophaga. 237 

compressed ; eleventh slender, styliform. Thorax, transverse- 
quadrate, sides nearly straight and parallel, obliquely narrowed 
just behind the anterior angles ; above smooth and shining, dis- 
tantly punctured, impressed on either side, just behind the middle, 
with a large deep fovea ; foveae more closely and coarsely punctured 
than the remainder of the surface. Scutellum triangular, its apex 
obtuse. Elytra broader than the thorax, subparallel ; their apex 
obtuse, conjointly emarginate at the sutnral angle, strongly but 
not coarsely punctured ; the surface of each elytron with about 
eight indistinctly raised longitudinal vittee. 

Genus Theopea. 

Corpus elongatum, angustatum, parallelum, saepe metallicum. 
Caput exsertum, declive ; anlennis sat gracilibus, corpore vix 
brevioribus, articulis cylindricis ; $ subfusiformibus, articulis 
intcrmcdiis leviter incrassatis, cylindricis aut compressis ; 
J subfiliformibus, ad apicem non aut vix attenuatis ; ar- 
ticulo primo leviter curvato, pauUo incrassato, secundo brevi, 
cacteris inter se fere aequalibus, singulatim primo brevioribus ; 
ocul'is ovatis, prominentibus, integris. Thorax subquadratus, 
doiso impressus. Ehjtra thorace paullo latiora, elongata, 
parallela, modice convexa, dorso subdepressa, punctato-striata, 
interspatiis alternis leviter costatis. Pedes graciles, elongati ; 
coxis anticis erectis, contiguis ; femoribus posticis non incras- 
satis; tlhiis posticis apice inermibus; tarsorum posticoruui 
articulo basali duobus sequentibus longiori ; luinnicitlis ap- 
pendiculatis. Prosternum fere obsoietum. Mesoslernum apice 
acutum. 

Type Theopea impressa, Fab. 

Theopea pulchella. 
Elongata, angustata, parallela, nietallico-cserulea, nitida; an- 

tennis nigris, articulis aj)ice albidis, articulis intermediis inter 

se longitudine aequalibus ; thorace profunde bi-impresso ; 

elytris costatis, interspatiis bifariam punctatis. 
Mas. — Antennarum articulis intermediis modice incrassatis, 

cylindricis. 
Foem. — 'Antennis subfiliformibus, ad apicem vix attenuatis. 
Long. 3 lin. 
Hab. Sumatra. 

This species closely resembles T. impressa, Fab. ; in the present 
insect the intermediate joints of the antennas are cylindrical and 



238 Mr, J, S. Bale's Descriptions of uncharacterized 

nearly equal in length ; in impressa they are unequal, the sixth 
joint being elongate, and, together with the seventh, compressed. 

Theopea eleganluln. 
Elongata, angnstata, parallela, metalh'co-cserulea, nitida ; an- 

tennarum apice albido; thorace fovea magna transversa an- 

tice bilobata profiinde impresso ; elytris costatis, interspatiis 

bifariam punctatis. 
Mas. — Antennarum articulis 7 — 9 paullo incrassatis, latitudine 

perparum decrescentibus, cylindricis. 
Fcem. — Antennis subfiliformibus, ad apicem obsoletius atte- 

nuatis. 
Long. 2f lin. 
Hab. Sarawak. 

The different form of the dorsal impression on the thorax, 
together with the difference in the structure of the antennae in the 
male, will separate this insect from the preceding. 

Theopea MoiiJioti, 

Elongata, angustata, parallela, subtus nigro-picea, supra san- 
guinea ; antennis rn'gris ; thoracis dorso utrinque profunda 
excavato ; elytris costatis, interspatiis bifariam punctatis. 

Mas. — Antennarum articulis intermediis inter se fere asqualibus, 
modice dilatatis, cylindricis. 

Long. 3g lin. 

Hab. Siam. Collected by the late M. Mouhot. 

Genus Atysa. 

Corpus elongatura, angustatum, parallelum, subopacum, non 
metallicum. Caput exsertum ; antennis robustis, corporis 
longitudini sequalibus aut vix brevioribus, filiformibus, ad api- 
cem paullo attenuatis, articulo secundo brevi ; oculis integris, 
prominentibus, ovatis. Thorax transversus, dorso piano aut 
transversim concavo-excavato. Elytra thorace vix latiora, 
parallela, modice convexa, crebre punctata, pube brevissima 
aJpressa vestita. Pedes subelongati, modice robusti, sim- 
plices ; coxis anticis basi transversis, crassis, erectis, sub- 
contiguis ; femoribus posticis non incrassatis, tihiis posticis 
muticis ; ungulcnUs appendiculatis. Presternum angustis- 
simum. 

Type Atysa terminaUs. 

The narrow parallel form will at once divide this genus from 
GalleruLU and its allies. 



Genera and Species of Phytophaga. 239 

Atysa terminalis. 
Elongata, angiistata, nigra ; thorace depresso, rude crebre punc- 

tato ; elytris fulvis, crebre punctatis, tertio postico iiigro- 

purpureis. 
Long. 3 — 4 lin. 
Hab. Mysol. 

Genus Alopena. 

Corpus elongato-ovatum, convexum, nitidum. Caput extrorsum 
subperpendiculare ; anlennis corpore multo longioribus, gra- 
cilibus, articuUs filiformibus, primo vix incrassato, curvato, 
secundo brevissimo, 3-4que utrisque articulo basali fere 
gequalibus, caeteris singulis paullo longioribus, 3-7 leviter 
curvatis; ocm//* prominentibus, integris. T//ora.r transversus, 
disco Isevi, utrinque obsolete impresso. Elytra thorace paullo 
latiora, oblonga, subparallela, confuse punctata. Pedes sim- 
plices, graciles ; cox'is anticis crassis, erectis, contiguis; femo- 
ribus posticis non incrassatis; tibiis posticis apice spina acuta, 
armatis ; tarsorum posticorum articulo basali tribus sequen- 
tibus longiori ; luiguiculis appendiculatis. 

Type Alupcna collaris. 

This genus must stand close to Luperodes, Motsch.; it is sepa- 
rated by the long slender antennae, together with the longer third 
joints of the latter. 

Jlopena collaris. 

Elongata, ovata, pallida fulva, nitida; oculis, antennis elytrisque 
nigris ; abdomine, tibiis posticis apice, tarsisque piceis. 

Long. 2 lin. 

Hab. New Guinea. * 

Antennae more than lialf as long again as the body ; face deeply 
excavated on either side between the eyes ; epistome produced 
upwards as a longitudinal ridge between the insertion of the an- 
tennae ; above the latter 'is a distinct transverse groove. Tliorax 
smooth, impressed on either side the disc by a shallow fovea. 
Elytra closely punctured. 

Fam. CASSIDID^. 
Genus Calopepla, Boh. 
Calopepla Lwingstonii. 
Elongata, siibparallela, mndice convexa, dorso dcplanata, subtus 
obscure nigro-picea ; pcdibus nigris, prosterno abdominisquc 



240 Mr. J. S. Baly's Descriptions of uncharacterized 

maculis obscure fulvis ; supra fulva, subnitida ; antennis 
vertice elytrorumque margine basali nigris; thorace lateribus 
sinuatis, intra latera bifossulato, disco Isevi utrinque foveo- 
lato et ibi fusco-maculato ; elytris profunde punctato-striatis, 
interstitiis elevato-reticulatis, interspatiis alternis modice 
carinatis. 
Long. 5 lin. 

Hab. Zambesi. Collected by Mr. Waller. 
Thorax nearly as wide at its base as the elytra, quickly narrowed 
from base to apex ; sides nearly straight, sinuate in their middle ; 
apical margin truncate, anterior angles scarcely produced, obtuse. 
The discovery of a species of the (hitherto considered) ex- 
clusively Indian genus Calopepla, in the southern portion of 
tropical Africa, is highly interesting, and, like the similar oc- 
currence of Sagra, Hoplio7iSta, Aspidomorpha, and other genera 
common to the two countries, would seem to point to a former 
more intimate connexion between these two quarters of the globe, 
rendering it probable that in some former geological epoch a large 
connecting tract of now-submerged land existed in the Indian 
Ocean. In accordance with this view, the few known species 
of the genus (only four in number) found in such widely-distant 
localities, and agreeing so completely in generic characters, may 
be looked upon as the remnants of a much more numerous race, 
which formerly flourished in greater abundance on the now lost 
intermediate continent. 

An analogous case in the same family is to be found in the 
nearly allied genus Hoplionota, the species of which, according 
to Boheman, are exclusively confined, on the one hand, to 
Madagascar and southern Africa, on the other to India and the 
Malay Archipelago. Madagascar and Ceylon (both of which 
islands are probably remnants of the now lost land) contain more 
than two-thirds of the known species, the others (four in Africa 
and five or six in India and the Malay Archipelago) spreading 
in either case in a southerly direction on their respective con- 
tinents. The occurrence of so large a proportion of the species 
in Madagascar and Ceylon would seem to show that the birthplace 
or metropolis of the genus formerly existed at some intermediate 
point, and that the species now living have spread themselves on 
either side from this common centre. 

It may however be argued that these various genera have 
migrated over both continents through Egypt, Arabia and Persia; 
the alteration of climate, the spread of sandy deserts, and other 
causes, having given rise to the gradual or sudden extinction of 



Genera and Species of Phi/to'pliaga. 241 

species formerly living in great abundance in those portions of 
the globe: indeed, several species of Sagra are still existing in 
Abyssinia and northern India. But I think it may be shown that 
these species originally migrated northwards from the southern 
tropics, and not southwards from more northerly latitudes. The 
African and Asiatic species of Sagra present two well-marked 
types 5 the species found in either continent bearing those peculiar 
characters which belong to their congeners of that quarter of the 
world to which they geographically belong. Now had the genus 
originally spread itself southwards from the northern tropics 
across the equator, the species inhabiting Abyssinia and northern 
India ought surely to present more points of similarity than 
those of the more southern latitudes, as being nearer the com- 
mon source from which the genus originally sprang; this, however, 
is not borne out by facts, the species inhabiting those countries 
being as distinct from each other, and bearing respectively the 
characters of the African or Asiatic types as strongly developed, 
as those found in Madagascar, India or Java. 

Genus Dolichotoma, Hope. 
Dol'ichotoma Salvinii. 

Rotundata, $ subtriangularis, ? convexa, obscure aenea, sub- 
nitida ; elytris rude et profunde punctatis, elevato-reticulatis, 
antice retusis, modice transversim gibbosis, disci maculis 
plurimis margineque explanato-sanguineis, hoc sat dilatato, 
aeneo-limbato, disco maculis irregularibus eeneis notato. 
Var. A. — Elytris sanguineis, sutura, limbo exteriori, maculis 
rugulisque disci aeneis. 
B. — Elytris disco toto seneo. 
Long. 7 lin. 

Hab. Panama. Collected by Mr. Salvin. 

AntenucC S longer than half the body. Thorax twice as broad 
as long, sides oblique, base deeply bisinuate on either side, 
medial lobe emarginate at its apex ; surface opaque, centre of 
disc impressed with a longitudinal groove, which terminates 
anteriorly in a narrowed ridge ; this last is continued onwards to 
the apical margin. Elytra much wider than the thorax, their 
lateral border broadly dilated ; shoulders regularly rounded in 
the $ , obliquely rounded in the ? ; sides rounded, gradually 
narrowed from their middle towards the apex,- the latter obtuse ; 
dilated margin smooth, opaque, impunctate. 



242 Mr. J. S. Bdly's Descriptions of uncharacterized 

Genus Mesomphalia, Hope. 
Mesomphalia Salmnii. 

SubrotLinclata, modice convexa, viridi-metallica, subnitida, 
subtus nitida ; thorace subtilissime punctato, lateribiis a basi 
ad apicem lotundaioangustatis, margine antico fulvo ; elytris 
dorso antico minus profunda — pone medium margineque sub- 
tilissime — punctatis, utrisque plaga transversa magna, antice 
emarginata^ postice sinuata, fulva, aeneo-trinotata. 

Long. 5 — 6 lin. 

Hab. Panama. 

Extremely close to M. discoides, but at once to be distinguished 
from that insect by its much finer punctation ; the elytra are also 
broader, their shoulders being more regularly rounded. AntennjB 
equal in length to the thorax, black, four or five basal joints 
fidvous beneath. Thorax opaque, obsoletely punctured; sides 
less dilated than in M. discoides, being regularly narrowed and 
rounded from base to apex. Elytra ^ much broader than the 
thorax ; sides broadly dilated, obliquely rotundate-ampliate at the 
shoulders, thence rotundate-angustate to the apex, the latter con- 
jointly subangulate ; the fulvous patch on each elytron is placed 
transversely across the middle of the disc, extending from just 
within the lateral border nearly to the suture ; its surface is marked 
with three small aeneous spots, placed triangularly on its middle. 

Genus Batonota, Boh. 
Batonota Godmanii, 

Subtriangularis, convexa, obscure fulvo-fusca aut picea, sub- 
nitida; antennis (basi excepta) nigris ; elytris viridibus, basi 
retusis, ante medium alte transversim gibbosis, confuse, 
prope suturam seriatim punctatis, disco laxe elevato- 
reticulatis, ad suturam bicarinatis ; humeris antrorsum vix 
productis, acute angulatis, dorso carina obliqua instructis ; 
margine late explanato, fulvo, aeneo-punctato, limbo toto 
£Eneo. 
Long. 6 lin. 
Hab. Panama. 

Nearly allied to B. bivi/lipennis, Boh., to which species it bears 
the most striking resemblance in general form, sculpture and 
pattern of coloration ; it may, however, be distinguished by the 
colour of the body, and still more easily by the form of the 



Genera and Species of Phytophaga. 243 

gibbosity of tlie elytra, tliis [>ait being much produced in tlie 
present species, and forming a short flattened spine ; in bivitli- 
pcnn'is, on the other hand, it is very short, and approaches more 
nearly to B. peregrina and other allied species. 

Thorax twice as broad as long; sides obliquely dilated, very 
slightly rounded ; surface opaque, obsoletely punctured, impressed 
along the base with four or five large fovese ; anterior half of the 
disc deeply excavated, leaving the medial line as a distinct longi- 
tudinal ridge. Scutellum smooth, impressed in the middle with 
a large deep fovea. 



( 243 ) 



IX. Descriptions of New Species of Diurnal Lepidoptera. 
By W. C. Hewitson, F.L.S. 

[Read August 1st and September 5th, 1864.] 

1. Hekyra Hemina. (PI. XV. fig. 1.) 

Male. — Upperside wliite. Anterior wing with the apex hroadly 
black, marked with two white spots ; two black spots at the end 
of tlie cell, and one near the anal angle of the same colour. Pos- 
terior wing with seven spots beyond the middle, a submarginal 
line, and the outer margin (which is very narrow) black. 

Underside lilac-white. Anterior wing spotless, with two indis- 
tinct lines of brown near the middle, and one scarcely seen near 
the anal angle. Posterior wing with the spots of the upperside 
and the submarginal line indistinctly marked in lilac, preceded 
by arches of rufous-brown ; the black spot (the outer spot of three 
near the anal angle) crowned with bright yellow. 

Exp. 2-^^ inch. 

Hab. India. 

In the Collection of the British Museum. 

This adds a second species to Dr. Felder's genus Helcyra, 
which he considers nearest to Apatura. It differs from the neigh- 
bouring genera in the rounded club of the antennae, which re- 
sembles Jrgij}inis and Callithea. It has the cells of both wings 
open. In the museum at Leyden this species is put with Charaxes, 
to which it bears a general resemblance. Specimens are in the 
collection of Mr. Atkinson, of Calcutta, and Mr. Moore has shown 
me one from the Dublin Museum. 

2. Limemtis Labotas. (PI. XV. fig. 2.) 
Female. — Upperside dark brown. Both wings crossed obliquely 
at the middle by a common, straight, narrow, white band, broken 
into spots at its commer.cement on the anterior wing, followed 
between it and the outer margin by a band of black spots. An- 
terior wing with two crimson spots bordered with black, and a 
minute white spot within the cell ; an indistinct white spot a little 
beyond the middle of the costal margin. 

Underside as above, except that it is altogether of a pale grey- 

VOL. II. THIRD SERIES, PART III. — NOV. 1864. T 



246 Mr. W. C. Hewitson's Descriptions of 

green, and that the black spots beyond the central band are much 
less distinct, some of them being nearly or entirely effaced. 

Exp. Sg inch. 

Hab. Menado. 

In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

3. Limenitis Ligyes. (PI. XV. figs. 3, 4.) 

Female. — Upperside dark brown. Both wings crossed by a 
nearly central band of white spots, followed between it and the 
outer margin by two bands of lunular black spots. Anterior 
wing with a black band, a rufous spot and a white band witliin 
the cell, and a rufous band at the end of the cell ; three white 
spots near the apex. Posterior wing with rufous spots between 
the two submarginal bands of black spots. 

Underside oclireous-yellow. Anterior wing with the basal 
half rufous, the central band as above, the lower spots bordered 
with black ; a lunular white spot below the cell. Posterior wing 
(the central band excepted) immaculate. 

Exp. 2| inch. 

Hab. North India. 

In the Collection of W, C. Hewitson. 

4. Lnogona Lilcea. (PI. XV. figs. 5, 6.) 

Male. — Upperside dark brown. Anterior wing with a band 
from the base to beyond the middle, a minute spot at the apex, 
two spots below it (one nearly bipartite), a lunular spot (near the 
end of the first band), and a bifid band between it and the inner 
margin, all rufous-orange. Posterior wing with a spot before the 
middle and two spots on the ventral fold rufous. 

Underside ochreous-yellovv, clouded with rufous-brown. Both 
wings crossed beyond the middle by a common rufous band. 
Posterior wing crossed near the base by a band of brown ; tinted 
with lilac from the middle to the anal angle. 

Exp. l-j-^5 inch. 

Hab. East India. 

In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

5. Gonepteryx Gobrias. (PI. XVI. fig. 1.) 

Male. — Upperside bright yellow. Anterior wing with a large 
square apical black spot ; the outer margin with triangular black 
spots ; a spot at the end of the cell and a transverse band beyond 



New Species of Diurnal Lepidoptera. 247 

the middle (commencing at the black apical spot) orange. Pos- 
terior wing with a narrow margin of black, the fringe carmine. 

Underside pale yellow, the apical spot of the anterior wing 
rufous, tinted with lilac ; the base of the costal margin carmine ; 
the spot at the end of the cell more distinct : the transverse band 
more distinct, continued half across the posterior wing. 

Female. — Nearly white. 

Exp. 2/5 inch. 

Hab. Borneo. 

In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

Very closely allied to G. Verhueliii, from which it differs in 
wanting the acuminated apex of the anterior wing, and having 
the outer margin of the posterior wing black. G. L'lcorias of 
Doubleday does not differ from G. Verhueliii. 



6. Eteona Eupolis. (PI. XVI. fig. 2.) 

Upperside dark brown. Anterior wing with a large spot within 
the cell, a second spot from the base parallel to the costal margin, 
and a third spot between two of the median nervules, rufous-orange ; 
a transverse band beyond the middle, with a minute spot beyond 
and near it, yellow. Posterior wing from the base to the middle 
rufous-yellow, rufous beyond the middle ; the nervures and a 
broad outer margin dark brown. 

Underside. Anterior wing as above, except that the apex is 
rufous, striated with black. Posterior wing rufous, with some pale 
yellow oblong spots near the costal margin ; striated throughout 
longitudinally with dark brown, and between these striae towards 
the outer margin by lines of lilac-white. 

Exp. 2| inch. 

Hab. Rio Janeiro. 

In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

One species only of this genus has been hitherto described. 
It was originally placed by Boisduval with the Pieridce in the 
genus Euterpe ; Mr. Westwood ranged it with the Nymphatidce, 
next before Epicalia ; and Dr. Felder has subsequently removed 
it to the Satyridcc, near to Pronophila, with which genus it pos- 
sesses many characters in common, having the inflated costal 
nervure of the Satyridce. 

This species is in the Museum at Vienna accompanied by a 
MS. name of KoUar's, but I am sorry to say that I do not 
remember it. 

T 2 



'248 Mr. W. C. Hewitson's Descriptions of 

7. Eueides Eurysaces. (PI. XVI. fig. 3.) 

Female. — Upperside dark brown. Anterior wing with two 
transverse bands and a large trifid spot of transparent grey-white, 
(except near the base, which is yellow) ; a submarginal band of 
white spots most distinctly marked near the apex. Posterior 
wing with a broad, central, semi-transparent, transverse band of 
yellow (near the base) and grey; the nervures black: a white spot 
at the apex and a submarginal band of very indistinct white s-pots. 

Underside as above, except that it is paler and that the sub- 
marginal white spots are more distinct and in pairs. 

Exp. 2^''g inch. 

Hab. Quito. 

In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

Differs from all the other species of this genus by its transparent 
wings. 

8. Dlrcenna DercijUidas. (PI. XVI. fig. 4.) 

Female. — Upperside dark brown. Anterior wing crossed by 
three bands of transparent white: the first bifid, commencing at the 
base and ending near the anal angle; the second beyond the middle 
hexafid; the third near the apex of two spots, the upper spot trifid. 
Posterior wing with the basal half, a small spot at the apex, and a 
submarginal macular band, transparent white. 

Underside as above, except that the dark brown of the upper- 
side is ru!bus, that the anterior wing has some indistinct grey 
spots near the apex and between the first and second transverse 
bands, and that the posterior wing has the base of the costal 
margin and three oblong spots, near it beyond its middle, grey. 

Exp. %-^Q inch. 

Hab. New Granada. 

In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

Very interesting from its general resemblance to Coelenis Dido. 

9. Lnsiommata Lasus. (PI. XVI. fig. 5.) 

Male. — Upperside dark brown. Anterior wing with three 
short equidistant bands and a large trifid spot of pale rufous- 
yellow ; beyond these three black eye-like spots dotted with white 
and an indistinct submarginal rufous band. Posterior wing with 
a large spot near the costal margin, a large spot towards the anal 
angle marked by a black ocellus, and two small spots near the 
outer margin, all rufous. 

Underside as above, except that it is paler, that the posterior 



New Species of Diurrial Lepidoptera. 249 

wing is undulated throughout with rufous-brown, and that it has 
two or three very minute eye-like spots, the ocellus of the upper- 
side being scarcely visible. 

Exp. 1 g inch. 

Hab. Australia, particular locality unknown. 

In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

Near L. Lalhoniella of Westwood, 

10. Las'wmmata Leprea. (PI. XVI. figs. 6, 7.) 

Male. — Upperside dark brown. Anterior wing with the basal 
half yellow, irrorated at the base with brown, marked in the cell 
by a black spot, crossed beyond the middle by a band of yellow. 
Posterior wing crossed at the middle by a curved band of yellow; 
the margins of both wings spotted with white. 

Underside. Both wings with the outer margins pale yellow 
with black spots, and above them conical spots of silvery white. 
Anterior wing as nbove (except the outer margin as just described). 
Posterior wing with the basal half silvery white : the base itself 
dark brown, followed before the middle by two spots and an 
angular curved band of dark brown, and beyond the middle by 
six blind black ocelli bordered with yellow. 

Exp. 1 g inch. 

Hab. Australia, particular locality unknown. 

In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 



( 251 ) 



X. Further Descriptions of new Genera and Species of 
Phytophaga. By J, S. Baly. 

[Read 3rd October, 1864.] 

Fam. HISPID^. 
Genus Charistena. 
Corpus elongatum, angustatiim, ssepe filiforme, parallelurn, siib- 
cylindricum. Caput inter oculos non productum, obtnsum ; 
anlenn'is subfiliformibiis, inter partem infieriorem oculorum 
insertis, 1 1-articulatis, articiilis distinctis, qninqne ultimis 
clavam gracilem sed distinctam formantibus ; epistomale brevi, 
basi elevata. Thorax subcylindricus, laterihns si!l)rectis 
aut leviter rotiindatis. Scutellum truncatiuT). Elytra thorace 
pauUo latiora, elongata aut siibelongata, lateribus rectis, 
parallelis, rarius rainute seriatis, apice rotiindatis, semper 
serratis, angulis posticis obsoletis; supra convexa aut snb- 
cylindrica, utraque tricostata, interspaliis profunde bifariam 
punctatis. Pedes mediocres, modice robust! ; tihi'is intermediis 
curvatis, apice in dentem brevem acutum introrsum productis ; 
tarsorum articulo basali duobus sequentibus angustiori ; 
unguiculis contiguis. 
Type Charistena rvficoUis, Fab. 

This genus is nearly allied to Odontota ; its slender form, blunt 
bead, distinct joints of antennae, and curved intermediate tibiae, 
are characters which taken conjointly will easily separate it from 
that genus. 

Sp. 1. Charistena riifcollis, Fabr. 
Syst. El. ii. 63 ; Oliv. Entom. vi. 778, pi. ii. fig. 34. 
Hab. Cayenne; Bahia. 
Var. A. Elytris utrisque linea longitudinali, postice abbreviate, 

fulva. 
Collections of Rev. H. Clark, A. Fry, W. W. Saunders, and 
my own cabinet. 

This species is nearest, both in coloration and form, to Ck. 
Jriadne. In the present insect the base of the thorax is con- 
colorous with the disc, the general surface is also more coarsely 
punctured ; the elytra are less cylindrical, being somewhat 
flattened above, and their costae more distinctly elevated ; their 
apical margin is also more distinctly serrate. The much smaller size 



252 Mr. J. S. Baly's Further Descriptions of 

and entirely different colour will distinguish it from Ch. hasalis, 
its narrower form from Cli. Lecontii, the different colour and form 
of thorax from Ch. nigrita, and its much narrower and more elon- 
gated shape from Ch. P'datei and all the other species in the 
present paper. 

Sp, 2. Charistena nigrita, Oliv. 
Entom. vi. 778, pi. ii. fig. 35. 

Hab. Carolina. 

In my own Collection and that of the Rev. H. Clark, to whom 
1 am indebted for a specimen. 

Thorax distinctly longer than broad, sides slightly rounded, 
narrowed in front ; surface very closely covered with large deep 
punctures, almost rugose ; base of thorax indistinctly depressed 
transversely, but without any trace of sulcation ; apex of elytra 
minutely serrate. 

The entirely black colour, together with the shape of the thorax, 
at once separates this insect from its congeners. 

Sp. 3. Charistena Ariadne, Newra. 
The Entom. i. 77. 
" Nigra, prothorace tantum rubro : prothorax profunde punc- 
tus ; utrumque elytron 3-carinatum, marginibus quoque 
elevatis ; interspatiis seriebus 2 punctorum profundorum im- 
impressis. Insectum longum (corp. long. '175 unc, lat. '05 
unc.)" 
Hab. United States of North America. 

Mr. Newman has omitted to mention the black apical and basal 
margins of the thorax, which are very marked in the present 
species. 1 venture to correct his description, having one of his 
typical specimens in my own possession. I have reproduced his 
description entire from the " Entomologist," the latter being a book 
seldom to be met with. 

As stated under Ch. ruficollis, the more cylindrical body and 
coarsely punctured thorax will distinguish Ch. Ariadne from its 
allies. 

Collections of British Museum, Rev. H. Clark, and my own. 

Sp. 4. Charistena Lecontii. 
Elongata, tenuis, angustata, subcylindrica, dorso subdepressa, 
nigra, nitida ; thorace transverso, lateribus rotundatis, ad 
apicem vix angustatis, dorso crebre profunde punctato, basi 



New Genera and Species of Phytophaga. 253 

transversim sulcato, disci medio vitta elevatd instructo, rufo- 
fulvo, apice basique medio nigris ; elytris apice minute 
serratis, lateribus minus rectis. 
Long. 2\ lin. 
Hab. North America. 

Its larger size, broader and less cylindrical form, together with 
the transverse thorax, will distinguish this species from Ch. Ariadne, 
the other North American species with which it may be confounded; 
the two strongly resemble each other in colour. 
Collection of Rev. H. Clark, and my own. 

Sp. 5. Charistena basalts. 
Elongata, filiformis, subcylindrica, nigra, nitida ; thorace con- 
vexo, fulvo, basi transversim impresso, crebre profunde 
punctato, vitta centrali obsolete elevatd, impunctatd ; elytris 
elongatis, parallelis, apice diotincte serratis, cyaneis, utrisque 
plaga basali parva fulva. 
Long. S\ lin. 

Hab. Amazons. Collected by Mr. H. W. Bates. 
Entirely similar in form to Ch. ruJicoUis, quite three times its 
size, its thorax rather longer and more convex ; the apex of the 
elytra is however siibacutely rounded. 

Collection of H. W. Bates, also in my own cabinet. 

Sp. C. Charistena Deyrollei. 
Elongata, subcylindrica, dorso subdepressa, nigra, nitida ; ely- 
tris nigro-cseruleis ; thorace, femorum anticorum basi, elytro- 
rumque vitta lata laterali, vix pone medium abbreviata, pal- 
lide fulvis; thorace sat convexo, basi transversim depresso, 
profunde punctato. 
Long. 9,\ lin. 

Hab. Upper Amazons, Columbia. 

Elytra parallel, their apex finely but irregularly toothed. 
I have named this pretty species after my friend M. H. Dey- 
rolle of Paris, who is making a special study of the Phytophaga. 

Collections of H. Deyrolle, H. W. Bates, A. Fry, and my own 
cabinet. 

Sp. 7. Charistena bellula. 
Minus elongata, minus parallela, nigra, nitida ; facie inferior! 
femorumque basi obscure fulvis ; thorace vix transverso, 
laete rufo-fulvo, profunde sed subremote punctato, convexo, 



254 Mr. J. S. Baly's Further Descriptions oj 

basi traiTsversim depresso ; elytris cyaneis, dorso depressis, 
apice minute serratis. 
Long. If — 2 lin. 
Hab. Bogota. 

Much shorter and proportionately broader than Cli. rujicoUis, sides 
of elytra less straight than in that species ; thorax as deeply but 
less closely punctured on the sides, depression at the base less 
deeply marked. 

Collections of H. Deyrolle, Rev. H. Clark, and my own. 

Sp. 8. Charistena eleganlula. 

Minus elongata, angustata, subcylindrica, dorso subdepressa, 
rufo-fulva, nitida ; corpore infra pedibusque nigro-variegatis ; 
oculis antennisque nigris ; thorace latitudine vix longiori, 
lateribus fere rectis, ad apicem leniter angustatis ; dorso sub- 
cylindrico, profunde subremote punctato, spatio longitudinali 
centrali impunctato, basi traiisversim sulcata ; elytris nigro- 
cyaneis, apice minute serraiis, utrisque puncto apicali, prope 
suturam posito, fulvo. 

Long. \^ lin. 

Hab. New Granada. 

The different form of thorax, together with the different colo- 
ration, will separate this lovely species from Ch. bellula. 

Cabinet of Rev. H. Clark, also in my own Collection. 

Sp. 9. Charistena Pilatei. 

Minus elongata, parallela, subcylindrica, nigra, nitida ; thorace 
fulvo, apice piceo-marginato, dorso subgloboso, basi trans- 
versim sulcato, lateribus subremote disco remote punctato ; 
elytris cyaneis, parallelis, apice minute serratis, utrisque vitta 
fulva a basi apicem versus plus minusve extensa, insiructis. 

Long. 2 lin. 

Hab. Teapa. Collected by the late M. Pilate. 

Rather longer, stouter and more parallel than Ch. belluln, to 
which species it is most nearly allied. Elytra parallel, their apex 
broadly rounded. The fulvous stripe on each elytron varies 
greatly in length, and occasionally is nearly obsolete ; the piceous 
apical border of the thorax is also sometimes very much narrowed 
and indistinct. 

In the cal)inet of the Rev. H. Clark, also in my own Col- 
lection. 



New Genera and Species of Phytophnga. 255 

Sp. 10. Chat Islam trillneata. * 

Subelongata, angustata, subcylindrica, dorso subdepressa, rufo- 
fulva, nitida ; antennis (basi excepta) scutelloque nigris ; 
elytrorum vitta suturali, alterdque laterab', hac ante apicem 
abbreviata, obscure cyaneis ; vertice, thoracis lateribus an- 
guste, tibiarum apice tarsisque piceis ; thorace rude punc- 
tato, basi non transversim depresso, disci medio obsolete 
longitiidinaliter sulcato. 

Long. 1| lin. 

Hab. Yucatan. 

Thorax transversely convex, its sides parallel, slightly rounded ; 
elytra depressed along the suture, lateral and apical edges 
minutely but not closely serrate ; apex of abdomen obscure 
fuscous. 

The more depressed form both of thorax and elytra will serve 
to separate this species from Ch. Pilatei. 

Collection of Rev. H. Clark, and my own. 

Genus Metaxycera. 

Corpus obcuneiforme, dorso depressum. Caput inter oculos 
vix productum ; ante7\nis 11-articulaiis, rigidis, subfusiformi- 
bus, apice acutis, modice robustis, corporis dimidio brevi- 
oribus, articulis cylindricis, duobus basalibus brevibus, primo 
pauUo incrassato, tertio modice elongato ; ocidis vix promi- 
nulis ; mento oblongo, lateribus medio sinuatis. Thorax 
transversus ; lateribus pone medium fere rectis, antice angus- 
tatis, sinuatis ; angulo antico acuto, ssepe dente parvo armato ; 
dorso modice transversim convexo ; basi transversim depressa. 
Scutellum truncatum. Elytra thorace latiora, a basi ad 
apicem ampliata ; apice obtuso aut rotundato, angulis pos- 
ticis obtusis aut rotundatis ; anguste marginata, margine 
serrato ; dorso depressa, utraque quadricostata, costa tertia 
minus disiincta, interspatiis profunde bifariam punctatis. 
Pedes mediocres, modice robusti ; tarsorum articulo basali 
parvo ; unguiculis contiguis. Abdomen sutura inter segmenta 
duo basalia ventris distincta. 
Type Metaxycera purpurata, Guer. 

This genus is (like the last) nearly allied to Odontota ; but 
although much more different in habit, it is more difficult to find 
good differential characters. It may, however, be separated by 
the slight prominence of the head in front, by the subfusiform 
cylindrical 11 -jointed antennae, and the distinct sutural line be- 



256 Mr. J. S. Baly's Further Descriptions of 

tween the two basal segments of the ventral surface of the abdo- 
men ; this line is usually obsolete or only indistinct in Odontota. 



Sp. 1. Metaxy cera purjjurata, Guer. 
Icon, du Regne Animal, Texte, p. 270. 
Hab. Brazil. 

This beautiful species is the most common of the genus, and 
found in most collections ; it is broader than any of the others, 
with the exception of M. rubroguttata, which insect approaches it 
very closely in form, but is less flattened above, 

Sp. 2. Meiaxycera rubroguttata. 
Obcuneiformis, dorso depressa, late rufo-testacea, subnitida; 
vertice postice, thoracisque plaga magna discoidali nigro- 
piceis ; antennis elytrisque nigris, his a basi ad apicem perpa- 
rum ampliatis, apice rotundatis, utrisque margine humerali 
pustulisque quinque, harum tribus prope suturam, prima 
infra basim, secunda prope medium, tertiaque apicem versus, 
duabusque intra marginem exteriorem, prima infra humerum, 
secunda prope angulum posticum positis, rufo-testaceis. 
Long. 5 lin. 
Hab. Amazons. 

The four hinder spots on each elytron are confluent in pairs, 
and form two oblique fasciae on the disc ; thorax transverse, sides 
nearly straight and parallel bthind, obliquely narrowed in front ; 
upper surface irregularly excavated, opaque, irregularly but not 
closely punctured, middle of disc with an indistinct longitudinal 
groove ; scutellum black, its apex rufous. 

This species closely resembles in form M. purpurata, Guer. ; it 
is, however, less depressed, less coarsely punctured, more regu- 
larly rounded both at the hinder angles and apex, and the arrange- 
ment of the spots on the elytra is different. 
Unique in my own Collection. 

Sp. 3. Metaxycera trimaculata, Oliv. 
(Hispa), Entom. vi. 761, pi. i. fig. 5. 
Hab. Cayenne. 

Olivier describes this species as having a black scutellum ; it 
varies, however, greatly in this respect, some specimens having 
the scutellum more or less stained with rufous, others entirely red. 
Collection of Rev. H. Clark, and my own. 



New Genera and Species of Phytophaga. 257 

Sp. 4. Melaxycera Amazona. 

Anguste obcuneiformis, dorso depressa, rufo-testacea, nitida, 
supra subnitida ; antennis, vertice, thoracisque lateribus nigris; 
elytiis obscure nigro-aeneis, apice obtusis, utrisque vitta lata 
discoidali, a basi ad paullo pone medium extensa, plerumque 
apice extrorsuin ampliata, fasciaque lata pone medium, ex- 
trorsum abbreviata, postice rectc truncata aut concava, antice 
convexa, rufo-testaceis. 

Var. A. Vertice thoracisque lateribus rufis ; elytris nigris, ut in 
typo maculatis. 

Long. 4 lin. 

Hab. Amazons. Collected by Mr. H. W, Bates, 

Sides of thorax straight and parallel behind the middle, obliquely 
converging from the middle to the apex, and forming an obtuse 
angle with the hinder half; surface coarsely punctured, punctures 
crowded on the sides, more distant on the disc, the latter impressed 
with a broad longitudinal groove, which terminates behind at a 
transverse depression in front of the basal margin. 

This species is very closely allied to M. trimaculata, Oliv. It may 
be, however, distinguished from that insect by the following cha- 
racters : in M. Aiuazuna the thorax is broader and more distinctly 
angled on the sides, the longitudinal groove on its upper surface 
being broader and very deeply impressed ; the scutellum is always 
red ; the elytra are rather less coarsely punctured and more opaque, 
the costae being also somewhat narrower ; the transverse rufous 
patch is placed at a greater distance from the apex of the elytra, 
is broader, and has its front edge strongly rounded, its hinder 
border being either truncate or slightly concave. In M. tri- 
maculata the antennae are rather more robust ; the thorax is 
narrower (in some specimens almost conic), less distinctly angled 
on the sides, the ujjper surface less flattened, the longitudinal 
groove, although visible, being also much narrower and less deeply 
impressed ; the scutellum is usually black, rarely wholly or in 
part rufous; the elytra are more coarsely punctured, the costae 
being broader and more nitidous ; the longitudinal rufous vitta is 
narrower, its hinder half not dilated towards the outer margin; it 
is also usually interrupted in the middle to form two linear patches; 
the subapical transverse patch is narrow, and placed much nearer 
the apex of the elytra, its anterior border, instead of being rounded, 
is nearly straight and bisinuate, and its hinder margin is either 
straight or very slightly convex. 

Collection of Mr. Bates, and my own. 



258 Mr. J. S. Baly's Further Descriptions, Sj^c. 

Sp. 5. Metaxyccra sexpiistulata. 
Anguste obcuneiformis, dorso depressa, rufo-testacea, nitida, 
supra subnitida; antennis elytrisque nigris, his subparallelis, 
apicem versus leniter ampliatis, apice rotundatis, utrisque 
pustidis tribus, una basali oblonga obliqua, secund4 prope 
medium subquadrata, tertiaque ante apicem, transversa, 
communi, fasciam transversam postice bisemarginatam for- 
mante, rufo-testaceis ; unguiculis piceis. 
Long. 3| — 4| lin. 
Hab. Upper Amazons. 

Thorax opaque, irregularly depressed and excavated, middle of 
disc with an indistinct longitudinal groove, transverse impression 
in front of base well marked, surface coarsely but not very closely 
piinctured, sides of thorax nearly straight and produced obliquely 
outwards behind the middle, thence obliquely narrowed to the 
apex. 

The rounded apex of the elytra separates this species from 
M. triniaculata and Amazona, the only insects with which it can 
be confounded. 

Collection of Mr. Bates, and my own. 



( 259 ) 



XI. Notes on the Genus Scliematiza (Phytophaga, Galle- 
rucidae), with Descriptions of New Species. By the 
Rev. Hamlet Clark, M.A., F.L.S., V.-P. Ent. Soc. 

[Read September 5th, 1864.] 

The South American genus Scliematiza contains within it 
species that vary considerably among each other in form and 
sculpture. Some (and these the most striking in size and beauty) 
have deeply costate elytra ; others have their elytra perfectly 
plain : some are broadly dilated towards their apex ; others have 
the sides of their elytra parallel. The species are for the most 
part coloured with irregular flavous bands, and may be at once 
separated from other Galleruc'tda; by their sufficiently short and 
broadly dilated antennae : this dilatation is not irregular or con- 
fined to one or two articulations, but gradually progressive from 
the first and also from the apical joints towards the middle. In 
form the species are more or less elongate and depressed ; not 
subcylindrical, as in Ad'imon'm and Galleruca. The following 
diagnosis will suffice to point out the limits of the genus. 

SCHEMATIZA (Chev.) 

Corporis forma vel oblongo-ovalis (versus apicem plus minus 
dilatata), vel parallela; depressa, pube tenuissima satis vestita. 
Palpi maxillares articulo ultimo dilatato, et ad apicem acu- 
minato, plerumque ut in genere Adimonia. Antennce robust^; 
in quibusdam speciebus versus apicem subproductaa, sed 
semper ad medium dilatatse ; hac dilatatione ab articulo basali 
etiamque ab 11™" vel 10"° sensim et paulatim aucta ; articuli 
compressi aliquando, et aliquando subcyhndrici ; art. 3*'"* 
longitudine primum (ad apicem dilatatum) superat. Caput 
penitus verticale, vix porrectum. Thorax transversus, 
depressus, plerumque marginibus subelevatis, ita ut discus 
totus excavatus videtur. Elytra plerumque costata (costis 
latis etiamque profundis, sed baud apicem attingentibus), 
aliquando autem plana et sublaevigata. Pedes robusti, 
unguiculi vel appcndiculati (ut in S. Lycoides) vel undique 
bifidi, ita ut quadri-unguiculatae species apparent (ut in 
S, Hispiformi, et presertim in S.Jlavofasciatd). 



260 Rev. H, Clark's Notes on the 

§ A. Species elytris apice rotundatis. 

a. Elytris costatis. [Sp. 1 — 10c] 

b. Elytris planis. [Sp. II — 14.] 

§ B. Species elytris apice emarginatis. [Sp. 15, 16.] 
In order that I might be supplied with as much material as 
possible in my examination of the genus, my friend Mr. Baly has 
liberally placed in my hands the whole of the species in his 
collection. I have not, however, accepted his kind suggestion that 
I should describe the uniques which that collection contains ; it is 
better that these should be left to be described by himself at some 
future day, for this simple reason, which I deem to be not only 
important but of general application: — such is the multiplication of 
species that are becoming known to us, and such therefore the 
difficulty of accurately describing them, that typical specimens, on 
which descriptions are based, become of greater importance than 
ever ; and hence I venture to believe that every worker will 
specially desire to have always within his reach the materials on 
which his own work has been based ; in the case of monographs 
this difficulty must of course be accepted as unavoidable; it seems, 
however, to my mind that it is better to avoid it when possible. 

It will be seen that 1 have omitted to notice certain manuscript 
names in Dejean's Catalogue : I have done so with regret, but 
I can ascertain nothing with certainty respecting them. 

§ A. Species elytris apice rotundatis. 
a. Elytris costatis. 

1. S. Lycoides, Guer. (Cuv. Rcgne Anim. Ins. p. 303.) 
Oblongo-ovalis, ad apicem rotundata, depressa, costata, sub- 
tiliter et crebre variolata, flava, nigro-notata: caput variolatum, 
nigrum ; thorax transversus (ad apicem modice excavatus, 
lateribus antice rotundatis et basi transversa) depressus, et 
ad margines late sed hand profunde exfossus; quoad colorem 
latera late flava sunt, discus medius nigrescit ; scutellum tri- 
angulare, nigrum ; eli/tra modice post medium ampliora 
costas quinque continent, una suturalis et communis, altera 
marginalis, tres quoque intervallo sequali mediae baud apicem 
attinent ; costae exstantes, sed praecipue sublateralis pro- 
ininens versus humeros exstat ; quoad colorem elytra flava 
sunt, vitta abbreviata apud scutellum et apice late nigris ; 
vitta abbreviata inter suturam et costam S*^*"" longitudine 
elytri dimidium baud sequat; apex quoque quoad partem 



Genus Schematiza. 261 

tertiam elytroruni nigrescit ; antenncje satis elongatse et latae, 
nigiae ; ita quoque pedes et corpus inferius. 

Long. Corp. lin. 6 — 5| ; lat. lin. 3 — 2|. 

It is probable that *!>'. Lycoides is subject to some variation of 
pattern in the anterior part of the elytra : in one of the examples 
before me there is a trace of dark colouring between the Snd and 3rd 
costae, and also again near the margination; even, however, should 
the anterior part be in any examples entirely dark, the difference 
of tlie form of the elytra, which are more parallel, or rather less 
broadly rounded behind the middle, will abundantly separate this 
from the following species. 

In the Collections of Mr. Baly and the Rev. FI. Clark. The 
insect is taken in Brazil. 

2. S. ampUcornis, n. sp. 
Lata, undique quinque-costata, subtiliter granulata, nigra, fascia 
flavd media: ca/jm^ subtiliter granulatum, nigrum ; thorax de- 
pressus, late transversus, antice modice excavatus, ad latcra 
rotundatus, et apicem versus contractus; margo basalis trans- 
versus est; apud latera thorax longitudinaliter late et baud 
profunde excavatur, hsec fovea undique flava est, disco medio 
corrugato et nigro ; scutellum triangulare est, colore nigrum; 
elytra versus medium rotundato-ampliata, ad apicem rotundata 
(vix dehiscentia), depressa et apud apicem declivia, ad hurae- 
ros thorace paululum latiora, gradatim ad post medium ampli- 
antnr ; in utroqiie elytro costae quinque apparent, una com- 
munis suturalis, unamarginalis, tresque aliaa mediae intervallis 
aequis, his baud apicem attingenlibus, sed costis 2 et 3 juxta 
apicem sese attingentibus ; marginatio undique ad apicem lat^ 
ampliatur ; quoad faciem elytra leviter et saepissime punctis 
confer tisornantur (pimctis baud profundisetinordinatis), quoad 
colorem nigrescunt, humeris anguste flavis, fasciaque media 
lata transversa flava ; hujus fasciae margines anterior et pos- 
terior inaequales in intervallis singulis costarum subcirculares 
deflectuntur; antenna; robust^ sunt et nigral, articulis ad 
medium antennarum valde ampliatis ; pedes et corpus infra 
nigrescunt. 
Long. corp. lin. 6 ; lat. lin. 3^. 

5. ampUcornis differs from S. Lycoides in being broader and 
less parallel as well as different in coloration ; its much larger 
size will distinguish it from all other species of the genus before 
me. I have a single specimen from the Chevrolat Collection, re- 
ceived by M. Chevrolat from Brazil. 

VOL. II. THIRD SERIES, PART III. NOV, 1864. U 



262 Rev. H. Clark's Notes on the 

3. S. v'lcina, n. sp. 

Oblongo-ovalis, apice rotundata, elytris paiilum dehiscentibus, 
flava, nigro-niaculata : caput nigrum; thorax transversus, 
lateribus rotundatis sed baud ad apicem coarctis, margine 
antico pauiiun excavato, basi transversa, angidis posticis 
subrotundatis, sculptura ut in speciebus praecedentibus ; 
scutellum siibcordatum, nigrum ; elytra ad humeros thorace 
sublatiora, et deinde gradatim ampliora ; a basi ad apicis 
regionem sunt sulci q\iatuor profundi lati, interstitiis rotun- 
datis ; borum externus profundissimus est post humeros, su- 
turaliset 2"^"* sequales, paralleli, tertius (minor subobsoletus) 
inter 2"™ et marginalem vix apparet ; quoad colorem, elytra 
flava (pube densa et tenui flava vestita), vitta abbreviata 
ad suturam et basi late nigris ; vitta abbreviata a sutura usque 
ad sulcum primum minus quam elytrorum dimidium occupat ; 
apex quoque late niger est ; antennce incrassatee, nigrae ; pedes 
coi'pusque subtus quoque nigri. 

Long. Corp. lin. 4| ; lat. lin. 2. 

S. v'lcina differs entirely from the preceding species by the 
sculpture of the elytra, although the mere patterns are in some 
degree similar ; instead of sharply defined and narrow ridges we 
have here rather longitudinal depressions, the intervals being 
rounded ofi^; the flavous coloration of the insect is formed by very 
close and fine pubescence; the sutural marking of the elytra 
between the suture and the first channel extends nearly half-way 
to the apex, the medial termination of it being not abruptly 
transverse, but pointed; between this marking and the shoidders 
there are traces of otlier markings also, suggesting the possibility 
of the vshole anterior part of the elytra being fuscous: the apical 
marking broadly extends from the margination to the suture, its 
upper margin being obliquely circular ; the boundary line at the 
suture is at the distance of one-fifth of the whole elytra, and from 
that point extends in a generally semicircular direction till it 
reaches the margination at about the same distance from the apex. 
The form also (as well as the sculpture, and to some degree the 
pattern) of 6'. vlcina differs from that of the preceding species; it 
is (being a much smaller insect) more parallel, more attenuate; 
the sides of the elytra being manifestly more rounded. 

I have a single specimen from La Ferte's Collection, received 
from Brazil ; in the Collection also of Mr. Ealy. 



Genus Schematiza. 263 

4. S. cequinocilaUs, n. sp. 

Oblongo-ovalis, subparallela, leviter canaliculata, flava, nigro- 
ornata : cajmt nigrum apparet, labro etiamque in fronte 
macula insulata flavis ; ad frontem fovea est media obsoleta, 
a basi usque ad antennarum basin ; thorax transversus est, 
latitudine (ad medium) vix duplo longitudine majori ; apex 
modice excavatus est, basis transversa, iatera rotundata et 
baud apicem versus constricta; sculptuia ut in specie pracce- 
denti ; undique late depressus (ad medium fovea longitu- 
dinalis apparet) ; quoad colorem niger, lateribus undique 
late etiamque vitta media flavis; scutellum rotundato-friangu- 
lare, pube densa flava vestitum ; elytra subparallela, tliorace 
pauluium latiora, apice rotundata (elytrorum apicibus vix 
debiscentibus) ; juxta suturam carina baud apicem attingens 
patet, et altera a humeris vix ad medium extendit ; quoad 
colorem fascia media nigra (ad basin vitta communi nigra 
juncta) etiamque apex late niger elytra flava ornant; an- 
iennce robustae, nigrae ; pedes nigri, femorum basibus fusco- 
adumbratis ; abdumen corpusc\\\e subtus nigra. 
Long. Corp. lin. 4; lat. lin. Ij. 

Tbis beautiful species is allied to S. vic'ina, but is readily 
separated from it by its different sculpture, as well as by its 
pattern of colours. I have a single specimen in my Collection 
received from Columbia. 

5, S. vemisfa, n. sp. 
Oblongo-ovalis, subparallela, leviter costata, nigra, flavo-ornata ; 
caput ad medium foveolatum, nigrum ; thorax transversus, 
latitudine vix duplo longitudinem superans, lateribus ro- 
tundatis, flavus, vittis duabus latis nigris mediis, parallelis ; 
scutellum semicirculare, nigro-fuscum ; elytra subparallela, 
elongata, leviter costata, nigra, fascia media ingequaliter mar- 
ginata, macula ad humeros longitudinali, alteraque apud scu- 
tellum minori, communi, flavis : corpus subtus, pedes et an- 
ienncs nigri. 
Long. Corp. lin. Sj ; lat. lin. 1 §. 

Of the same size and generally of the same pattern as S. cequi- 
noctialis ; it differs however from that species by its less distinctly 
marked costa on the elytra, as well as by the difl^erence of 
details of coloration: the two thoracic vitta2 are broader, the 
humeral flavous markings are much smaller, and the flavous 
fascia of the elytra is medial, and not, as in S. cequinoctialis, post- 

u 2 



264 Rev. H. Clark's Notes on the 

medial ; in size also this fascia is narrower and not (juite so 
irregularly wavy in form. 

From the Amazon district; collected by Mr. Bates. 

In the Collections of Mr. Baly and the Rev. H. Clark. 

6. S.frenata, Guer. (Cuv. Rcgne An. Ins. p. 304). 

0!)longo-ovaIis, subparallela, costata, flava, lineis duabus a 
capita ad elytroriim medium fasciaque latd media nigris ; 
caput omnino nigrum ; thorax transversus, lateribus sinuato- 
rotundatis, apice subemarginato, basi transversa, anguli 
antici et praesertim postici rotundantur, ad medium fovea 
obsoleta vix apparet; thorax flavus est, lineis duabus sub- 
mediis et parum obliquis a capite ad basin nigris ; sculellum 
sat magnum, flavum ; elytra thorace latiora, snbparellela, ad 
apicem rotundata (apicibus singulis apud suturam baud de- 
hiscentibus) ; costse duse (versus suturam) alterasque diiae 
penitus obsoletae (versus marginem) apparent ; hse baud 
apicem attingunt ; quoad colorem elytra flava sunt, fascid 
transversd post-media lata lineisque duabus inter costas 
1 et 2 nigris ; antennce, 'pedes corpus(\\\e subtus nigri. 
Long. coip. lin. 43 — 3^ ; lat. lin. 2^ — 1|. 

I can trace no tendency to variation among the three specimens 
before me ; the medial, or rather somewhat post-medial fascia is 
on its upper margin transverse, on its lower arcuate, being much 
broader at the suture than at the margination (both boundary 
lines being interrupted by the different costse, and irregular) ; the 
breadth of the fascia at tbe suture is about one-tliird of the whole 
length of the elytra. 

The species is found in Colunribia. 

In the Collections of Mr. W. Wilson Saunders and the Rev. 
H. Clark. 

Schemnt'iza dimidiata, Guer. (Cuv. Regne An. Ins. p. 303), 

Is described by Guerin as from Dory, New Guinea, and placed 
by him next to S. frenala. I do not recognise the description, 
but whatever the species may be, it can hardly belong to the 
genus before us, which is exclusively South American. 

7. S.Jlavflfoscintd, Guer. (Cuv. Regne An. Ins. p. 304), 

Ovalis, subparallela, leviter costata, nigra, thoracis lateribus et 
elytrorum vitta media flavis : caput nigrum : thorax trans- 
versus, depressus, latera subrotundata apicem versus paulum 



Genus Schematlza. 265 

coarctnntur; margines anterior et posterior ambo recti et 
transversi sunt; ad latera undique late depressio fit; thorax 
nii^er est, lateribiis (et interdum linea media obsoleta) 
flavis; scutellum nigrum; c/j/^ra subparaliela, thorace latiora, 
hiuneris sat exstantibus, ad apicem rotundata, et baud ad 
suturam debiscentia ; undique 3 vel 4 sulci apparent, baud 
profundi, interdum obsoleti, baud apicem attingentes ; quoad 
colorem elytra nigra sunt, ad humeros autem macula minuta, 
et ad medium fascia lata transversa, ad margines attiugens, 
flavae sunt ; untennce robustae, nigrse ; pedes et corpus sub- 
tus nigri. 
Long. Corp. lin. 3^; lat. lin, 1|. 

5. Jlavqfusciata differs from S. Imentholl'is (post, p. 266), by its 
much greater breadtb, its broader fascia, and its less distinctly- 
marked costae on tbe elytra, as well as by the markings on the 
thorax ; it is much smaller, and comparatively broader than 6'. 
vidua (ante, p. 26'^). The fascia of tbe elytron is transverse both 
at its superior and inferior margin, not oblique as in S.frenata ; 
the line of margination is, however, not straight, but sinuate, 

A form, which I take to be a variety of this species, is rather 
narrower in breadth, and has tbe humeral marking continued 
broadly to the medial fascia, tbe fascia itself being much more 
irregular in outline ; it may be indeed that this will prove to be a 
separate species. 

I took several specimens of S.Jlavofasc'uUa when at Petroj)olis, 
near Rio Janeiro, with Mr. J. Gray, in February, 1857, and also 
at tbe same place specimens of the variety. 

In the Collections of Mr. Wilson Saunders, Mr. Baly and tbe 
Rev. H. Clark. 

8. S. jJi'c^usta, n. sp. 

Elongata, subparallela, costata, flavo-fulva, elytro singulo ad 
apicem rotundato, apice tenuiter nigro : cflpj/f nigrum; thorax 
modice transversus. depressus, latera sinuato-rotundata, mar- 
gines autem anterior et posterior recti et transversi ; thorax 
undique ad margines late excavatus est ; quoad colorem 
flavo-fulvus, macula media insulari nigro- fusca; scutellum 
flavo-fuscum ; elytra paulum thorace latiora elongata sunt et 
sat parallela; humeri vix exstant ; inter suturam et marginem 
Costa? tres apparent, una media, major, et undique altera 
minor, interdimi obsoleta; bae tres nee apicem attingunt; 
elytra riavo-lulva sunt, apex autem tenuiter fuscns est, ita et 



266 Rev. H. Clark's Notes on the 

basis (obsolete) prope scutellum ; antennts valde incrassatae, 
apicem versus tenuiores, nigrae : corpus subtus pedesf^ue nigri, 
horum femora (ad basin) flavo adumbrantur. 
Long. corp. lin. 3^; lat. lin. 1|. 

More narrow and elongate than its congeners, and, moreover, 
notable by its pale fulvous colour, the apex of the elytra only 
and the medial disc of the thorax alone being black. 

I have two examples of the species before me, which differ in 
no respect from each other ; one from Buenos Ayres, from 
M. Chevrolat, and the other from South Brazil, from M. Reiche's 
Collection. 

9. *S'. lineaiicollis, n. sp. 

Elongate- et sub-ovalis, vix costata, nigra, flavo-ornata ; cajmt 
nigrum, ad apicem rufo-flavum ; thorax transversus, lateribus 
rotundatis et subsinuatis, transverse depressus, flavus, vilta 
undique nigrd, sequali, a margine anteriori usque ad basin 
pertingenti ; scutellum subcirculare, flavum ; clijlra penitus 
])aiallela, versus apicem sublatiora, undique costis duabus 
brevibus obsoletis nee basin nee apicem attingentibus or- 
nata ; nigra, regione scutellari, margine undique ante-medio, 
et fascia lata post-media (versus margines ampliore) flavis ; 
fasciae margines baud recti sed inaequaliter instructi ; antennce 
robustas, nigra? : corpus subtus et pedes omnino nigri. 

Long. Corp. lin, S ; lat. lin. 1^. 

The tliorax of this species resembles that oi S. frenata {rinte, p. 
264); but the elytra abundantly differ. The general pattern is 
the same, but in the species before us there is a flavous fascia on a 
black ground ; in S.frenula the fascia is black and the elytra are 
flavous. 

New Granada. From the Collection of M. La Ferte. 

10. S. nigricollis, n. sp. 

Elongata, paraliela, subcostata, nigra, flavo-maculata : caput ad 
frontem longitudinaliter subfoveolatum, nigrum, labro et parte 
anieriori flavis ; thorax transversus, latera rotundata et vix 
emarginata apparent, depressa tamen et marginata ; quoad 
colorem thorax niger est, lateribus tenuiter flavis; scutellum 
subquadratum, nigrum ; elijtra paraliela, attenuata, apud 
basin usque ad ante medium undique bi-costata, nigra ; plaga 
lata, post-media, transversa, sed irregularis et insequaliter in- 
structa tertiam partem elytrorum occupat ; antennce satis 



Genus Schematiza. 267 

robustae, nigric : corpus siibtus nigrum ; pedes (juoqiie nigri, 
femorum anteriorum basibus flavo-adiinibratis. 
Long. Corp. h'n. i!j ; lat. lin. 1. 

A beautiful little species from New Granada, to be separated 
from all others by its broad ;9os7-medial flavous band, as well as 
by its slender and parallel form, and its two abbreviated and 
slightly raised costae on the elytra. 

From the Collection of M. La Ferte. 

§ A. Species elytris apice rotundatis. 
b. Elytris planis. 
11. S. antennalis, n. sp. 
Elongata, parallela, nigra, flavo-notata : caput nigrum, antice 
infra antennarum basin flavum ; thorax transversus, depre.-,sus, 
lateribus subsinuatis vix rotundatis et versus apicem ap- 
proximantibus, nigro-fuscus, ad latera late flavus ; scutellum 
triangulare ; elytra satis parallela, confertim punctata, fuseo- 
nigra ; apud humeros macula flava marginalis versus apicem 
extendit, alteraque minuta insulata undique apud apicem ; an- 
temiie nigrse, robustae, ad medium incrassatae : corpus subtus 
nigro-fuscum ; pedes nigri, femorum basibus rufo-flavis. 
Long. corp. lin. Sf ; lat. lin. 1^. 

A narrower and more elongate species than S. apkal'is of this 
paper {post, p. 268), and differs also from it in the marginal 
marking of the elytra, and the coloration of the thorax. 

Brazil. 

12. S. annnl'wornis, n. sp. 

Parallela, subdepressa, nigro-fusca, flavo-marginata: caput 
nigrum, ore et labro flavis ; thorax transversus, ad latera 
rotundatus et valde marginatus, nigro-fuscus, lateribus te- 
nuiter flavis; scutellum triangulare, rufo-fuscum; elytra 
parallela, nigro-fusca, undique ad suturam (tenue) etianique 
apud margines flavo-vittata (vittis aequalibus, rectis, et apicem 
attingentibus) : corpus subtus nigrum ; antennce robustae, 
nigro-fuscae, articulo ultimo flavo, etiamque 3, 4 et 5 apud 
bases flavo-annulatis ; pedes nigri, femorum basibus flavis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 3 ; lat. lin. Ig. 

The only species of the genus in which the margins of the 
elytra are distinctly and evenly flavous. 

A single specimen in my Collection, received by i\L Chevrolat 
from Columbia. 



268 Rev. H. Clark's Notes on the 

13. S. sculellaris, n, sp. 
Elongata, parallela, depressa, nigra, flavo-ornata : caput ad 
frontem depressmn, flavum, labro et macula media insulari 
ad basin nigris; i/jorao; transversus, raargine basali ad medium 
emarginato ; latera parallela sunt, vix sinuata vel approxi- 
mantia, sed ad angulos anticos breviter rotundata ; thorax 
undique versus latera longitudinaliter quasi excavatus est ; 
nigro-fuscus, latera late et margo anterior tenue flavescunt ; 
scutellum subcordatum, nigro-fuscum ; elytra parallela, plana, 
nigro-fusca ; fascia lata media et ad humeros (apud margi- 
nes), et versus apicem (sed tenuiter, et vix apicem ipsum 
attingens) sese late extendit ; fascia flava, margo autem 
undique suturalis fiisco adumbratur ; antennce satis robustae, 
nigrse ; pedes et corpus subtus omnino nigri apparent. 
Long. Corp. lin. 3 ; lat. lin. 1. 

S. scvtellaris is not unlike in size and form ^S*. axillaris of 
Guerin (Cuv. R^gne An. 304), from Cayenne ; it will be seen, 
however, to be somewhat more robust ; the thorax also is dif- 
ferent in form, the margins in Guerin's species being sub-con- 
tracted towards the apex, not parallel as in the species before 
us ; the pattern also is obviously different ; any black variety 
of S. sculellaris (should such exist) may, I believe, easily be 
separated by the above differences from the ordinary type of 
S. axillaris. 

A single specimen is in my Collection, received by the Marquis 
La Ferte from Venezuela. 

14. S. apicalis, n. sp. 
Elongata, parallela, sed satis robusta, pube fla\a et sparsa 
vestita, nigro-picea : caput nigrum, labro flavo ; thorax latus, 
ad latera rotundatus, ad discum medium depressus, ita 
ut transverse excavatus appaiet ; rufo-flavus, ad medium 
fusco-niger ; scutellum triangulare, nigrum ; elytra parallela, 
rufo-fusca, crebre punctata, ad latera pube flava rarius 
vestita ; apud apicem undique macula minuta apparet, flava, 
insulata ; antennce robustas, nigrse : corpus subtus nigro- 
fuscum ; pedes rufo-flavi, nigro-adumbrati. 
Long. Corp. lin. Sg ; lat. lin. 1 1^. 

At first sight this species appears to be a $ of S. antennalis 
{ante, p. 267); it is, however, quite distinct, not only in coloration 
(the legs being flavous instead of piceous, the elytra being with- 
out any marginal flavous marking, and the colour of the elytra 



Genus Schematiza. 269 

more tinged with rufous tlian in that species), but also in form ; 
the elytra are manifestly more robust, and more approaching to 
cylindrical ; and the whole insect is shorter and more evenly 
parallel. 

New Granada. From the Collection of M. La Ferte. 

§ B. Species elytris apice emarginatis. 
15. aS*. Hisp'iformis, n. sp. 

Oblonga, depressa, apicem versus dilatata, fortiter costata, flava, 
nigro-ornata : caput breve, foveol4 media et excavatione 
undique ad oculorum margines ; quoad colorem nigrum ; 
thorax transversus, lateribus sinuato-rotundatis (vel ali- 
quando ad medium emarginatis), discus medio longitudi- 
naliter depressus, niger, late undique flavus ; scutellum sub- 
triangulare, nigro-fuscum ; elytra depressa, ad ai)icem latiora, 
apicibus rotundatis, apud suturam baud dehiscentibus, sed ad 
apicem ipsum undique valde rotundato - emarginatis ; costae 
quatuor elytron singulum ornant, duse exstantes magnos 
(juxta suturam et juxta marginem), inter has, et inter exter- 
nani et marginem duee alterse apparent, minores (interdum 
quatuor omnes sequantur) ; inter costas majores vitta irregu- 
laris nigra a basi extendit ad maculam apicalem (hac macula 
magna, et apud latera medium versus sese tendenti); antennce 
robustse, sat elongatas, articulis 3 — 7 ampliatis : corpus subtus 
et pedes nigri. 

Long, corp, lin. 4| ; lat. lin. 2|. 

The peculiar emargination at the extreme apex of the elytra is 
an abundant separation of the species before us from its con- 
geners ; in general form it reminds us at once of an Odontota, as 
is suggested by the excellent MS. name given it by M. Chevrolat, 
and which I preserve. 

The species is found in Brazil. I captured three specimens at 
Petropolis in the Organ Mountains, during my visit there with 
Mr. John Gray, in February, 1857. 

IG. S, emarginata, n. sp. 
Elongata, parallela, rufb-flava, thoracis medio elytrorumque 
basi scutellari et apice nigris : caput nigrum, frons autem ad 
antennarum insertionem rufo-fusca est ; thorax transversus, 
latera sinuato-rotundata vel ad medium emarginata; margines 
anterior et posterior recti, transversi ; thorax per totum 
discum depressus est, marginibus undique elevatis et quasi 



270 Rev. H. Clark's Notes on the Genus Sehematiza. 

sursum inflectis, nigro-fuscus, marginibus anterioribus et 
posterioribus tenuiter, lateralibusque late flavis ; scutellum 
fusciitn ; elytra parallela, sat elongata, costis undique tribus 
elevatis ; hse costae baud ad apicem attingunt ; ad apicem, 
suturam juxta, elytra valde emarginata sunt, ita ut apex ipse 
suturalis quasi mucronatus est ; quoad colorem elytra flava 
vel rufo-flava apparent, sed sutura juxta scutellum apexque 
(late et transverse) nigrescunt : corpus siibtus antenncB(\ne 
nigrae ; pedes etiam nigri, femorum basibus fusco-adunibralis. 

Long, Corp. lin. 3g ; lat. lin. Ig. 

The emargination at the apex of the elytra separates this species 
from all others before me except aS". Hispiformis ; in colour it 
approaches S. prceiistn {ante, p. 265). 

Brazil. In the Collections of Mr. Baly and the Rev. H. Clark. 



( 271 ) 



XII. Descriptions of some new Species of Coleopterous Insects 
belonging to the Eupodous Fhytophaga, Natives of the 
Old World and Australia. By J. O. Westwood, 
M.A., F.L.S., &c. 

[Read 3rd September and 7th November, 1864.] 

The following pages contain descriptions of a number of new 
species of Coleopterous insects, belonging to the sub-families 
Sagrides and Megalopides, interesting for their geographical posi- 
tion. As the Megalopides are almost exclusively natives of the 
New World, the genera Poecilomorpha^ Temnaspis and Leuca^itea 
(to which the major part of the species subsequently described 
belong) may be considered as their Old World representatives. 
The species are generally of varied colours. 

Genus ISIecynodera, Hope. 
Sp. 1. Mecynodera Balyi. 

Picta brevior et pro magnitudine latior ; laete fulva, capite, an- 
tennis, pedibus (basi femorum excepta) et maculis protho- 
racis et elytrorum nigris ; tota glabra, nitida, et fere lasvis ; 
prothorace subquadrato, macula magna discoidali, in qua 
lunula profunda impressa, angulisque anticis nigris; elytris 
macula scutellari, semicirculo nigro (lineam curvatam punc- 
torum valde impressorum includentem), macula subhumerali, 
fascia ultra medium lateraliter profunde punctata, maculis- 
que duabus subapicalibus, nigris ; metasterno intra pedes 
medios valde porrecto. 

Long, fere \ unc. 

Habitat in Nova Hollandia, Hunter's River, D. Horsley, In 
Mus. Hopeiano Oxoniae, olim nostro, Melly, H. Clark, &c. 

Although I have been acquainted with this species more than 
twenty years, and had applied to it the specific name of il/. scuJp- 
lilis, I cordially adopt the name used above proposed for the 
species by the Rev. Hamlet Clark.* 

* [Since tlie first part of this paper was read, a description and figure o( Mecy- 
nodera Balyi have been published by the Rev. H. Clark in the Journ. of Entom. 
ii. 248. — Sec. Ent. Soc] 



272 Prof. Westwood's Descriptions of some 

Genus Ametalla, Hope. 
Sp. 1. A met alia IV- nigra. 

A. Sphiolcs brevior et robustior, et A. stenodera crassior et 
paullo major ; prothorace subcoidato, angiilis posticis extus 
paullo prodiictis ; nigra, siibtus cum pedibus vix grisco- 
sericans, antennis (apice nigris), tibiis tarsisque obscure rufis ; 
facie carina tenui polita inter ociilos ; prothorace punctis 
minutis obsito, medio late at non profunde impresso, rufes- 
centi, disco angulisque anticis nigris ; elytris subconvexis, 
fulvis, macida magna basali irregulaii W simulante, fascia 
irregidari media apicibusque nigris ; fenioribus obscure rufis, 
posticis permagnis, macula magna nigra media notatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 4. 

Habitat in Nova Hollandia, Swan River. In Mus. Hopeiano 
Oxoniae. 

Genus PcECii.oMORPiiA, Hope. 
Sp. 1 . Poecilomorpha IVestermanni, 

Oblonga ; elytris elongatis ; capite porrecto ; antennis brevibus, 
nigro-setosis, articulis Sio et 4to brevibus, 7 ultimis incras- 
satis, serratis, ultimis paullo minoribus ; fulva, aureo-setosa ; 
labro, fascia clypei, linea verticali longitudinal! et per me- 
dium pronoti extensa, antennis, scutello, maculaque apicali 
elytrorum nigris; elytris punctatis ; corpore infra piceo, im- 
punctato, nitido ; metasterno impressione profunda postica ; 
pedibus piceo-nigris, femoribus magis rufescentibus ; coxis 
anticis et basi femorum subtus flavis. 

Long. corp. lin. 5|. 

Habitat in Guinea. In Mus. D. Westermann. 

The elongated elytra (two and half times as long as the broadest 
part of the prothorax), and the rather more attenuated 1 0th and 
1 1 th joints of the antennae, separate this species from the typical 
Pcecilomorphcs. 

Sp. 2. Poecilomorpha Bahjana. 

Nigra, nitida, flavo-varia ; capite nigro, facie macula biloba flava 
nigro-setosa ; clypeo ad basim nigro, apice cum labro flavo ; 
palpis et antennis fulvo-brunneis ; pronoto flavo, crebre punc- 
tato, maculis duabus clavatis disci ad marginem posticum 
conjunctis; scutello, humeris, maculis duabus in medio disci 
alterisque duabus majoribus subapicalibus elytrorum nigris ; 
corpore infra nigro, setis griseis adpressis dense vestito ; 
femoribus piceis (anticis pallidioribus), griseo-setosis ; tibiis 
tarsisque fulvis. 

Long. corn. lin. 4. 



New Species of Eupodous Phytophaga, 273 

Habitat in Africa australi. In Mus. Hopeiano Oxoniae (D. 

Baly (ledit.) 
P. Afrcc, Klug, proxima,at minor, colore pallide flavo, antcnnis 

pedibusque pallidis, setisque nigris in apicibus elytrorum. 

Sp. ,'3. l^oeciloiiiorpha hitcipennis. 

Ohlonga, parallela, nigra, nitida, pilis griseis dense vestita ; 
antennis serrato-pectiiiatis ; elytris pallide albido-luteis piinc- 
tatis ; segmento ultimo abdominis semicirculariter in medio 
impresso ; femoribus posticis crassis ; capitis vertice impresso 
inter oculos ; elytrorum latitudine longitudinem vix duplo 
excedenti. 

Long. Corp. lin. 4. 

Habitat in Sierra Leonnm. In Mus. Britann. et D. Rev. 
Hamlet Clark. 

Sp. 4. Pcec'domorpha Gerstaeckeri. 

Oblonga, subparallela, crehre punctata ; elytris profundius 
punctatis, rufo-fiilva, luteo-setosa, dimidio apicali elytrorum 
fidvo ; mandibulis, articulis 7 ultimis antennarum, maculisque 
duabiis rotundatis in medio elytrorum, metasterni lateribus 
cum pleuris, macula ovali externa femorum posticorum, et 
basi segment! ultimi ventralis (integri) nigris; femoribus 
posticis magnis, subtus pone medium tuberculo brevi conico 
armatis ; tibiis 4 posticis valde curvatis ; metasterno valde 
convexo. 

Long. corp. lin. 4. 

Habitat in Java (D. Goring). In Mus. Reg. Berolinensi. 

Sp. 5. PcecUomorpha Lacordair'd. 

Lata, pronoti lateribus pone medium valde rotundato-productis, 
flavescenti-fulva, glaberrima ; capite et pronoti lateribus parce 
punctulatis et nigro-setulosis ; elytris atris, vage punctatis, 
capitis macula frontali impressa alteraque in medio disci 
pronoti nigris; antennis fuscis, basi fulvis, articulis 7 ultimis 
vix serratis; meso- et meta-sterni lateribus nigris; pedibus ni- 
gris; femoribus 4 anticis basi fulvis, femoribus posticis crassis, 
dcnte subapicali armatis, flavis, extus macula magna basali 
notatis ; tibiis 2 posticis fulvis, apice tarsisque nigris. 

Long. Corp. lin. 5|, 

Habitat Old Calabar. In Mus. DD. Murray ct Baly. 

I have great pleasure in retaining the specific name proposed 



274 Prof. Westvvood's Descriptions of some 

by Mr. Baly for tliis species in honour of one of the most philo- 
sopliical entomologists of this or any previous age, who, in addi- 
tion to great powers of generalization, is endowed with a remark- 
able aptitude for seizing the minute discriminations of species. 

Sp. 6. PcecUnmorpha parvula. 

Subcylindrica ; capita prothoracis latitudine, hujus lateribus in 
medio rotundatis, basi et apice linea impressa constrictis, 
luteo-fulva, nitida, capite et pronoto fere laevibus, supra 
setis liiteis et nigris instructa; elytris vage punctatis; antennis 
nigris, extus latis, serratis, articulis longius nigro-setosis, 
articulo basali fulvo; abdoraine subtus, tibiis tarsisque cum 
apice elytrorum nigris; femoribus posticis mediocriter in- 
crassatis. 

Long. corp. lin. 2|. 

Habitat Old Calabar. In Mus. D. Murray. 

Sp. 7. Pwcilomorp/ia murhia. 

Brevis, prothorace subconico, elytris e basi ad apicem sensim 
attenuatis ; nigra, subopaca, creberrime punctulata, pube- 
scentia brevi olivacea induta, plagis duabus longitudinalibus 
inter oculos alterisque duabus disci pronoti, maculis duabus 
triangularibus submediis ad latera elytrorum, duabusque 
subapicalibus, subnudis reiictis; antennis nigris, articulis 
ultimis latis, serratis ; pedibus et corpora subtus dense pu- 
bescentibus ; femoribus posticis magnis, subtus inermibus; 
tibiis posticis in mare elongatis, curvatis, et in medio infra 
angulatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 4g — 6. 

Habitat Old Calabar. In Mus. D. Murray. 

Var. — Elytris (detritis) obscure piceo-fulvis, margine et apice 
nigris, vel basi tantum rufescente, vel fascia tenui transversa 
pone medium, lutesccnti. 

The males in this species are larger than the females and are 
distinguished by having a slight angulation in the middle of the 
posterior tibiae on the under-side. 

Sp. 8. PcecUomorp/ia Calaharica. 
Parva, cylindrica, obscure fulva; capite et pronoto vix punctu- 
latisjimmaculatis; elytris chalybaeo-nigris, punctatis; antennis 
apice serratis, nigris, articulo basali subtus fulvo; femoribus 



New Species of Eupodous Phytophaga. 275 

fulvis, tibiis tarsisque nigris, fusco-hirtis; corpore subtus fiilvo, 
abdoiDi'ne nigro, apice segmentonim lutescenti. 

Long. coip. lin. 3|. 

Habitat Old Calabar. In Mas. D. Murray. 

This species is very close to the type P. Passerinil, but is con- 
siderably smaller, with black elytra and darker legs. 

Sp. 9. Pcecilomorpha variabilis. 

Subcylindrica ; capite et prothorace Eeque latis et fere ejus- 
dern magnitudinis, sublajvibus ; oculis magnis ; elytris la- 
tioiibus, luuneris rotundatis, fere parallelis, vage punctatis; 
tota luteo-fidva vel fulva, nitida, vix pubescens ; antennis 
nigris, articulis basalibus fulvis, apicalibus sublatis, sub- 
serratis, articulo 4to rninimo ; alis nigris; fenioribus posticis 
vix incrassatis; tibiis curvatis. (Typus, vel P. fulva.) 

Long. Corp. lin. 3|. 

gda varietas (vel P. lutesccns). Tota pallida lutescens, oculis 
paullo majoribus. 

Long. lin. 21—Sl. 

3'* varietas (vel P. basalts). Typo convenit, at elytrorum di- 
midio basali piceo-nigro, in colorem fulvum sensim palles- 
centi. 

4** varietas (vel P. subapicalis). Typo convenit, at elytris 
piceo-nigris, regione scutellari et maculis duabus indistinctis 
subapicalibus fulvis, tibiis tarsisque nigris. 

Long. lin. iiJ. 

Habitat Old Calabar. In Mus. Hopeiano Oxoniae et D. 
Murray. 

After much consideration I feel induced to regard all the above- 
described insects as varieties of one species, their general form and 
punctation being identical. 

Genus Temnaspis, Lacordaire. 
Sp. 1 . Temnaspis arida. 
Rnbusta, prothorace (praesertim postice) capite multo latiori, 
angulis humeralibus elytrorum subacutis ; tota fulva, crebre 
punctata, nitida, setis paucis pallidis vestita ; elytris j)ostice 
valde convexis ; femoribus posticis crassis, piceo-castaneis, 
subtus magis rufis ; corpore infra luteo-fulvo, metasterno 
obscuriori (magis castaneo), tuberculis duobus sat promi- 



276 Prof. Westwood's Descriptions of some 

nentibus ; abdomine piceo-nigro, basi (inter trochanteres 

posticos) pallide lutea. 
Long. Corp. lin. 5\, 
Habitat in Borneo. In Mus. D. Edw. Sheppard. 

Sp. 2. Temnaspis Cumingii (Hope, MS.). 

T. aridce et fervidce magnitudine et statura proxima : tota fulvo- 
liitea, nitida, supra vix setosa, sparsim punctata ; capitis 
vertice impresso, prothorace postice latiori, angulis posticis 
rotundatis, hurneris elytrorum proniinentibus obliquis, an- 
tennarum articulis 7 ultimis tarsisque paullo obscurioribus ; 
corpora toto infra fulvo-luteo ; femoribus posticis versus 
apicem infra bispinosis, extus dimidio basali castaneo. 

Long. corp. lin. 5^. 

Habitat in Manilla. D. Cuming. In Mus. Hopeiano Oxoniae 
et D. Baly. 

Obs. — Labium (sc. ligula) rotundatum et in medio raarginis 
antici profunde semicirculariter incisum est. 

Sp. 3. Temnaspis clirysopyga. 
Elongata, fcemina breviori ; capita lato, prothorace subrotundato, 
antice at postice vix constricto ; nigra vel picea, vix ni- 
tida, mare brunneo, subtus nonnihil prsesertim pedibus vario, 
foomina obscuriori ; valda setulosa setis griseis vel aureis, 
podice pra^sertim foeminae dense vestito; elytris luteis, extus 
et apice obscuris, nigro-punctatis, punctis parvis, disco versus 
scutellum fera laevi ; clypeo fulvo ; antennis nigris, articulis 
apicalibuslatis,serratis, articulo basali interdumsubferrugineo; 
tibiis, praesertim posticis, in mare curvatis, podice ejusdem 
sexus in medio subcarinato, scutello nigro, apice late truncato. 
Long. Corp. ^ lin. 7 ; ? lin. 5|. 
Habitat Old Calabar. In Mus. D. Murray. 
The sexual distinctions in this species are more marked than in 
the majority of the insects of this genus, the head of the male 
being broader than the prothorax, and the body in this sex con- 
siderably more elongated than in the female and gradually attenu- 
ated to the extremity. In the specimens before me it is the female 
which has the extremity of the body so strikingly clothed with 
golden hairs. 

Sp. 4, Temnaspis Bengalensis. 
Fulva, nitida, sat rude punctata, luteo-hirta; capitis raargine 
postico et macula antica brunneis; pronoto maculis duabus 



New Species of Eupodous Phytophaga. 211 

magnis ante medium disci alteraque parva postica nigris ; 
scutello briinneo ; elytronun humeris maculaque magna dis- 
coidali pone medium singuli nigris; prothorace subtus ma- 
culis duabus anticis; metasterno toto, fasciaque subapicali 
abdominis nigris; pedibus fulvis, femoribus posticis nigris, 
apice fulvis, subtus spinis duabus apicalibns armatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 4. 

Habitat in Ind. Orient., Bengal. In Mus. Hopeiano Oxonise. 

Sp. 5. Temnaspls lugubris. 

Nigra, subopaca, crebre punctatissima, griseo-setulosa; elytris in 
.medio fasciis duabus indi.stinctis pallido-setosis; antennis pec- 
tinatis ; pronoto linea media glabra ; femoribus posticis valde 
incrassatis, unidentatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 7g. 

Habitat in Madagascar. D. Goudot. In Mus. Reg. Berolinensi. 

Corpus supra griseo-setosum, setis in maculas et fascias duas 
irregulares medias elytrorum dispositis, pilisque nigris varium. 
Antennae articulis 7 ultimis clavam latam pectinatam forman- 
tibus. Clypeus cum tuberculo conico antico epistomatis 
lineaque media pronoti glabris et impunctatis. Prothorax 
antice et postice constrictus, parte latiori paullo pone medium 
sita. Elytra prope scutelium gibbosa, humeris prominentibus, 
basi fasciis duabus submediis maculisque duabus subapicalibus 
griseo-setosis. Corpus infra nigrum, setosum, lateribus me- 
tasterni coxisque posticis luteis. Femora incrassata, uni- 
dentata, in medio grisea. Tibise posticae prope basin intus 
paullo dilatatae et griseo-setosas. 

Genus Leucastea, Stal. 
{Poeci/oiiiorpha, jiars, Baly.) 
Sp. 1. Leucastea ruhidipennis. 
Nigra, nitida, punctata; pedibus griseo-setosis; faciei maculis 
duabus intra-ocularibus labroqne rufis ; elytris rubido-ferru- 
gineis ; antennarum articulis 7 ultimis submoniliformibus, 
subgracilibus ; scutelli apice subtruncato. 
Long. corp. lin. 4. 
Habitat in Natalia. In Mus. Britann. 

Sp. 2. Leucastea Dukrni, Sl^l, (Ofv. af K. Vet. Acad. Forhandl. 
1855, p. 345.) 
" Sordide lutescens, breviter pilosa, macula una frontis intra- 

VOL. II. THIRD SERIES, PART III. NOV. 1864. X 



278 Prof. Westvvood's Descriptions of some 

ociilari, unaque thoracis utrimque lateral!, elytrisque nigri- 

cantibus ; antennis, tibiis basi et a medio apicem versus, 

tarsisque nigro-fuscis. Long. S\ mill." 
Habitat Port Natal. 
Var. — Absque macula intra-oculari nigra, disco prothoracis 

immaculate, angulis lateralibus deflexis pronoti nigris, an- 

tennarum articulo basali subtus fulvo. 
Long. 4 lin. 
Habitat Zulu, Afr. merid. In Mus. D. Rev. Hamlet Clark. 

Sp. 3. Leucastea concolor. 

L. Dohrni omnino nisi coloribus convenit, elytrisque crebrius 
punctatis : tota sordide fulva, luteo-setosa ; elytris magis 
lutescentibus ; capite fulvo, macula parva intra-oculari an- 
tennisque nigris, harum articulo basali piceo ; prothoracis 
disco ante medium maculis duabus rotundatis plus minusve 
obscuris; scutello nigro; capite infra macula nigra jugulari; 
prosterni lateribus,meso- et meta-sternis omnino nigris ; abdo- 
mine fulvo, segmentis basalibus in medio nigro late maculatis; 
pedibus fulvis, geniculis, dimidio apicali tibiarum, tarsisque 
nigris. 

Long. Corp. lin. 4^. 

Habitat in Natalia. In Mus. Reg. Berolinensi. 

gda y2j._ (^\e\ L.nigricornis). Maculis prothoracis fere obsoletis, 
antennarum articulo basali infra fulvo, scutello fulvo, meta- 
sterno fulvo, basim versus fuscato, abdomine toto fulvo. 

Long. lin. 4. 

Habitat Zulu, In Mus. D. Rev. Hamlet Clark. 

3'* var. (vel L. froxhna). Maculis prothoracis obsoletis, an- 
tennarum articulo basali infra fulvo, scutello nigro, apice 
truncato ; pronoti angulis anticis deflexis, nigris; mesosterno 
antice et lateribus nigris, nee non metapleuris et marginibus 
coxarura posticarum nigris. 

Long. lin. 3. 

Habitat in Natalia. In Mus. D. Baly. 

Sp. 4. Leucastea atripennis. 

Laete fulva, nitida ; capite et pronoti lateribus vage punctatis, 

hujus disco Isevi; elytris atris, regulariter punctatis ; oblonga, 

capite prothorace minori, hujus lateribus rotundatis, basi et 

apice linea tenui subconstrictis ; elytris latioribus, subparal- 



New Species of Eupodous Phytophaga. 279 

leiis ; antennis nigris, articulis 4 basalibus fulvi?, apicalibus 
paullo crassioribus, subtrigonis; femoribus fiilvis, posiicis 
crassis, subtus in medio paullo angulalis ; tibiis (2 posticis 
basi fulvis exceptis) tarsisque nigris. 
Long. Corp. lin. 4. 

Habitat Old Calabar. In Mus. D. Murray. 
This species might at first sight be mistaken for a large 
specimen of Pcecilonwrpha Malabarica, but the structure of the 
antennae at once indicates its distinction. 

Sp. 5. Leucastca dimid'iata. 

L. Dokrni et atripenm statura et habitu proxima: cyaneo-nigra, 
nitida, parce setosa ; capite et pronoto fulvis, clypeo macula 
rotunda intra-oculari fusca; antennis nigris; scutelli apice late 
truncato ; thorace subtus cyaneo-nigro, nitido, griseo-villoso, 
margine postico pro- et meta-sterni fulvis ; abdomine fulvo, 
segmento apicali inlegro ; pedibus nigris, femoribus subtus 
plus minusve luteis, anticis fere omnino fulvis, posticis macula 
ovali utrinque fulva. 

Long. corp. lin. 4. 

Habitat in Natalia (Poeppig). In Mus. Reg. Berol. 

Sp. 6. Leucastea Westermanni. 

Prsecedentibus statura et habitu convenit : tota picea, nitida, 
luteo-setosa, setis pedum longioribus ; antennarum articulis 
basalibus apice rufescentibus ; capite infra, metasterno, ventre- 
que obscure fulvis, segmentorum marginibus pallidioribus; 
pedibus piceis, femoribus posticis subtus fulvis, subincrassatis, 
et in medio infra paullo angulatis. 

Long, corp.^lin. 4. 

Habitat in Guinea. In Mus. D. Westermann. 

Sp. 7. Leucastea anlica. 

Oblonga, prothoracis lateribus pone medium rotundatis, elytris 
subparallelis, capite et pronoto glabris, hoc fere laevi, elytris 
punctatis ; fulva, elytris magis testaceis sparsim luteo-setosa, 
margine postico clypei maculaque in medio faciei et scutello 
obscuris; antennis nigris; thorace subtus nigro, nitido; abdo- 
mine fulvo ; pedibus nigris, griseo-hirtis ; femoribus anticis 
infra fulvis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 3. 

Habitat in Natalia. In Mus. D. Rev. Hamlet Clark. 



280 Prof. Westwood's Descriptions, Sfc. 

Sp. 8. Leucaslea ephippiata. 

Oblonga, nitida ; prothoracis lateribus pone medium rotundatis 
et capite pauUo latioribus ; elytris pone medium parum 
latioribus; pallide fulva, capite et prothorace sublaevibus, 
setosis ; antennis fulvis ; elytris fulvo-albidis, dimidio basali 
piceo-nigris ; tarsorum apicibus fulvis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 3|. 

Habitat in Africa occidentali. In Mus. D. Hamlet Clark. 

Genus Pedrillia, (n. g.). 
Temnaspidi proximum ; differt corpore parvo, breviori et cras- 
siori : elytris postice valde convexis ; pronoto pone medium 
valde constricto, antennis elongatis, ad medium elytrorum 
extensis, articulis e Stio sensim incrassatis, hand serratis ; 
palpis maxillaribus articulo ultimo conico ; labii margine an- 
tico fere recte truncato ; scutelli apice truncato ; femoribus 
posticis incrassatis, baud spinosis, tibiis curvatis, unguibus 
tarsorum basi valde dilatatis. 

Sp. 1 . Pedrillia longicornis. 

Testaceo-rufa, fulvo-setosa ; capite et pronoto punctulalis; 
elytris punctatis ; antennis nigris, articulo basali luteo basi 
obscuriori, S"''" obscuro ; pedibus nigris, tibiarum basi piceo- 
fusca; tarsis piceis ; corpore infra ferrugineo; meso- et meta- 
sterni lateribus et segmento 5*° ventrali nigris. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2J. 

Habitat in Ind. Orient., Bombay. In Mus. Britann. et D. Baly. 



( 281 ) 



XIII. A 31onograph of the Genus Yphthima ; with Descrip- 
tions of two new Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera. By 
W. C. Hewitson, F.L.S. 

[Read December 5th, 1864.] 

I HAVE myself experienced so much difficulty in determining the 
species of the genus Yphthima, as to believe that if I have success- 
fully worked it out, I shall have been of some use. It is an 
excellent genus ; I have neither admitted nor rejected any species 
about which I have the least doubt. Some of the new species 
are from the Collection of Mr. Wallace. 

The genus Ccenyra is nearly allied to Yphthima, as well as to 
Coenonympha; from both it differs in the neuration of the wings, 
from Ccenonympha in its very different palpi. 

Genus Ccenyra, Hewitson. 

Head small ; eyes small. Palpi long, straight, much com- 
pressed, thickly clothed with hair; the third joint long and nearly 
naked. Antennas slender, short, slightly and gradually thickened 
to the point. 

Anterior wing rounded ; costal margin arched, apex and outer 
margin rounded; inner margin nearly straight; costal nervure 
much swollen at the base, extending to the middle of the margin ; 
subcostal nervure with four equi-distant branches, two before the 
end of the cell ; discoidal cell half the length of the wing, the 
nervures which close it forming a regular curve inwards, the 
first obsolete, the second and third of equal length, joining the 
third branch of the median nervure at a distance from its base. 

Posterior wing very round ; the costal nervure reaching a little 
beyond the middle of the margin ; the subcostal branched before 
the end of the cell ; the disco-cellular nervules, which close the 
cell obliquely, are slightly curved inwards, the first being half as 
long as the second. 

Ccenyra Hebe. (PL XVII. figs. 1, 2.) 
Yphthima Hebe, Trimen, Tr. Ent. Soc. 3rd Ser. i. 280. 
Ccenyra Corycia, Hewitson. 
Alis rufo-brunneis ; anticis utrinque biocellatis ; posticis supra 

quatuor, subtus ocellis sex ; omnibus argenteo-pupillatis. 
Female. — Upperside pale brown ; both wings crossed by indis- 

VOL. II. THIRD SERIES, PART IV. — MARCH, 1865. Y 



282 Mr. W. C. Hewitson's Monograph of the 

tinct bands of darker brown, both with two submarginal bands of 
brown. Anterior wing with two ocelli : posterior wing with six : 
each black, with silver pupil, yellow iris, and rufous border. 

Underside as above, except that it is paler. 

Male like the fennale, except that it is darker, and has the ocelli 
on the upperside of the posterior wing much less distinct. 

Exp. Ig inch. 

Hab. Natal. 

In tlie Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

Genus Xois, Hewitson. 

Head large ; eyes large, smooth. Palpi rather short, densely 
clothed with long hair, the last joint short, naked, pointing 
outwards. Antennae short, gradually thicker from the middle to 
the point. 

Anterior wing short ; costal margin arched, apex and outer 
margin rounded ; inner margin straight ; costal nervure swollen 
at the base, extending to the middle of the margin ; subcostal 
nervure with four branches, the first before the end of the cell, 
the other three branches equi-distant from each other, more 
distant from the first ; the discoidal cell short and broad, closed 
obliquely by the nervures, the first very short ; the third, which 
is a little longer than the second, joins the third median nervule 
at a distance from its base. 

Posterior wing very round ; the costal nervure extending three- 
fourths the length of the wing ; the discoidal cell more than half 
the length of the wing, closed obliquely by the disco-cellular 
nervules, the second nervure three times the length of the first. 

Xois Sesara, n. s. (PI. XVII. figs. 3, 4.) 

Alis albis ; anticis marginibus fuscis, utrinque ocello maximo, 
argenteo-bipupillato ; subtus rufis, fusco-undulatis. 

Female. — Upperside white. Anterior wing grey brown, with a 
large spot of white on the inner margin ; a large ocellus towards 
the apex, with two pupils of silver blue; the iris orange, bordered 
with brown ; the base of the costal margin rufous, the outer margin 
broadly brown. 

Underside rufous-orange. Anterior wing with the ocellus as 
above, spotless with the exception of some slight uudulations near 
the apex. Posterior wing undulated throughout with dark 
brown. 

Exp. l^''g inch. 

Hab. Fiji. 

In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 



Genus Yphthima, Sj^c. 283 

Genus Ypiitiiima, Hiibner. 
1. Yphthhna Asterope. 
H'/ppnrchia Asterope, King in Ehrenb. & Hempr. Symb. 
Phys. pi. 29, figs. 11, 12, 13, 14 ; Lederer, Beit. Schm. 
Asia Minor, pi. 1, f. 6. 
Yphthima Norma, Westw. in Gen. Diur. Lep. pi. Q7, f. 1. 
Alis fuscis ; anticis singulis ocello unico ; subtus cineraceis, 

rufo-undulatis ; posticis ocellis tribus argenteo-pupillatis. 
Exp. 1^0 to 11 inch. 
Hab. Syria, China, Natal, Calabar. 
In the Collection of W. C. Hevvitson. 

This species may be easily known from all others by the 
circular band of brown which passes round the ocellus on the 
underside of the anterior wing, as well as by a rufous space (some- 
times clouded with brown) below the said circular band free 
from undulations. As will be seen from the localities quoted, it is 
widely distributed, and differs considerably in size. Y. Norma, 
of Westwood, from China, I believe to be only a small variety of 
this species, darker and wanting the ocellus on the upperside of 
the anterior wing ; there are similar varieties from the Holy 
Land. Specimens from Calabar and Natal do not differ from 
those of Europe, except in having the ring of brown which 
encircles the ocellus of the anterior wing more distinctly marked 
above, as in Norjna, and in having the underside more clouded 
with rufous stria?. 

2. Yphthima Arctous. 
Papilio Arctous, Fabricius ; Godart, End. M. p. 552 ; Bois- 
duval, Voy. Astrol. p. 156. 
Alis fuscis ; singulis utrinque ocello unico ; subtus griseis, rufo- 
undulatis. 
Exp. l-j^j inch. 
Hab. Aru, Port Denison. 
In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

Very nearly allied to Y. Asterojje, hut differs from it in wanting 
two of the ocelli of the posterior wing. 

Each of the authors above referred to, in describing this 
species, expressly states that it has one ocellus and one only on 
each wing, above and below ; and yet they one and all refer to 
Donovan's figure, in his " Insects of New Holland/' plate 24, which 
has tji'o ocelli on both sides of the posterior wing. Donovan's 

Y 2 



284 Mr. W. C. Hewitson's Monograph of the 

figure may represent a variety of this species, but it seems to me 
better to consider it distinct, if we are to depend upon the number 
of ocelli to denote specific distinction. 

3. Yphthhna Arcloides. 

Papilio Arctous, Donovan, Ins, New Holland, pi. 24. 
Alis fuscis ; anticis utrinque ocello unico, posticis diiobus. 

4. Yphthima Philomela. 
Yphtkima Philomela, Hiibner, Zutr. f. 83, 84. 

Alis fuscis ; anticis utrinque ocello unico ; posticis supra 
duobus, subtus albis, rufo-undulatis, ocellis quatuor. 

The four ocelli on the underside of the posterior wing are 
placed thus : one near the apex, and three together towards the 
the anal angle ; they are indistinctly pupilled with silver. 

5. Yphthima Inica, n. s. (PI. XVII. fig. 5.) 

Alis rufo-fuscis ; omnibus supra ocello unico ; subtus cineraceis, 
rufo-undulatis, anticis ocello unico. 

Female. — Upperside rufous-brown, with a single ocellus on 
each wing. 

Underside with rufous undulations throughout. Anterior wing 
with the ocellus as above. Posterior wing without ocelli, clouded 
with darker colour. 

Exp. ly^g inch. 

Hab. East India. 

In the Collection of the British Museum. 

Closely allied to F. Asterope, but without the circular brown 
band which surrounds the ocellus on the anterior wing of that 
species, and also without the rufous space (devoid of undulations) 
near the anal angle. 

6. Yphthima Nareda. (PI. XVII. figs. 6, 7.) 
Satyrus Nareda, Kollar in Ilugel's Reise n. Kaschmir, p. 

451. 
Alis fuscis ; singulis supra ocello unico ; subtus cineraceis, 

rufo-undulatis, anticis ocello unico, posticis tribus. 
Exp. S iT^fT, ? Ifo inch. 
Hab. Northern India. 
In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

I have no doubt that figs. 6 and 7 of the plate, although of 
very difl^erent colour, are the sexes of the same species ; others 



Genus Yphthimay S^c. 285 

in my Collection are of an intermediate tint. The anal ocellus of 
the male has only one pupil, that of the female has two. 



7. Yi^hthima Chenu. 
Satyrus Chenu, Guerin-Meneville in Delessert, Sou v. Voy. 
Ind. pi. 21, f. 2, p. 77. 
Alis fuscis ; singulis supra ocello unico ; subtus cineraceis, 
rufo-undulatis, anticis ocello unico, posticis fasciis tribus rufis 
ocellisque quatuor. 
Exp. Ig inch. 

Hab. Neelgherry Mountains. 
In the Collection of W, C. Hewitson. 

Underside grey, undulated throughout with rufous-brown. 
Anterior wing crossed by two bands, one on each side of the 
ocellus and meeting at the inner margin, so as to form a triangle. 
Posterior wing with five ocelli, one (the largest) apart from the 
rest near the apex ; crossed by three bands of rufous-brown ; the 
space between the second and third bands nearly white. 

Mr. Moore has inadvertently considered this species and 
Y. Philomela as the same. 



8. Yphthima Stellera. 

Hipparchia Stellera, Eschsch. Voy. Kotzebue, pi. 10, f. 
24. 

Yphthima Sempera, Felder, Wien. Ent. Monats. vol. vii. 
p. 125. 
Alis rufo-fuscis ; anticis supra ocello unico, posticis quatuor ; 

subtus cineraceis, rufo-undulatis et bifasciatis, posticis ocellis 

sex geminatis. 
Exp. l^^jj inch. 
Hab. Manilla. 
In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

Underside white, undulated with rufous-brown, both wings 
crossed' before the middle by two bands of rufous-brown, the 
margins and a submarginal band dark brown ; anterior wing with 
one large ocellus, posterior wing with six, in pairs, all with pupils 
of silvery blue, the irides yellow. 

Mr. Semper has kindly sent me examples of the butterfly to 
which Dr. Felder has given his name, but I cannot see any dif- 
ference whatever to separate it from Y. Stellera. 



286 Mr. W. C. Hewitson's Monograph of the 

9. Yphthima Baldus. 

Papilio Baldus, Fabricius, Ent. Sys. lii. p. 323 ; Godart, 

End. M. p. 551 ; Donovan's Ins. India, PI. 36. 
P. Lara, Donovan, Nat. Repos. pi. 71. 

All's fuscis ; anticis utrinque ocello unico ; posticis supra ocellis 
quatuor, subtus sex. 

Male. — Underside grey-white, undulated throughout with 
rufous-brown, and crossed by irregular bands of the same colour ; 
the ocellus on the anterior wing large ; the ocelli of the posterior 
wing six, rarely touching, placed in pairs apart from each other, 
and at very different distances from the outer margin ; the pupils 
of all the ocelli brilliant silver. 

Female like the male, except that the wings are broader, and 
the ocelli more distinct. 

Exp. Iy4_ — l^fi- inch. 

Hab. India, Java, Sumatra, Macassar. 

In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

This is the variable species of the genus : examples differ 
greatly in size ; some have the ocellus of the anterior wing small 
and obscure ; some have the underside more closely undulated 
than others ; in one the six ocelli of the underside are very mi- 
nute and deformed, another is without the ocellus on the upper- 
side of the anterior wing. 

I have included Donovan's Lara, which does not differ from 
his figure of Baldus. Donovan quotes the Linnasan description 
of Lara, and states that his figure was copied from the specimen 
described by Linnaeus in the Linnsean cabinet. Now it so hap- 
pens that the description referred to is that of one of the Ly- 
ccenidce from the Cape, closely allied to, if not identical with, 
P. lolaus of Cramer (Zeritis Lara of the " Genera of Diurnal 
Lepidoptera"). It is true that there is an Yphthima in the Lin- 
nsean Collection from which Donovan's figure may have been 
drawn, but Linnaeus has not described it. Mr. Westwood has 
inadvertently erred in the same way in the " Genera," and has 
kindly assisted me to rectify his mistake ; and, in pointing out an 
error, 1 think it only fair to him to express my admiration at the 
almost unerring accuracy with which his part of that work was 
accomplished. 



Genus Yphthima, Sic. 287 

10. Yphthima Lysandra. 
Papilio Lysandra, Cramer^ pi. 293. 
Alis fuscis ; anticis utrinque ocello unico ; posticis supra ocelli's 

duobus, subtus quinque. 
Very nearly allied to Y. Baldus, and though it differs from it in 
having usually two ocelli only on the upperside of the posterior 
wing, there are sometimes indications of others, and, although it 
has also five ocelli only on the underside of the said wing, the anal 
ocellus has two pupils ; these ocelli are however much more dis- 
tinct and more nearly in a line, and the band of rufous-brown which 
precedes the ocellus on the underside of the anterior wing is 
nearer to it. This species, like Baldus, is sometimes without the 
ocellus on the upperside of anterior wing. 

11. Yphthima Itonia, n. s. (PI. XVIII. fig. 13.) 

Alis fuscis ; anticis utrinque ocello unico magno ; posticis 
supra ocellis quinque ; subtus cineraceis, rufo-undulatis, 
posticis ocellis septem. 

Male. — Upperside grey-brown. Anterior wing with one large 
bipupilled ocellus. Posterior wing with five, one minute near the 
apex, two larger between the median nervules, and two minute 
near the anal angle, all black ; the pupils silver ; the irides 
orange-yellow. 

Underside with rufous undulations throughout. Both wings 
crossed near the middle by an indistinct rufous band. Anterior 
wing with the large ocellus as above ; posterior wing with seven ; 
the first and third obsolete. 

Female like the male, except that the ocelli on both sides are 
much more distinct, and that the posterior wing has seven perfect 
ocelli. 

Exp. S li%, ? l-rl) inch. 

Hab. White Nile. 

In the Collections of the British Museum and W. C. Hewitson. 

12. Yjjhthima fasdata, n. s. 

Alis fuscis, griseo-undulatis ; anticis utrinque ocello unico ; 

posticis supra ocellis sex ; subtus cineraceis, rufo-undulatis, 

posticis trifasciatis, ocellis septem. 

Upperside brown. Both wings undulated with grey, chiefly 

beyond the middle j both crossed at the middle by a common band 



288 Mr. W. C. Hewitson's Monograph of the 

of darker colour, the margins dark brown. Anterior wing with 
one large bipupillated ocellus ; posterior wing with five or six 
obscurely marked upon a band of rufous-brown. 

Underside grey, beautifully undulated throughout with rufous- 
brown ; both wings crossed by two bands of darker colour. An- 
terior wing with the ocellus as above but more distinct ; posterior 
wing with seven small ocelli of nearly equal size, placed as above 
upon a band of rufous-brown, all black, the pupils silver, the 
irides orange-yellow. 

Exp. Ig inch. 

Hab. Sarawak, Sumatra. 

In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

When the plates were drawn I believed that this species might 
be only a variety of Y. Itonia, as it is the only other species 
which has seven ocelli on the posterior wing ; I now think it better 
to consider it as a distinct species. It is larger than Y. Itonia, has 
a distinct band of darker colour crossing the middle of both 
wings on the upperside, and is easily known from all the other 
species by having two transverse bands on the underside of both 
wings, and on the posterior wing a third band in which the ocelli 
are placed. It is from the Collection of Mr. Wallace. Bears 
great resemblance to Y. Baldus, but instead of having the ocelli 
in pairs and apart as in that species it has them in a line. 

13. Ypftthima Cetjlonica, n. s. (PI. XVIII. figs. 14, 15.) 

Alis fuscis ; anticis utrinque ocello unico ; posticis dimidio pos- 
teriore niveo, ocello unico ; subtus niveis, rufo-undulatis, 
posticis ocellis quatuor. 

Upperside rufous-brown. Anterior wing with one large ocellus, 
with two silver pupils. Posterior wing with the outer half white, 
the outer margin and a submarginal line of black ; one obscure 
ocellus and a minute black spot. 

Underside white, undulated with rufous-brown. Anterior wing 
with the ocellus as above ; thickly undulated towards the outer 
margin ; posterior wing slightly undulated near the margins, with 
four ocelli, one near the apex, three near the anal angle, the outer 
ocellus minute, blind, the anal ocellus with two pupils of silver. 

Exp. Iy2_ inch, 

Hab, Ceylon, 

In the Collection of W. C, Hewitson. 

The ocelli on the underside of the posterior wing differ much. In 



Genus Yphthima, Sfc. 289 

one specimen, tliree are perfect, one blind ; in another two only 
are perfect. 



14. Yphlhlma Lonjma, n. s. (PI. XVIII. figs. IG, 17.) 

Alis fiiscis ; anticis nonnunquam ocello unico ; posticis supra 
duobus ; subtiis cineraceis, rufo-fasciatis undulatisque, pos- 
ticis ocellis tribus. 

Male. — Upperside dark brown, broadly rufous at the outer 
margins ; a submarginal band of dark brown. Anterior wing 
with one obscure blind ocellus ; posterior wing with two, both 
near the anal angle ; the pupils silver, the irides very narrow, 
rufous. 

Underside white, undulated throughout with rufous-brown ; 
anterior wing with the ocellus rufous-brown, with two silver 
pupils ; crossed on each side of the ocellus by bands of rufous- 
brown. Posterior wing with three black ocelli, one near the apex, 
two near the anal angle, the pupils silver, the anal ocellus with 
two pupils; crossed by several short bands of rufous-brown. 

Female does not differ from the male, except in its larger size, 
and Greater breadth of wing. 

Exp. l-/{j — l^-^jj inch. 

Hab. Macassar, Celebes. 

In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

This species by the variety, fig. IG, from Celebes, approaches 
nearly to Y. Patidocus as well as to Y. Amphithea. 

15. Yphth'ima Amphithea. 

Yphlhhna Amphithea, Menetries, in Schrenck's Amur-Lande, 
pi. 3, f. 10, p. 41. 
Alis fuscis ; anticis utrinque ocello unico ; posticis supra duobus ; 

subtus obscuris, rufo-undulatis, posticis ocellis tribus. 
Exp. l-j^j inch. 
Hab. Amoor-land, Sula. 
In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson, from Mr. Wallace. 

The difference between this and the last-described species is 
chiefly one of colour. On the underside Y. Amphithea is entirely 
suffused with rufous-brown. It is, as described by Menetries, of 
peculiar form, the outer margin of the anterior wing being 
slightly sinuated towards the anal angle. The figure in the 
Amur-Lande is a very bad one. 



290 Mr. W. C. Hewitson's Monograph of the 

16. Yphlhima Pandocus. (PI. XVIII. fig. 12.) 

YphlMma Pandocus, Moore in Horsfield and Moore, Cat. 
Lep. E. I. C. p. 235. 

x\lis fuscis ; anticis utrinque ocello unico ; posticis supra duo- 
bus ; subtus albis, rufo-nebulosis et undtdatis, posticis ocellis 
tribus. 

Exp. 1-r^o inch. 

Hab. Java, Sarawak. 

In the Collection of W. C. Hevvitson. 



17. Yphthhna MotschulsMji. 

Satyrus MotschulsMji, Bremer, Beitr. zur Fauna Nord. 
China ; Menetries, Cat. Lep. Mus. Acad. Petrop. pi. G. 
fig. 5. 
Alis fuscis ; singulis supra ocello unico ; subtus cineraceis, rufo 

dense undulatis, posticis ocellis tribus. 
Exp. l^'^ inch. 
Hab. Pekin, Amoy. 
In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

Very near to Y. Pandocus, but differs from it on the upperside, 
in having the iris of the anterior wing slightly divided, and in 
having one ocellus only on the posterior wing. On the underside 
it is undulated throughout, and has the apical ocellus of the pos- 
terior wing larger, and bears a great resemblance to Y. Nareda 
except in colour. 



18. Yphthima Sakra. (PI. XVIII. fig. 18.) 

Yphthima Sakra, Moore, Horsfield and Moore, Cat. Lep. 
E. I. C. Mus. p. 236. 
Alis fuscis; anticis utrinque ocello unico; posticis supra duobus, 

subtus quinque ocellis. 
Exp. 2 inches. 
Hab. North India. 

In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

Mr. Moore describes this species as having four ocelli on the 
upperside of the posterior wing. Some examples have four ; 
others have only two, being without the ocelli near the apex and 
anal angle. 



Genus Yphihima, Sfc. 291 

19. Yphihima Methora, n. s. (PI. XVIII. figs. 20, 21.) 

Alis rufis, griseo-undulatis ; anticis utrinque ocello maximo ; 
posticis supra quinque, subtus sex ocellis. 

Female. — Upperside brown, undulated with grey towards the 
outer margins ; the outer margins and fringe rufous-brown, tra- 
versed by a grey line. Anterior wing with one very large two- 
pupilled ocellus on both sides ; posterior wing with five, all black, 
with pupils dull silver, with irides rufous, narrow. 

Underside grey, closely undulated throughout with rufous- 
brown ; both wings crossed at the middle by a curved rufous band ; 
posterior wing with six ocelli in pairs ; the pupils of bright silver ; 
the irides orange-yellow. 

Exp, 2 inches. 

Hab. North India. 

In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

Nearest to Y. Salem, but of very different aspect. 

20. Yphthima Hyagriva. (PI. XVIII. fig. 11.) 

Yphihima Hyagriva, Moore, Horsf. and Moore, Cat. Lep. 
E. I. C. Mus. p. 23G. 
Alis fuscis ; singulis supra ocello unico ; subtus rufo griseoque 

undulatis, posticis ocellis quatuor geminatis. 
Exp. 1-j?^ inch. 
Hab. Dargeeling. 

In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 

Easily known from all the other species by the broad sub- 
marginal line of brown on both sides, by the geminated oval ocelli 
near the apex of the posterior wing, and the ochreous colour of 
the underside. 

21.' Yphihima Narasingha. (PI. XVIII. fig. 19.) 

Yphthima Narasingha, Moore, Horsf. and Moore, Cat. Lep. 
E. I. C. Mus. p. 236. 
Alis fuscis ; anticis utrinque ocello unico ; subtus cineraceis, 

rufo-undulatis, posticis punctis minutis albis. 
Exp. 2 inches. 
Hab. Dargeeling. 

In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson. 
The only species which has no ocelli on either side of the pos- 



292 Mr. W. C. Hewitson's Monograph of the 

terior wing. On the underside some minute white spots occupy 
the place where in other species the ocelli are placed. 



22. Yphthlma Sepyra, n. s. (PI. XVII. fig. 10.) 

Alis rufis, griseo-undulatis ; anticis utrinqueocello unico j pos- 
ticis utrinque sex, subtus geminatis. 

Male. — Upperside brown, paler round the ocelli, with a sub- 
marginal line of darker brown. Anterior wing with the usual 
ocellus on both sides ; posterior wing with two or more. 

Underside grey, closely undulated with broad rufous-brown 
striae ; both wings crossed by a band of brown before and after 
the ocelli ; posterior wing with six ocelli, geminated, all with 
pupils of silver and broad irides of orange-yellow. 

Female does not differ, except that it is slightly undulated with 
grey round the ocellus of the anterior wing. 

Exp. l^jj inch. 

Hab. Gilolo, Batchian. 

In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson, from Mr. Wallace. 

The ocelli on the upperside of the posterior wing differ much 
in number ; sometimes there are only two, sometimes a third near 
the apex, occasionally two at the anal angle, and in one, a female, 
there are six as below. 

23. Yphthima Aphnius. (PI. XVII. figs. 8, 9.) 
Satyrus Aphnius, Godart, End. M. p. 551. 
Alis rufo-fuscis ; anticis utrinque ocello unico ; posticis supra 
fascia fulva, ocellis duobus punctoque minuto ; subtus albis, 
rufo-unJulatis, ocellis minutis quatuor caecis. 
Upperside rufous-brown, with a submarginal band of dark 
brown. Anterior wing with the usual ocellus on both sides, 
broadly bordered with orange and pupilled with silver. Pos- 
terior wing with a large spot of orange beyond the middle, marked 
with two small ocelli and a minute spot. 

Underside. Anterior wing rufous-brown, undulated with grey ; 
posterior wing white, undulated with rufous-brown ; the costal 
margin broadly clouded and undulated with brown ; six minute 
blind ocelli in pairs, those at the anal angle deformed. 
Exp. Ij inch. 

Hab. Timor, Isle of France. 
In the Collection of W. C. Hewitson, from Mr. Wallace. 



Genus Yphthima, Sfc. 293 

24. Yphthima Tamatavce. 
Salyrus Tamatavce, Boisduval, Faune Ent. de Madagascar, 
pi. 8, figs. 6, 7. 
Alls rufo-fuscis ; anticis utrinqiie ocello unico ; posticis supra 
ocellis duobus ; subtus anticis apice griseo-undulato ; pos- 
ticis griseo fuscoque nebulosis. 
Male. — Upperside dark rufous-brown. Anterior wing with the 
ocelhis on both sides with a broad rufoiis-orange iris ; posterior 
wing with two ocelli touching, all with silvery blue pupils. 

Underside. Anterior wing as above, except that it is undulated 
with grey near the costal and outer margins ; posterior wing grey, 
clouded and undulated with dark rufous-brown, crossed from the 
middle of the costal margin to the middle of the wing by a broad 
band of brown marked with a white spot. 

Female like the male, except that the anterior wing has the 
outer margin broadly dark brown, traversed by a line of pale 
grey-brown, and that the underside is more beautifully variegated 
(Hke Salyrus Semele.) 

The figure in the Faune Ent. de Madagascar is very much 
paler than any examples which I have seen, and gives no idea of 
the beauty of the insect. I have not seen an example with a 
third ocellus on the posterior wing, nor with the prolongation of 
the rufous spot, as shown in Dr. Boisduval's figure. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 
Plate XVIL 

Figs. 1, 2. Cnenyra Hebe, Trimen. 

Figs. 3, 4. Xois Sesara, Hewitson. 

Fig. 5. Yphlliima Inica, Hewitson. 
Figs. 6, 7. ,, Nareda, Kollar. 

Figs. 8, 9. ,, Aphnius, Godart. 

Fig. 10. „ Sepyra, Hewitson. 

Plate XVIII. 

Fig. IL Yphthima Hyagriva, Moore. 

Fig. 12. „ Pandocus, Moore. 

Fig. 13. „ Itonia, Hewitson. 

Figs. 14, 15. ,, Ceylonica, Hewitson. 

Figs. 16, 17. ,, Loryma, Hewitson. 

Fig. 18. „ Sakra, Moore. 

Fig. 19. „ Narasingha, Moore. 

Figs. 20, 21. „ Methora, Hewitson. 



( 295 ) 



XIV. On the Reversion and Restoration of the Silkicorm 
(Part II.); with Distinctive Characters of Eighteen 
Species of Silk-producing Bombycidae. By Captain 
Thomas Hutton, F.G.S., of Mussooree. (Com- 
municated by Mr. F. Moore.) 

[Read December 5th, 1864.] 

According to hitherto received notions all the silkworms now 
under domestication are mere varieties of one species, and are all 
placed together under the name of Bombyx Mori ; and yet the 
difference in habits is alone sufficient to point out the existence of 
several totally distinct species. 

This circumstance, when some time since noticed by myself in 
a letter to Mr. F. Moore of the India Museum, elicited the 
acknowledgment that Entomologists in Europe had long suspected 
the fact, but that they were without the means of working out all 
the necessary details, many of the supposed species not being 
under cultivation in Europe, while no one in India had deemed it 
worth while to enter into an investigation of the subject. 

From the moment, however, in which I first recognized the 
absolute necessity of endeavouring to arrest the rapid strides 
which disease was making towards the extinction of the silkworm, 
I became aware, from actual inspection of the worms through all 
their changes, of the existence of several species, and I at once 
determined systematically to set to work for the purpose of ex- 
tricating each from the dark labyrinth of error and confusion in 
which it had become involved. 

Any one at all conversant with the Bombycidce must be aware 
of the fact that, for the most part, the species will, in the northern 
and colder districts of their respective countries, be either strictly 
annuals, or at the most double-brooded, while those species which 
yield several crops of silk during the year, indicate thereby that 
they were originally imported into the localities where they are 
now domesticated, from the warm and more prolific lowland 
regions of the South. A rapid succession of crops, whether of 
vegetables or of silk, such as we witness among what are in Bengal 
termed " monthly worms," is obtainable only, whether naturally 
or artificially, in a mild climate favourable to the rapid growth of 
vegetation. To the preservation of such species, when in a state 



296 Captain T. Hutton on the 

of natural freedom, the healtliy condition of the mulberry leaf 
until the commencement of the winter months is indispensable, and 
such a condition of things is obtainable only in a warm and 
probably humid climate. 

At Mussooree in the North-Western Flimalaya, nature herself 
speaks forcibly in support of this view when she presents for our 
consideration hvelve wild species of the Bomhycidce, eleven of 
which are here strictly annuals, and one only is double-brooded, 
though some of these in warmer parts of India are found, even in 
the wild state, to yield two and even three broods. 

Meditating on this fact, it occurred to me that if this could be 
relied upon as a distinguishing feature, the annual domestic worms 
would doubtless, on investigation, be found to be specifically dis- 
tinct from the so-called "monthly worms," and 'the result has 
proved the correctness of this view, the Cashmere and Bokhara 
Annual being not only distinct from the Bengal Annual (Boro- 
pooloo), hut both are distinct from the ^^Nistry," the '■' Dasee" and 
the small Chinese species Cheena, which are distinguished as 
monthly worms. Were they not specifically distinct, why do not 
the annuals when cultivated in Bengal become monthly, like the 
others ? or, again, why do not the monthlies become annuals in the 
North? By their not undergoing these changes we are furnished 
with proof that it is not a change of climate which makes the 
alteration, but that nature has stamped them with distinctive 
characters and habits. 

We have all read or heard of complaints in regard to the un- 
certain quality of the silk sent as that of Bombyx Mori to 
Europe from Bengal, and that it is on that account held in less 
estimation than silks from other countries. This variation in 
quality arises from the cultivation of these several distinct species 
under the name of B. Mori, precisely as all Eria silks were sup- 
posed to be derived from Attacus Cynthia. These worms being 
of different sizes and always much smaller than the larvae of B. 
Mori (which species by the way is not cultivated at all in Bengal), 
must necessarily produce a silken fibre of far greater fineness than 
it ; from which it results that not only is the reeled silk much finer 
than that of the true B. Mori, but each Bengal worm differs from 
the other in the thickness of its fibre, and as all goes home nomi- 
nally as the produce of the same worm, no wonder that an outcry 
is raised about the imcertain thickness of the fibre. 

This discovery of several distinct species confounded under the 
name of B. Mori, although admitted by competent judges in 
Europe, has in India been sneered at, and the differences percep- 



Restoration of the Silkworm. 297 

tible in the size, colour, markings and habits of the worms, and the 
form and texture of the cocoons, have been attributed to the effects 
of climate only. Climate, however, has no such influence, since we 
find each species, in whatever climate cultivated, preserving the 
very same characteristics. If the differences at present perceptible 
were in reality merely the effects of climate and of peculiar treat- 
ment, we might surely expect that when a change of climate and 
treatment was experienced some marked and decided change 
would soon be perceptible in the insects likewise^ but this is not 
the case, each retaining at Mussooree, in Oudh, and elsewhere in 
the Northern Provinces, the very same characteristics as when in 
the damp warm plains of Bengal. The characters, in fact, are 
constant, no matter where the insects may be. 

Characters, whether of form, colour or habits, if permanent and 
unchangeable, are to all intents and purposes specific characters, 
and even Mr. Darwin admits that when one of his supposed 
varieties attains to a certain degree of stability, it assumes, 'pro 
tern., the value and importance of a species until variation again 
commences at some after perio<l among the ofl^spring. 

Under any circumstances, therefore, these insects, whatever 
they may originally have been, having now severally attained to 
permanency of characters, have become true species, and as such 
must be accepted and described. 

Genus Bombyx, Schranck. 

The genus Bomhyx appears naturally to divide itself into two 
well-defined sections or sub-divisions, the first comprising all the 
domesticated Chinese species of which the larvae have hitherto 
been known to cultivators and men of science as being of a pale 
creamy-white colour, and furnished only with one fleshy or semi- 
horny sharp-pointed spine, springing from the dorsal centre of 
the penultimate segment ; the other containing the wild and un- 
cultivated species, whose larvae are not only richly variegated 
with a number of bright colours intimately mixed together, such 
as ashy-grey, livid-green, yellow, rufous, ferruginous and black, 
but are likewise furnished with from four to six longitudinally- 
disposed rows of fleshy or semi-horny spines, all curving back- 
wards, besides one long one on the penultimate segment, placed 
between the two dorsal rows and pointing in the opposite direction. 

Of the insects contained in this last section, one feeds on the 
wild indigenous mulberry tree of the North -Western Himalaya, 
and yields a first-rate silk, wiiich, however, cannot be turned to 

VOL. II. THIRD SERIES, PART IV. MARCH, 18G5. Z 



298 Captain T. Hutton on the 

much account, as the worm is too intractable to submit to domesti- 
cation, and can only be reared upon the trees in the open air, 
which of course renders the crop precarious, through the incessant 
attacks of birds and insects. This species was discovered by 
myself at Simla in 1837, but, owing to illness and the subsequent 
breaking out of the Afghan war, was not sent to Europe until 
1842, when the moth was figured by Mr. Westwood in " The 
Cabinet of Oriental Entomology," under the name of Bomhyx 
Huttoni. 

A second species occurs sparingly in Bengal, in the neighbour- 
hood of Calcutta, where it feeds on the leaves of the Artocarpus 
lacoocha, and to which I have assigned the name o( Bombyx Ben- 
galensts. 

At Singapore, or in its neighbourhood, is a third species, called 
by Mr. Walker Bomhyx subnotata, though nothing more than its 
existence appears to be known. 

A fourth species is found in Assam, where it feeds on the leaves 
of the Ficus religiosa or Peepul tree, and is distinguished as the 
Bombyx rel'ig'iosce of Heifer. 

And lastly, so far as continental India is concerned, the Bomhyx 
luguhris of Drury is said to occur at Madras, though the state- 
ment appears to require confirmation, and Mr. Moore even doubts 
its being a Bombyx at all. 

These two sections of the genus Bombyx being remarkable for 
the presence in the one, and the absence in the other, of bright 
colours and rows of spines in the larvse, led me to entertain a 
suspicion that the Chinese domesticated species are no longer in 
their original condition ; and follovviug up this idea by a series of 
experiments, I soon discovered that with respect to colouring, the 
Bombyx Mori, and one or two others, when panially reverted to 
a state of nature, show a great and marked approach in the dis- 
tribution and arrangement of their colours to the wild species of 
India. 

Besides the genus Bombyx, this group of the family contains 
the genera Oc'inara of VValker, and Trilocha of Moore; of the 
former I have discovered two, if not three, new species, and 1 
understand that others have been discovered in Bengal. In the 
larva state this genus, although showing alliance with Bombyx, 
appears likewise to approach the Geometrce, the caterpillar gene- 
rally having, not only something of the manner of the latter, but 
possessing also several of those curious little excrescences which 
give a Geometer the appearance of a dry stick with withered 
buds. The larvae of Oc'inara spin a small neat cocoon resembling 



Restoration of the Silkworm. 299 

that of some of the smdWer Boynhyces, hut there is not silk enough 
to render them worth cultivating. The larva of one of ray Mus- 
sooree species, unlike the others, is hairy. 

Before proceeding further it may he well to observe that in 
France and Italy, where none but annuals can be cultivated, the 
same degree of uncertainty as to species appears to prevail ; four 
varieties of Bomhyx Mori are there distinguished from each other 
as follows ; — 

First. The small silkworm of three casts or moults. 

Second. The large silkworm of four moults. 

Third. The common white silkworm of four moults. 

Fourth. The common yellowish silkworm of four moults. 

The eggs of the first of these are said to weigh one-eleventh 
less than those of the common silkworm ; that is to say, that while 
39,168 of the latter weigh an ounce, it requires for the same 
weight 42,620 of the smaller one. The worms and cocoons are 
also said by Count Dandolo to be two-fifths smaller than those of 
the common sort. " The cocoons, also," he says, " are composed 
of finer and more beautiful silk, whence it would appear that the 
silk-drawing tubes are finer in these silkworms." The cocoons 
are better constructed, and afford in proportion, at equal weight, 
a greater quantity of silk. The worms, likewise, come to matu- 
rity four days earlier than the common sort. Six hundred cocoons 
weigh Iglbs. In the south of France, according to M. Boitard, 
this race is known as the Milanese worm, being common in Lom- 
bardy. 

With regard to the second variety we are told that it is culti- 
vated chiefly " dans le Frioul." The difference in the weight of 
the eggs between this and the common sort, or fourth variety, is 
given as one-fiftieth only, that is to saj', 39,168 eggs of the latter 
go to the ounce against 37,44-0 of the former, which are thus the 
heavier. One hundred and fifty cocoons weigh a pound and 
a half, while 360 of the common sorr make the same weight. 
This variety requires five or six days longer to bring it to 
maturity. 

The third variety is said to have been imported from China by 
the inhabitants of the " arrondisscmcnt d'Jlais," and is common 
both in France and Italy; it differs from the others in constantly 
producing white cocoons, the silk of which is said to be finer than 
that of the common sort. 

The fourth variety, which appears to have been selected as the 
standard of comparison, is the commonest of all and is cultivated 

z 2 



300 Captain T. Hutton on the 

generally in France and througliout Europe. The cocoon is a 
yellow of different degrees of intensity. 

Now the question arises — Are these to be considered as merely 
local and climatal varieties of B. Mori, or can any of them be 
regarded as true and distinct species? 

With regard to No. 1, it is said that although in Italy nine out 
of ten cocoons are white, yet that in France the majority are 
yellow. No stress, therefore, can be laid upon the colour of the 
silk as a specific character, but a valid mark of distinction would 
(if there is no mistake) appear to exist in the fact of the worm 
undergoing only three inoults instead of four as in all the others. 

That this worm, however, is not in a healthy state is clearly to 
be seen in the change produced on the colour of the silk by change 
of climate, the heat of Italy producing white, and the cooler and 
more natural temperature of France producing yellow cocoons. 
But if this worm be a mere variety of B. Mori induced by climate, 
Count Dandolo's remark that the greater fineness of the silk is 
attributable to greater fineness in the silk-drawing tubes, at once 
proclaims the unhealthiness and degeneracy of the worm, which 
has dwindled down from its natural size and is no longer able to 
yield a fibre of the original thickness. If then this is a mere 
climatal variety of B. Muri, the peculiarities in its moulting, and 
the changeable colour and fineness of the silk, can be attributed 
to nothing else than loss of size and constitution. 

If climate has been the agent by which this variation has been 
brought about, how is it that the entire race of B. Mori has not 
been affected in a similar manner ? Yet in Italy, in France and 
in other countries of Europe, B. Mori still continues not only to 
hold its ground side by side with this supposed variety, but is in 
spite of climate stated to be still the commonest of all. 

An Indian sericulturist rising from the perusal of Reports on 
the Culture of Silk in various parts of the country, will find 
perhaps that no two of these agree in the length of time consumed 
between the hatching of the egg and the spinning of the cocoon. 
The explanation is, that the reports do not all apply to the same 
species, for at Madras and in Bengal proper, the true B. Mori 
is nowhere found, and it has only very recently been tried, and 
with no very encouraging success, in the North Western Pro- 
vinces of Upper India. But the time that elapses between the 
hatching of the egg and the spinning of the cocoon will vary 
even in the same species, according to the temperature in which 
the worm has been reared, and likewise, in some measure, accord- 



Restoration of the Silkworm. 301 

ing to the health of the insect. As a rule, the whole process will 
be more rapid in a high temperature than in a colder one, and it 
is to be observed that the longer the time consumed, the better in 
general will be the cocoon, for the simple reason that the worm 
has had ample time to come to maturity, whereas when the 
growth is forced and accelerated by high temperature, although 
the worm may grow to a goodly size, it will still have passed 
through its different stages so rapidly as materially to diminish 
the quantity of silk- gum, which it has not had time to secrete. 
The cocoon will, consequently, be less stuffed with silk than 
when, all other things being equal, a longer time has been con- 
sumed. Count Dandolo lays it down that thirty-two days elapse 
between the hatching of the egg and the formation of the cocoon, 
and he adds four days more for the completion of it, or thirty-six 
days in all. This likewise is the time given by M. Boitard as 
applicable to the worm in France. Dewhurst informs us that in 
England forty-six days are consumed. In China, according to 
published accounts, the time varies greatly, being from twenty- 
three to twenty-eight and sometimes forty days, with an additional 
seven days allowed for the cocoon, so that we have thirty, thirty- 
five and forty-seven days given as the time. Contrary to all 
experience also, it is said that the shorter the time consumed, the 
mure abundant will be the crop of silk, twenty-three to twenty-five 
days producing twenty-five ounces of silk from one dram's weight 
of newly-hatched worms ; twenty-eight days yielding only twenty 
ounces, and thirty to forty days producing no more than ten 
ounces. This is clearly an absurdity, for it shows that the longer 
the worm continues to secrete gum, the less silk will it produce. 
Dr. Anderson, as quoted by Dewhurst, says that in Madras 
twenty-two days only are required; while Mr. Cope of Umritsir 
gives twenty-eight to forty days, but whether for the Punjab or 
elsewhere is not stated. At Mussooree I have found the time 
consumed by B. Mori to run from forty-six to forty-eight days. 
At Lucknow in Oudh, Dr. Bonavia gives "about forty-six days" 
for 7>. Mori, and seventeen for the small Chinese monthly worm 
in the month of June, and fifty-one days in November. 

It is evident that these statements cannot all ajiply to the same 
species. In France and in Italy, in England, Oudh, the Punjab 
and Mussooree, the reference is to the annual Bombijx Mori, known 
in Europe as " 1'he common silk worm of four moults," and in 
India as the Cashmere or Bokhara worm. 

The time, therefore, consumed by B. Mori in France and 
lialy is about thirty-six days; in England, Oudh, Punjab and 
Mussooree about forty -six days. 



302 Captain T. Hutton on the 

Mr. Cope, in a Lecture on Silk delivered at Lahore, gives (as 
before mentioned) from twenty-eight to forty days as the time 
consumed. If Z?. il/ori spins its cocoon in twenty-eight days from 
the time of hatching, a stronger proof of the total unfitness of the 
Punjab climate for the culture of that species could not be 
furnished. The fact, however, is that the time laid down in 
the lecture cannot satisfactorily be applied to any species in 
particular, but evidently includes more than one. 

The Chinese account likewise would appear to have reference 
to more than one species, while in Madras, the species referred to 
by Dr. Anderson was in all probability one of the three monthly 
worms, because the true B. Mori is nowhere cultivated below 
the North Western Provinces. 

The true time consumed from the hatching of the worm to the 
completion of the cocoon would, consequently, appear to range 
from thirty-six to forty-six days, and the more rapid progress 
made in Europe is probably to be attributed to the fact of the 
worms being shut up in rooms with a temperature of 68° to 77°, 
which is altered after every change of skin. Thus, Dewhurst 
says, " 75° is the degree of heat they should be kept in until the 
first casting or moulting; between 73° and 75° until the second 
moulting; between 71° and 73° until the third ; and lastly, between 
68° and 71° until the fourth moulting." 

From this statement we perceive that, according to this writer, 
the temperature should be reduced as the worm advances to 
maturity, a procedure which is diametrically the reverse of that 
pursued by nature. 

According to the same authority " it has been proved by a 
series of experiments that in France 68° is the heat most suitable 
to silkworms ; some cultivators have raised it as high as 77° with 
good success, while M. Boisseur de Sauvages has even gone as 
high as 100°." 

At Mussooree I have always reared the worms in an open 
room, so that, as the external temperature varied, that of the 
interior varied likewise, and the air was always fresh and natural. 
The eggs hatched spontaneously in a mean temperature of 64°, 
and the thermometer never rose beyond 68° up to the time of 
spinning the cocoon. During the same time the daily mean of 
the external temperature ranged from 47° to Q(!)°, so that the 
French view of the matter is thus proved to be the most correct. 
1 have shown, moreover, (^ante, p. 152,) that 1 found great difficulty 
in checking the hatching of the eggs even in a temperature of 53°, 
and only did so at last by placing them out all night in the frosty 
air of December, at an elevation of 5,400 feet. 



Restoration of the Silkworm. 303 

The small Chinese monthly worm (C Shiensis) required in the 
month of June, in the warm climate of Oudh, no more than seven- 
teen days from the hatching of the egg till the formation of the 
cocoon, while, in the cooler temperature of November, fifty-one 
days were consumed. At Mussooree, the same species, hatched 
on the 26th of June, spun the cocoons in twenty-eight days ; while 
the Boro-pooloo {B. iej-Zor), which was hatched on the 14th of March, 
began to spin on the 28th of April, consuming thus forty-six days, 
or the same as B. Mori. 

This circumstance, together with the similarity in the marking, 
and the occurrence of black worms in the brood, has led Dr. 
Bonavia somewhat hastily to conclude that the Cashmere worm 
and the Boro-pooloo are one and the same spec-ies, an error into 
which he could scarcely have fallen had he given due weight to the 
fact that not only is the worm a full inch shorter than that of the 
Cashmere worm, but the size, colour and texture of the cocoons are 
all totally distinct, and no naturalist could ever confound the one 
with the other. These differences, moreover, are permanent, even 
where the species are cultivated together, and the occurrence of 
black worms merely shows that the Boro-pooloo, like D. Mori, 
has completely lost its constitution. Black worms are also occa- 
sionally foimd in the broods of the Nistry (B. Crcesi), which is 
undoubtedly distinct. 

If, then, we unite all the species under the one name of Bombyx 
Mori, we shall find that the time consumed from the hatching of 
the egg to the spinning of the cocoon will vary in the same climate 
from seventeen to forty-six days, a circumstance which is alone 
sufficient to point out the incorrectness of such an arrangement : 
while if we more reasonably insist upon there being several distinct 
species now confounded together, the difficulty at once vanishes, 
and the difference at present observable is satisfactorily accounted 
for. 

I shall, therefore, now proceed to unfold my views on this 
subject, and show, from the peculiarities observable in each 
species, upon what grounds I insist upon specific distinction. 

1. BoMBYx Mori, Linn. 
Synonymes. 
I'luilcena Bomhijx Mori, Linn. S. N. 1, 2, p. 817 (1767); Amoen. 

Acad. iv. p. 563 ; Faun. Suec. p. 832; 

Aldrov. Ins. p. 280 ; Albin. Ins. pi. 

12, f. 16; Reaum. Ins. ii. p. 5, f. 2; 

Roesel. Ins. iii. pi. 78. 



304 Captain T. Hutton on the 

Bombyx Mori . . Fab. Spec. Ins. ii. p. 180; Mant. Ins. 

ii. p. 114; Ent. Syst. iii. 1, p. 431; 

God. Lep. de France, iv. p. 153, pi. 

14, f. 3, 4; Walker, List Lep. Het. 

Brit, Mus. pt. 6, p. 1505; Moore, 

Cat. Lep. Mus. Ind. House, ii. p. 

374. 
Sericaria Mori . . Blanciiard, Gay, Hist, de Chile, Zool. vii. 

p. 55. 
Lasiocampa Mori , Schranck. 
Lasiocanipe du Murier Boitard, p. 148. 
The common domesticated Chinese silkworm of Europe. 

Habitat. — Originally the northern mountainous provinces of 
China, especially that of Tche-kiang ; now domesticated in China 
generally, in Cashmere, Afghanistan, Bokhara, Persia, Syria, 
France, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Russia, &c., and recently intro- 
duced into Oudh and the Punjab. 

The species termed by the late Dr. Royle " Pat major " refers not 
to this, but to the Bengal Annual known as Boro-puoloo, while that 
mentioned by Dr. Heifer in the J. A. S. B. vi. p. 41, as cited in 
Mr. F. Moore's " Synopsis," probably refers to one of the monthly 
worms which have hitherto passed under the name of B. Mori, a 
species which, at the time when the Doctor wrote, was confined to 
Cashmere, and was certainly not cultivated in any part of Bengal 
or the Lowland Provinces. 

The word " Pat " appears to be used as a generic term. 
Larva. — Originally from the Northern parts of China, the worm 
of Bombyx Mori is now extensively cultivated for its silk, in 
various countries both of Asia and of Europe, and everywhere 
thrives best where the temperature is moderate. It is the largest 
and the strongest of the domesticated species, and is an annual, 
producing naturally but one crop of silk in the year, although in 
certain temperatures it is possible to make it produce a second 
crop. 

When first excluded from the egg the young caterpillar is hairy 
and of a dark-brown colour, the edge of the anterior segment 
being ashy white ; the head and prolegs are shining jet black. 

In the course of four or five days the five anterior segments 
become slightly swollen, exhibiting a mottled appearance of brown 
dots and small patches on a livid ashy ground, and previous to the 
first moult these segments become altogether livid ashy, while the 
others are of a pale brown ; there is one short tubercle or spine 
on the middle line of the penultimate segment, and the hairy ap- 



Restoration of the Silkworm. 305 

pearance of the young worms is owing to short tufts of hairs 
springing from rows of rudimentary tubercles as in the wild and 
uncultivated kinds. These, however, all disappear, with the 
exception of the anal spine, after the first moult. 

In the second stage, the four anterior segments are of an ashy 
white, the dorsal portion of the second and third segments being 
swollen and wrinkled ; the remaining segments are pale brindled, 
or mottled grey, with a slightly mealy aspect; a short, blunt, 
somewhat flat-sided, semi-horny tubercle on the dorsal centre of 
the penultimate segment, and having generally a faint tinge of 
orange ; on the fifth segment are two faint semilunar brown marks 
like inverted commas, and on the eighth segment are two small 
round spots of brown ; head and prolegs black. 

After the second moult the insect becomes altogether of an 
ashy or creamy whiteness, the second and third segments still 
more swollen and wrinkled ; on the front of the second segment is 
a thin longitudinally disposed dark line with generally a small dark 
spot on each side of it ; two dark semilunar marks on the back of 
the fifth segment, and the dark spots on the eighth slightly raised ; 
anal horn pointed and somewhat suddenly attenuated, with an 
inclination to point backwards ; head mealy grey-brown, and small 
as compared with the rapidly increasing size of the body. 

In the two following stages there is usually no alteration, except 
that the length and thickness of the worm rapidly increase, and 
that the markings become more conspicuous, that on the fifth 
segment often assuming the form of a crown. The feet are fringed 
with minute cilia. The entire body is without hairs and quite 
smooth ; the stigmata or breathing apertures along the sides are 
small, round and dark, and in the last stage of growth the two 
dots on the front of the second segment increase in size and are 
partially rufous. The length of a full grown worm, cultivated at 
Mussooree, is from 3 to 3\, inches. 

Such is the appearance of the worm as now cultivated (PI. XIX. 
fig. 8), but in almost every batch of worms there will be seen 
after the first moult has occurred, some dark-coloured ones which 
at the first glance appear to be a distinct species. By the French 
these worms are regarded as a mere evanescent variety and are 
distinguished as " vers ligrcs " and " vers ztbrcs ;" so far, however, 
are they from being a mere passing variety that they are actually 
types of the original species, and merely require to be treated 
according to the established rules of breeding in order to render 
them permanent and healthy. , 



306 Captain T. Hutton on the 

The Black Worm. (PI. XIX. fig. 7.)— When first hatched the 
caterpillars are in all respects similar to those of the pale variety, 
and it is not until after the first, and sometimes second, moult has 
taken place that any difference is perceptible; then, however, instead 
of having the four anterior segments of a creamy-white, the whole 
body is of a dark-brindled or mottled-grey colour, with the exception 
of an ashy band or broad stripe, which, crossing in front of the an- 
terior segment, runs round on each side as far back as the middle 
of the fifth segment, widening up towards the back, but leaving a 
dark-brindled dorsal space between them ; at a later stage, when 
the worm is near maturity, this ashy band becomes less clear 
and bright, and is often tinged faintly with clay colour, or even 
with a fleshy roseate hue ; on the fifth segment the two dark 
lunules are well defined, and have an ashy patch between them ; 
the dark spots on the eighth segment are sometimes wanting, as 
they are also in the white variety. 

In the third and fourth stages the colouring generally becomes 
very dark, in some intensely so, and takes the form of a net or 
trellis-work spread over an ashy-grey ground. As the worm ap- 
proaches the spinning time the colours again become fainter, and 
often assume a grey sandy-brown hue overlaid by the dark net- 
work. The anterior portion of the second segment rises some- 
what abruptly, and from it, through the dorsal centre of the first, 
runs a narrow black longitudinal line, on each side of which, on 
the second segment, is a round black spot, perpendicularly divided 
by a pale orange line, causing the appearance, as it were, of two 
eyes. 

Such is the appearance in the first year of the separation from 
the white worm ; the differences in after years, of course, become 
more marked, though the general character is the same. 

After two or three years of separation and restricted inter- 
breeding the appearance, especially in the middle stages, is very 
dark indeed, and the whole insect looks as if overlaid by a well- 
distended net, the meshes of which are open and well defined; it 
is, indeed, this well-defined marking, together with the ashy lateral 
band along the anterior segments, which makes the species ap- 
proximate to the wild races, the lateral band more especially being 
a characteristic of the wild worms. 

Progress of the Experiment. — In the previous part of this paper 
(a7ite, pp. 149 — 153) I have shown the result of my experiments 
up to the end of 1863. I now proceed to show the condition of 



Restoration of the Silkworm. 307 

tlie worm in the spring of 18G4, when the eggs deposited in the 
spring and autumn of the past year began to hatch on the 21st of 
March in a temperature of 65°. 

First, then, with regard to tlie white w'orms, it was observed 
that, althougli for two years running the black worms had been 
all weeded out from them, yet the per-centage of dark worms was 
far greater than before; showing thus, according to the expe- 
rience of cultivators, a great accession of strength and heallli ; 
great numbers of the eggs likewise adhered firmly to the paper 
on which they were deposited, instead of being loosely scattered 
as heretofore, but the white worms have never yet produced a 
second crop. This variety, though far from being in the best 
health, showed no increase of degeneracy over previous years. 

With regard to the black worms, they hatched on the same day 
with the others, although some had been deposited in spring and 
others in the autumn of 1863. All were decidedly unhealthy, 
although those from the autumn batch were far less so than those 
of spring, the latter being so terribly affected with jaundice, and 
with some disease that turned the worm dull green, that I was 
compelled to throw the whole away. The worms from the 
autumnal batch went on well enough and spun good cocoons, the 
moths from which deposited a goodly number of eggs in the end 
of May, and these began to hatch for a second crop in September, 
1864. They are apparently healthy, and from a few of their eggs 
I shall carry on an experiment for amusement, but I feel fully 
persuaded now, after several years of observation, that the con- 
stitution of the worm has been so thoroughly undermined that, 
although we may be able to restore it to its natural appearance, it 
will never be able thoroughly to shake off the various diseases to 
which it has so long been subject. The only way open to the 
sericulturist is, therefore, to re-seek in the original habitat in 
China for the wild worms in their natural state of freedom on the 
trees, and should any of these be procurable, then may the entire 
stock in Europe be gradually renewed, and the present impending 
ruin be averted. 

Dr. Bonavia of Lucknow, the active and enterprising secretary 
to the Agri-IIorticultural Society of that province, having in the 
spring of 1864 furnished me with a few eggs obtained from Mar- 
seilles, I proceeded to ascertain whether they differed from the 
Cashmere worm or not. 

These began to hatch, in a temperature of 67°, on the 4th of 
April, when the Cashmere worms were already fifteen days old; 
in the batch were a few of the dark coloured ones, but none, 



308 Captain T. Hutton's Characters of 

whether dark or wliite, appeared to be healthy ; still they were 
not worse than their congeners, and eventually spun better co- 
coons, being, although not so large, much more stuffed with silk. 
Between these worms and those from Cashmere stock there is not 
a shade of difference, both being B. Mori. 

Imago, — In the moth the ground colour of the wings is a dull 
ashy white ; sometimes they are entirely ashy, witliout any 
lines or other markings, while some have only two short parallel 
lines on the fore-wings near the centre of the costal margin. In 
others there are lines as below described, but no colours. These 
are from the white worm as now cultivated. 

The appearance of moths produced from black worms ap- 
proximates more to the wild B. Huttoni, both in colour and in 
markings. 

In these the ground of the wings is still ashy, and the male, as 
usual, is smaller than the female, having the shaft of the antennae 
white, with dusky black plumes; eyes black; body and ground 
of wings ashy-white, suffused with a pale brown tinge; near the 
basal angle of the fore-wing are two parallel lunate lines, the horns 
of which point inwards and rest upon the anterior and posterior 
margins ; between these lines darkish brown, in some instances 
blending them into a brown band, in others the lines are clear 
and distinct; about the middle of the costal margin, at a little 
distance within the wing, are two very short parallel lines slightly 
curved in the opposite direction to the basal ones ; these, how- 
ever, are sometimes absent ; across the wing, from the anterior to 
the posterior margin, are two partially parallel submarginal lines 
at a little distance apart, the inner one being a slight curve and 
the outer one taking a bend or lunate sweep near the exterior 
and posterior angle ; these lines are sometimes distinct and clear 
on the ashy ground, at others they are blended into a dark-brown 
band by the deep suffusion of the space between them. Fore- 
wing strongly falcate in both sexes ; the hind-wing is rounded on 
the exterior margin 5 abdominal margin folded down as in Ocinara, 
with one blackish spot about the middle ; from the anterior to the 
abdominal margin are two subparallel lines through the disc of 
the wing, curving parallel to the outer margin, sometimes distinct, 
at others blended by the suffusion of the inclosed space with brown. 
The female is much the same, but there is in both sexes the greatest 
variety in the markings, which is, I think, a clear indication that 
the insect is not in a natural condition or sound state of health. 
The under-side dull ashy, with the dark lines and bands visible, 
as above. The male often exhibits ashy wings, with brown bands, 



Silk-producing Bomhycidce. 309 

and the body dark grey. Expanse of wings in the female 2 
inches; in the male If inches, although the size varies as much 
as the colouring. 

2. BOMBYX TEXTOR, HuttOll. 

Syn. Bombyx Mori of Indian sericulturists. 

The Boro-pooloo of Bengal ; " Pat major" of Royle. 

This species, hitherto confounded with the preceding, is said to 
have been introduced from China, where it is still cultivated, 
under the name of the white cocoon, but the time of its introduc- 
tion into India appears to have been forgotten. 

In Bengal, as well as in its native country, it is an annual, 
hatching early in the spring, usually in January, yielding generally 
pure white cocoons, far inferior in size to those of B. Mori, and 
altogether of a different shape, character and texture, having an 
inclination to become pointed at each end, and with the silk not 
closely interwoven, but externally somewhat flossy and loose, 
whereas the cocoons of />. iMori are closely woven, compact, hard 
and smooth, ovate in shape, and four or five times' larger ; some 
that I have received from France being little inferior in size to 
those of the Tussur moth (Ant/iercea Paphia). 

The worm, when mature, bears a strong resemblance to that of 
the preceding species, but is much smaller both in length and 
thickness, and, as a strong mark of distinction, it may be observed 
that it preserves all its characteristics unchanged, even when cul- 
tivated in the same climate and in the same manner as B. Mori, 
neither of the species exhibiting the slightest indication of adopting 
the peculiarities of the other. 

In Dr. Bonavia's Report on Sericulture in Oudh for 18G4, he 
remarks oi B. textor, — " I cannot find any reason to believe that 
this worm belongs to a different stock from the Cashmere and 
Bokhara worms ;" others have said the same thing, which only 
proves to me that they have never looked beyond the worm itself, 
since had they done so they might have found, as I have done, 
abundant proofs of specific distinctness. 

The same gentleman proceeds to inform us that — '* Captain 
Ilutton favoured me with a small quantity of eggs of his selected 
dark-coloured worms. According to his views the dark-coloured 
variety approaches more to the wild kind, and therefore has more 
healthy blood in it than the white variety, which he considers as a 
degeneration of the original worm. It is strange though that 
the ' Boro-pooloo,' which has been reared in Bengal for a long 



310 Captain T. tlutton's Characters of 

time, contains a large number of the dark variety. One would 
be inclined to think that, considering the bad mode of rearing 
and the climate of Bengal, it would have degenerated into the 
white variety by this time, according to Captain Hutton's theory." 

The writer, however, shows, by the admission that " a large 
number of the dark variety" occurs amongst the Boro-pooloo 
worms, that "Captain Hutton's theory" actually does hold good- 
Just as with the originally dark-coloured worms of B. Mori, so 
also the originally dark-coloured worms of B. texfor " have dege- 
rated into the white variey." The occurrence of these dark worms, 
as I have pointed out (ante, pp. 148 et seq.), is due to an effort on 
the part of nature to return to the original stock, from the sickly 
degenerated state into which the species have fallen. 

Again we are told that, " the selected dark-coloured worm of 
Mussooree did very well, but I could not detect any difference 
between the cocoons of these and those of the white Cashmere 
ones. I selected many of the black ones of the Cashmere, Bok- 
hara and ' Boro-pooloo,' and kept them separate, but did not 
find that they produced better cocoons than the rest, and they all 
had one disadvantage, that is, on account of their colour, it was 
not easy to discover when they were ready to spin." 

Be it observed, however, that in furnishing these dark-coloured 
worms, I did not guarantee the same results in Oudh as are ob- 
tainable in the European climate of Mussooree. I should not 
have been at all surprised to hear, considering the heat of Oudh 
and the inexperience of the conductor of the experiments, that 
every worm had returned to a state of sickly whiteness. As to 
the difficulty of discovering when they were ready to spin, this 
could only have occurred to an unpractised eye, since there is 
always a semi-transparent yellowish waxy hue about a mature 
worm that is quite unmistakeable to an experienced eye. 

According to Mr. C. Blechynden and Mr. Bashford, this species 
is the one that in Bengal is recognized as " The Italian Stock ;" 
in which case it would appear to be identical with that which in 
France is termed " T/ie Milanese worm," though if such be the 
case, how are we to account for its only vmdergoing three moults 
in France and Italy, wliile in India it invariably has four, like all 
the others? I incline very strongly to the belief that this alleged 
peculiarity is altogether fabulous. 

In Bengal, according to Mr. C. Blechynden and others, the 
worm is also sometimes dark coloured like those of B. Mori, thus 
showing clearly that it is not in its original healthy state ; the 



Silk-producing Bomhi/cidcs. 311 

worms attain a lengtli varying from 2 to 9.\ inches, as is the case 
also at jNIussooree. 

As regards the colour of the silk, nothing could more strongly 
support my view that white is a sign of weakness and degeneracy. 
In Italy, we are informed, tliere are generally nine white cocoons 
in every ten, — but when cultivated in France bright golden 
yellow is the predominant colour; this is undoubtedly an effect 
of climate, showing that the warmth of Italy is less adapted to 
the health of the insect than the cooler temperature of France, 
which in some districts is nearly the same as that of Mussooree, 
where precisely similar results have been observed. The eggs of 
this species, hatched in March, 1864, from the deposit of May, 
1863, gave seventy-eight black to thirty-one white worms, in a 
batch of 109, whereas in 186.'} eggs procured from Bengal produced 
white worms without a single exception. The cocoons spun in 
1863 by the Bengal worms were all white, with the exception of 
about half a dozen, whereas in 1864 there was not one white 
cocoon, all being of a bright golden yellow. In China, as in 
Bengal, the usual colour is white, with an exceptional sprinkling 
of yellow cocoons. Here we have the effect of climate distinctly 
marked, and showing that while a high temperature produces 
both white worms and white silk, a temperate climate, by impart- 
ing strength, produces dark worms and yellow cocoons. 

The worm which in France gives permanently a white cocoon, 
and which was imported from China into the " arrondissement 
d'Jlais," would appear to be distinct both from B. textor and 
the other two varieties; so that if No. 1, or the Milanese 
worm, be our Boro-ponloo, as I suspect is the case, and Nos. 2 
and 4 are true B. Mori, then No. 3, with the permanent white 
silk, is in all probability a distinct species. 

The changes in the appearance of the caterpillars of B. textor 
are precisely similar to those observable in B. Mori, and need not 
be repeated ; when first hatched, the worms of B. textor are 
rather black than brown, and although in the after stages there 
is in the colouring and marking of the two species no really tan- 
gible and well-defined distinction, yet at the same time there is 
to the eye a perceptible difference in the shade of colouring, 
which is darker, more prononce, more equally diffused, and more 
of a neutral tint in B. tcxlor than in B. Mori; the latter, besides 
attaining to a far larger size and forming a totally different 
cocoon, has the dark parts less purplish and not so generally 
diffused. These remarks, however, pertain to the black worms 
only ; the white ones differ in no respect except in size. 



312 Captain T. Huttori's Characters of 

Having now disposed of the Annuals, we have to consider the 
question of distinction with regard to what are commonly termed 
" Monthly worms." 

3. BoMBYx Crcesi, Hutton. 
Syn. Bomhyx Mori, var., of Indian sericulturists. 

The " Nistry," and " Madrassee" worm of Bengal. 
This is a much smaller species than either of the preceding, 
yielding seven or eight crops of silk in the year ; the cocoon is 
small, of a beautiful bright yellow colour, and of a somewhat 
loose and flossy texture. It is said to thrive best in the summer 
months from June to October, and at other times is only kept up 
to preserve the stock. In hot weather it goes through all its 
changes from the egg to the cocoon in twenty-five days, but in 
the colder months it occupies thirty-five days. The worm is 
from Ig to 2 inches long, and is of a clear silvery or pearly hue, 
having a moist dewy appearance. The anal spine is short and 
truncated, and the dark lunar marks, which are so conspicu- 
ous on the fifth and eighth segments of the two annuals, are in 
this species wholly wanting. It is said never to yield wliite 
cocoons, but that dark worms occasionally appear in the brood. 
I suspect this to be the '' Pat minor' of Heifer and Royle. 



4. BoMBYX FORTUNATUS, HuttOn. 

Syn. Bomhyx Mori, var., of Indian sericulturists. 

The ''Dasee' worm of Bengal. (PI. XIX. fig. 3.) 

This is the smallest species of the whole, and is said to be 
hardy, but the yield of silk is uncertain ; there are no dark 
worms among them, and they thrive best in the cold season, oc- 
cupying at that time from the egg to the cocoon about forty days, 
but in hot weather only thirty-three days. 

The silk is of a golden yellow, and the cocoon small ; it resem- 
bles that of B. Crcesi in form and texture. When near maturity 
there is a very marked and perceptible difference between this 
species and all the others, the worm being of a bluish leaden-grey 
throughout; the ocelli or lunate marks on the fifth and eighth seg- 
ments are wanting, as in the last ; the anterior segments are 
slightly intumescent and wrinkled ; a short pale spine on the 
penultimate segment. The eggs are small, and pale straw colour, 
remaining so until within a day or two of hatching, when they 
become leaden-grey. 



Silk-producing Bombycida:. 313 

5. BoMBYx Arracanensis, Hutton. 

Syn. Bomhyx Mori, var., of Indian sericulturists. 
The Arracan worm. 

When first hatched, the Arracan worm is very small ; of a pale 
sandy-brown colour, and hairy, like al! the others; anterior edge 
of the first segment whitish, or livid ash; head black. 

I succeeded only once, many years ago, in obtaining a few eggs 
of this species, through the kindness of Mr. Blechynden, secre- 
tary to the Agri-Horticultural Society of India, a gentleman 
whom I have uniformly found ready to assist in every useful 
inquiry. The worms produced from these eggs were very feeble, 
and, refusing to feed, were all dead by the evening. 

The cocoon is said to be larger than those of the Bengal 
monthly worms, and the silk strong and good. 

Tiie worm is supposed to have been introduced from Burmah. 

6. BoMBYx Sinensis, Hutton. 

Syn. Bomhyx Mori, var., of Indian sericulturists. 
The small Chinese monthly worm. 
'' Sina" and " Cheena" of the Bengalis. 

Tlie worm of this prolific species is considerably smaller than 
that of B. iextor, and the cocoon partakes much of the same cha- 
racters, being sometimes white and sometimes bright yellow, with 
occasional cocoons of a beautiful faint greenish-white. The mark- 
ings of the mature insect are very different from those of the 
Boro-pooloo, and from all the others. 

Eggs received from Bengal began to hatch on the 26th of June ; 
head and pro-legs jet black and shining : the body hairy and 
pale brown, with minute anal horn. 

On the 30th of June these worms monlted, the head and pro- 
logs being black as at first ; the four anterior segments pale ashy, 
the second and third gibbous and wrinkled ; the remainder 
mottled ashy-grey ; a short blunt conical spine on the penultimate 
segment. There are also two longitudinal dorsal rows of minute 
romid black dots, four on each segment, and giving out minute 
hairs ; on the fifth segment are two semi-lunar brown marks, the 
horns of which point inwards, as in B. Mori ; the anal tubercle 
with a few short cilia at the summit, and behind this, on the anal 
segment, are two minute tubercles placed close together like the 
sights on a gun, and behind them again lower down, and on the 
anal shield or valve, are two others ; stigmata black. 

VOL. II. THIRD SERIES, PART IV. MARCH, 1865. A A 



314 Captain T. Button's Characters of 

After the second moult, the appearance is much the same, the 
head and pro-legs being black ; the four anterior segments ashy ; 
remainder mottled iron-grey ; stigmata black ; lunules as before on 
fifth segment, and two small black dots on the front of the second 
segment. 

On the 9th of July the third moult was completed, the head 
having changed to ashy-white ; the body entirely ash-coloured ; 
two small black dots in front of the second segment, and two on 
the posterior part of the third ; two lunules or sickle-shaped dark 
marks on the fifth segment, composed of two narrow dark curves 
enclosing one of ash ; on the eighth segment are two small brown 
circular spots ; in other respects as before, and still very small ; 
stigmata a black ring with white centre. 

On the 15th July the fourth moult was completed, the worm 
being of a faint waxy colour with grey-brown head ; the two dots 
on the front of the second segment now give place to a transverse 
bar with a dot at each end. Two dorsal and two lateral rows of 
small tubercular brown dots. The marks on the fifth and eighth 
segments as before, but darker and more conspicuous ; stigmata a 
black ring with white centre. After the fourth moult the worm 
increases rapidly, and finally attains the length of 2^q inches. 

On the 22nd July they began to spin, and the cocoons were 
generally of a fine bright golden-yellow, although white cocoons 
were far from uncommon. The form and loose flossy texture 
of the cocoon is the same as that of the Boro-pooloo, but those of 
the latter are larger. In the spinning of the cocoon there was an 
immense waste of silk, arising, I suspect, from some unhealihiness, 
as the worms were restless and wandering, beginning a cocoon in 
one place, and then leaving it to seek a fresh spot, which was per- 
haps in turn abandoned, until sometimes all the silk was thus frit- 
tered away, and the worm either died or became a naked pupa. 

On the 4th of August the moths began to issue from the 
cocoons, and coupled ; they were very small and altogether ashy- 
white, without any markings on tlie wings. 

The moths showed the presence of disease in having black 
inky spots upon the wings and beneath the skin of the abdomen 
at the junction of the segments ; still they coupled freely and laid 
a plentiful supply of eggs, which were at first nearly white, but 
changed to pale yellow in the course of a few hours. 

The coupling continued for about ten hours, when they volun- 
tarily separated. The males appeared to be somewhat sluggish, 
and the females in most cases, after the first coupling, would not 
permit a second. 



Silk-producing Bomhycida. 315 

On the 16th of August tlie eggs, although still of a pale straw- 
colour, became somewhat dusky and exhibited the black head of 
the young caterpillar within the shell. 

On the 17th these eggs had become grey and of good colour. 
On the 18th they all hatched in a swarm, and I found that, unlike 
B. Mori, which ceases to hatch about midday, these continued to 
come forth during the entire day and night, until all were ex- 
cluded. 

When first hatched they are about ^-^ of an inch long ; and 
after the first moult ^^ inch ; after the second moult f^ inch ; 
after the third moult I-j^^j inch; and at maturity just before 
spinning 2-^^ inches. 

I observed a curious fact with regard to some of these eggs 
that were laid on the 5th of August, — about 20 of them turned 
vinaceous on the 1 0th, while all the rest of the brood remained in 
statu quo. These coloured eggs were not scattered about among 
the others, but formed a small group by themselves. They did 
not hatch with the others, but remained in the same vinaceous 
state until the 3rd ot October, by which time the others were again 
laying eggs. Yet I could perceive no difference in the worms 
afterwards, although there had been an interval of 30 days 
between the hatching of the two parties laid on the same day. 

This species continued to yield crop after crop even up to the 
middle of December, when many of the cocoons remained dormant, 
while others yielded moths which laid eggs that remained un- 
hatched, the weather being very cold and variable, and no leaves 
remaining on the mulberry trees. Here I think we have a clear 
proof that at least this monthly worm could never have inhabited 
a northern climate, but must by nature be entirely restricted to 
warm lowland regions in which mulberry leaves are procurable all 
the year round. 

It appears from some remarks of Mr. C. Blechynden that it 
was to this species and not to the Nistry (B. Crcesi) that allusion 
was made in Young's Magazine of Agriculture, as quoted by 
Kirby and Spence, and the same gentleman observes that the 
name given to the species by the natives is " Sina" or Chinese. 
Me remarks as follows : — " The worm mentioned by Kirby and 
Spence does exist and is known as ' The China worm ; it goes 
through all its changes from egg to cocoon in twenty-two days ; 
so it is nothing strange to have new progeny in a month. The 
period may be shortened by two or three days if the room occupied 
as a rearing-room is kept at a high temperature ; it breeds all the 
year round, but in the cold weather is longer in going through its 

A A 2 



316 Captain T. Hutton's Characters of 

mutations and does not thrive well. This might be obviated by 
keepino- the room warm, but we should be thrown out by the want of 
leaves, the mulberry putting on its wintry garb of bare branches." 

This information was kindly furnished from the Radnagore 
district, but it is equally applicable to all others in India, the time 
occupied from egg to cocoon varying always with the temperature 
in which the worm is reared, being, as with the other species, more 
rapid in a high than in a cold temperature, as witness Dr. 
Bonavia's experiments in Oudh, seventeen days in June and fifty- 
one in November. 

Mr. Blechynden's remarks as to the worms thriving better in 
summer than in winter tend to support my opinion that the monthly 
worms belong naturally to the more genial temperature of the 
south, while the annuals only belong to the colder mountainous 
regions of the north. It is also said of this worm that "yellow 
cocoons will produce insects that give white silk, but that insects 
from white cocoons never produce yellow." Here then is a cor- 
roboration of my previous argument that white is a sign of de- 
generacy and weakened constitution. 

From what has already been said, then, 1 think ample proof has 
been furnished of the existence of at least six species of domes- 
cated Bombyces, instead of one as heretofore supposed. 

Before passing on to a consideration of the wild species I would 
say a word respecting the hatching of the eggs of B. Mori for a 
second crop: at Mussooree, where this was first observed, we have 
in effect what may be termed a double season, or two springs, so 
that when after the rainy season the temperature falls back to from 
68° to 62°, the eggs will again begin to hatch. I have observed 
this both in B. Mori and B. textor, but I am inclined to think that 
it will only occur with worms in a transitional state, that is to say, 
before they have become acclimatised ; and that as soon as this has 
been effected the irregular hatching may be expected to cease. 
For three years my worms of selected B. Mori, or the dark kind, 
have given a second crop ; but the very attempt to cause them to 
revert may have had some effect in unsettling them, for the white 
variety 1 have never found to yield a second brood. With 
B. textor the same thing occurred, and for three or four years they 
continued to give an autumnal crop; this year, however (although 
B. Mori is now in September hatching in a temperature of 68°), 
the Boro-pooloo remains unhatched, although in previous yeais 
the hatching commenced about tiie 22nd of August, a full montli 
earlier. I expect, therefore, that B. Mori will eventually likewise 
settle down again into an annual. That the hatching is in some 



Silk-proditcing Bomhyckla. 317 

measure to be attributed to the alteration of climate seems proved 
by the fact that the Boro-pooloo removed from Bengal into Oudh 
began to hatch for a second crop in the month of April, but was 
cliecked by being placed in a colder temperature. (Dr, Bonavia's 
Report, 1SG4, p. 8.) 

Of the moths of the different species I have said nothing because 
I do not consider any one of them to be in a natural state ; at 
j)resent, with the exception of size, the same description would 
apply nearly equally well to all of them ; and it is to be observed, 
moreover, that, even taking each species separately, there will be 
found a very great variety among the moths, so that it would be 
next to impossible to decide as to which was to be regarded as a 
typical specimen. Pale ashy-white, with a brownish band run- 
ning parallel with the exterior margin of the upper wings, is the 
usual appearance, although the band is often either partially or 
altogether absent. This uncertainty must be attributed to the un- 
settled condition of the insects, and will never cease until each is 
restored to something like its original vigour of constitution. 



Wild indigenous Species of India. 

Turning now to the wild species of Continental India, we are 
at once struck by the fact that, instead of being exclusively 
restricted in their diet to the mulberry leaf, as are the domes- 
ticated worms from China, one only of the four known species is 
found upon that tree, while two of the others are respectively 
restricted, it would appear, to the Ficus religiosa and Artocarpus 
lacoocfia, the food of the fourth species being unrecorded. 

Besides this peculiarity, the wild species ai'e remarkable for the 
variety and beauty of the colours with which the worms are 
ornamented, as well as by the presence of several longitudinally- 
disposed rows of semi-horny spines in addition to the dorsal spine 
on the penultimate segment, as possessed by all the Chinese 
species. 

These natural differences in the two sections of this group are 
not, however, in my opinion, sufficient to warrant the inference 
that the wild and the domesticated species belong to different 
genera, any more than the presence or absence of tails, in the 
species of the genus Papilio, could do so ; for we see that in 
respect to colour, the Chinese worms, when restored to some 
degree of health, exhibit a very different appearance from that 
of the worm in its usual sickly state, and that they actually make 
a near approach to the uncultivated species. Besides which, 
there are so many traits in the habits, manners, structure and 



318 Captain T. Hutton's Characters of 

produce of the two sections that are common to both, that the 
differences observable can be regarded only as specific and not 
generic ; and although the food of the wild species differs in some 
instances from that of the domesticated races, yet in every case 
the trees are found to belong to the same family, and to be closely 
allied to the mulberry. 

I consequently feel inclined to reject the Genus Theophila, 
which Mr. F. ^[oore (see Trans. Ent. Soc, 3rd Series, i. 315) 
proposes to establish for the reception of the wild species ; more 
especially since it is very doubtful whether one at least of these 
could stand under either Bombyx or Theophila, while as regards 
B. subnotata of Singapore, we know nothing of the larva, and 
therefore cannot say whether or not it exhibits the spines and 
other characteristics of the known wild larvae ; and the same may 
be said of B. religiosce. 

It is this eagerness on the part of European systematists to 
give names to the species contained in the Noah's arks over 
which they preside, that leads to so much positive confusion as to 
what is, and what is not, a species, — a remark well illustrated by 
the late creation of an Anthercea under the specific name of 
Mezanhooria (see Trans. Ent. Soc, 3rd Series, i. 318), which 
naine is applied in Assam, by the native sericulturists, to distin- 
guish the silk of the Mooga (Anlhercea Assaina), when fed upon 
the tree called Addakoory, from that produced by it when fed 
upon other trees. A very similar mistake, at which the working 
naturalist may, without offence, be permitted to smile, was 
recently made by a French savant of some repute, who applied to 
me for information regarding certain alleged species of Tussur 
moths, known in India as Anthercea Teriah, Anth. Dahrah, Anlh. 
Manga, and several more, these being, not the names of insects, but 
technical terms applied by the native cultivators of Beerbhoom to 
particular qualities of cocoons of Anthercea Paphia, which are 
assorted according to size, colour, &c., under these various titles. 

It would appear that while one school is labouring hai-d to 
prove that all organized beings are the descendants of " one 
primordial type," others are equally bent on proving that each 
species is sui generis, and entitled to stand alone. 

7. Bombyx Huttoni, Westw. (PI. XIX. fig. 4.) 
Syn. Bombyx Huttoni, Westwood, Cab. Or. Ent. pi. 12, f. 4. 
Theophila Huttoni, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 3rd 
Series, i. 314, 315. 
This species, which feeds on the wild indigenous mulberry tree 
of the North Western Himalaya, is apparently confined to the 



Silk-producing Bombycidce. 319 

mountains, from the neighbourhood of Dehra, at about 2,000 feet 
of elevation up to 7,000 and even 8,000 feet. It does not appear 
to occur in Nipal, but ranges westward from about Kemaon. 
Tin's worm is double-brooded, and yields two crops of silk in the 
year ; this is of the very best quality, but unfortunately the worm 
is so erratic and intractable, that hitherto all attempts to domesti- 
cate it have proved abortive ; it will not remain in the feeding 
trays, like the Chinese worms, but wanders away until the brood 
is lost. The only method of rearing it is to leave it at full 
liberty on the trees, where it remains perfectly quiet and con- 
tented, but has so many enemies to contend with, in the shape of 
birds, flies, bugs and wasps, as to render a crop of silk very 
precarious and almost unattainable, witliout constant watching 
and expense, which renders the crop unprofitable. 

As previously stated, I discovered this species at Simla in the 
autumn of 1837, on the wild forest mulberry, and again after the 
campaign in Afghanistan, at Mussooree in 1842, at which time 
I sent it to Mr. Westwood, in England. 

The wild mulberry-tree of the North Western Himalaya 
usually comes into leaf about the first week in March, but of 
course this is in a great measure dependent upon the situation, 
elevation and temperature of the season. 

The eggs of this silkworm are firmly attached to the bark of 
the tree, sometimes on the trunk, but more generally on the 
underside of the branches, where they remain spread out in 
clusters and exposed all the winter to the action of the frost, but 
where they are at the same time protected from the rain and 
snow, so as to run no risk of being washed off by the dissolving 
of their agglutinating gum. 

The colour of the egg is a pale straw-yellow, which, unlike the 
eggs of the Chinese races, is retained to the last. The egg is 
considerably larger than those of B. Mori. The young worm is 
disclosed from the egg a few days after the opening of the leaf- 
buds ; the hatching is, however, very irregular and continues 
sometimes even up to the end of April, although this is generally 
dependent upon the situation of the tree. 

In some seasons these worms are so numerous that the trees 
are completely denuded of every leaf by the middle of May, and 
in such cases the worms, after gnawing off all the leaves which 
envelope the cocoons already formed, are compelled to descend 
from the tree and spin among the leaves of the neighbouring shrubs 
and bushes, while many that are still immature necessarily die of 
hunger, or fall a prey to birds. The trees that have been thus 
denuded speedily put forth fresh leaves, to be in due time consumed 



320 Captain T. Ilutton's Characters of 

by the autumnal brood. Trees thus stripped in the middle of 
May will be again in full foliage by the end of tlie first week in 
June. 

It is curious to observe the instinctive knowledge which these 
worms appear to possess of the approach of a hail-storm ; no 
sooner are the peals of thunder heardj than the whole brood 
seems to regard them as a warning trumpet-call, and all are 
instantly in motion seeking shelter beneath the thicker branches, 
and even descending the trunk of the tree to some little distance, 
but never proceeding so low down as to lose the protecting shelter 
of the boughs. For rain they care nothing, but appear to be 
able to distinguish between the coming of a heavy shower, and 
the more pitiless pelting of the hail. 

When the caterpillar is newly hatched its appearance, as seen 
under a good lens, is as follows : — Head and pro-legs shining jet 
black ; body dark brown, approaching to black ; the first segment 
whitish-ash, the fourth pale rufous, as are the anal feet ; tubercles 
disposed in longitudinal rows, giving forth short tufts of hair; a 
small anal tubercle on the penultimate segment : thus far there is 
scarcely a difference between it and the young Chinese worm. 
Length fully A of an inch : strong and robust, as compared with 
the best domestic stock. In the course of a day or two, the four 
anterior segments become greatly swollen and of a faint livid cream- 
colour, the dorsal portion being mottled or dotted with deep 
brown ; the orange or rufous colour of the fourth segment some- 
what deeper. 

About the fourth day the four anterior segments become swollen 
up very remarkably into a globular form, the dark spots being 
apparently beneath the skin ; the rest of the body dark brown, with 
here and there a tinge of dull yellowish. On the fifth day they 
prepared to moult. After the first moult, the second and third 
segments form a globular ball, apparently out of all proportion to 
the rest of the body ; the general ground colour becomes creamy- 
white, with the fourth segment yellow, the second and third being 
dotted above with dull leaden-grey ; the remainder closely marbled 
over, or variegated without any definite arrangement, with black, 
grey, orange, ash and yellow blending like tortoise-shell ; the 
fleshy tubercles or spines short, conical and brown ; skin smooth. 

In the subsequent stages the general appearance remains the 
same, except that the spines are long and taper to a point, being 
fleshy at the base, but becoming somewhat horny towards the 
summits ; all bend backwards in a curve except the central one on 
the penultimate segment, which lies down horizontally and points 
forward. 



Silk-producing Bomhycidce. 321 

When mature the ground colour becomes yellowish-vvliite 
beautifully and closely marbled over with orange, dark ash-grey, 
leaden blue and brown ; the second and third segments swollen into 
a large globose mass ; the anterior segment creamy-yellow, which 
colour extends backwards on each side in a broad band through 
the sixth segment. This resembles the ashy band apparent in the 
worm of B. Mori, after reversion to its natural dark hue. There 
are two dorsal rows of long, black, slender and sharp-pointed 
spines commencing with the fifth segment, their base being orange- 
brown, and the four anterior segments being without them, as in 
Attacus ^llas ; on the anal shield are four somewhat conical 
orange-brown rudimentary tubercles, and rows of small ones 
along the sides ; the dorsal portion of the four anterior segments 
clouded or blotched with dull leaden-grey markings, apparently 
showing from beneath the skin ; on the third segment are two 
brown spots or ocelli, marked within with several minute irregular 
dots of bluish-white ; on the front of the second segment are two 
similar round spots, having a narrow edge and central dot of 
bluish-white ; there are likewise several black spots both before 
and behind these ocelli ; on the fifth segment are two irregular- 
shaped jet-black spots dotted with bluish-white, and from the 
centre of these springs the first pair of dorsal spines, which are 
altogether black : head mottled brown and grey. 

It is, however, almost impossible accurately and minutely to 
describe the distribution and blending of the various colours with 
which the insect is ornamented. 

The cocoon is spun within the leaf from the beginning of May 
to the end of that month, according to the time of hatching, but 
I have sometimes taken cocoons as early as the Ijth of April and 
again in September. 

The figure of the moth, as represented on pi. 12 of West wood's 
Cabinet of Oriental Entomology, is, in several respects, very faulty, 
owing to the specimen sent to him having been injured during its 
long journey. 

Expanse of wing in the male l^ inch; of females in general 
2-j?^ inches. A black transverse band crosses the upper part of 
the abdomen at the waist, the posterior edge of which is bordered 
by a narrow line of ash ; on the reflected abdominal margin of the 
hinder wings are two white spots ; all the markings on tlie wings 
are of the same character as those upon the wings of B. Mori, 
but are far better defined and more intense than those in West- 
wood's figirre. On the hinder wings the sub-marginal line is 
ash-coloured, as is also that on the upper wing. The plumes of 



322 Captain T. Hutton's Characters of 

the antennae are likewise much longer than in the figure, which, 
taking it all in all, is very inaccurate. 

In order if possible to reclaim this species and reduce it to a 
state of domestication, I succeeded in 1859 in obtaining a reci- 
procal cross between it and the Cashmere worm. In this experi- 
ment the female wild moth was coupled with the male B. Mori, 
and the female B. Mori with the male B. Huttoni ; the coupling of 
the latter was effected with the greatest difficulty, and the few 
eggs obtained were all unprolific; this always proved to be the 
case in repeated trials. With regard to the other attempt, the 
difficulty was not so great, the domestic males eagerly sought the 
wild females ; the latter, however, exhibited an unmistakable dis- 
like of such pigmy sweethearts, though a few coupled and de- 
posited eggs. Still very few of these were prolific, and the cater- 
pillars produced from them retained all the intractable habits of 
the wild stock, and were accordingly placed upon the trees, where 
in due time they spun their cocoons. But neither in the cater- 
pillar nor in the cocoon was there any perceptible difference from 
the wild race, and although some of these females were again 
crossed by hybrid males, the progeny was still to all intents and 
purposes as decidedly B. Huttoni as at first. 

From the refusal of the wild males to couple, and from the 
great difficulty experienced in inducing the females to allow the 
domestic males to approach, it may be said that a generic division 
would be justifiable ; yet a certain coupling did take place and the 
progeny was fertile, although the strength and health of the wild 
race completely outweighed the influence of the degenerated 
domestic stock. 

It was with a view to the eventual cultivation of the silk of this 
species that, after a lengthened correspondence, the Government 
of India in 1858 consented to the formation of a mulberry plan- 
tation at Mussooree under my superintendence, but having fully 
satisfied myself in the course of the second year, that from the 
intractable nature of the worm it would be impossible to domes- 
ticate it, the Government was only too glad to foreclose the ex- 
periment, while I having purchased the only tract of land suitable 
and available for the experiment, was left to "pay the piper" on 
the plea that the purchase had never been ordered ! 

8. BoMBYX Bengalensis, Hutton. 
The Wild Bengal Silkworm. (PI. XIX. fig. 5.) 
This species has apparently become exceedingly Vare, if not 
extinct, in the neighbourhood of Calcutta, where it feeds on the 



Silk-producing Bomhycida. 323 

Artocarpus lacoocha, and was discovered some years ago by the 
late W. Frith, Esq., of Calcutta, who showed me specimens of 
the moth in 1849, but stated that the worm fed on the mulberry 
tree and was not uncommon about Moorshedabad. The moth, 
however, which he then showed me was totally unlike one pre- 
sented by Mr. A. Grote, being larger and of a brown colour. 
Can there be an undescribed species at Moorshedabad ? 

Of B. Bengalens'is I have never been able to procure the eggs, 
although Mr. Grote has interested himself in the matter; he now 
reports that for the last year or two the species has disappeared. 
It is probable, however, that it might still be procurable in other 
parts of Bengal where the bread-fruit tree flourishes. From a 
well-executed coloured drawing of the larva, furnished through 
the kindness of this gentleman, I am enabled to record its appear- 
ance as follows : — Head brown ; from the head to the middle of 
the sixth segment ashy white or cream colour ; the second and third 
segments wrinkled and slightly intumescent, bearing a few small 
rufous spots ; prolegs rufous brown, with blackish tips ; from the 
middle of the sixth segment to the anal feet pale rufous-brown, each 
segment dotted with black ; stigmata oval white rings, with a black 
centre ; on the dorsal portion of the fifth segment are two slightly 
raised round black spots, from the centre of which radiate narrow 
white stripes, and from which rise the first or anterior pair of 
dorsal spines, which are wholly black ; on the eighth segment are two 
similar spots of a rufous-red colour with white rays, and bearing 
two black spines ; all the other segments bear black dorsal spines, 
with rufous bases ; the spine on the centre of the penultimate 
segment very large and strong, thick at the base or lower half, 
and becoming suddenly attenuated and falcate, pointing back- 
wards, the tip only black, the rest pale rufous ; the dorsal spines 
are represented as standing erect. Legs rufous-brown, each 
bearing a pointed whitish stripe down its centre. The four an- 
terior segments smooth and without spines. In point of size it 
appears to be far inferior to the larva of B. Hultoni; the four 
anterior segments make no approach to the globular mass which 
characterises that part in the Himalayan species, neither does it at 
all resemble it in the colouring. 

The moth as furnished by Mr. Grote is of an ashy-white, and 
the cocoon that of a true Bomhyx. 



324 Captain T. Hutton's Characters of 

9. BoMBYX suBNOTATA, Walker. 

Syn. Bomhyx suhnotata, Walker, Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. iii. 
Zool. p. 188 (1859). 

Of this species nothing more appears to be known than is con- 
tained in Mr. Walker's description of the moth {iibi supra), and 
that it was procured from Singapore by Mr. A. R. Wallace ; 
neither the larva nor its food are mentioned. 

In the absence of all information regarding the caterpillar, 
whether it is spined, like the tvvo preceding, or smooth, as in the 
Chinese stock, it is impossible to decide upon the propriety of 
placing this species in the proposed new genus Theophila. 

10. BoMBYX HoRSFIELDI, MoorC. 

Syn. Bomhyx Horsfieldi, Moore, Cat. Ind. Mas. ii. pi. xi.a, 

fig. 5. 
This is not a Continental species and is merely inserted here 
to complete the series ; the moth is described and figured in 
the Catalogue of the India Museum, but here again we know 
nothing of the larva, cocoon or food. 
Its habitat is Java. 

11. BoMBYx Sherwilli, Moore, MS. 
Syn. Bomhyx Sherwilli, Moore, in epistold. 

Of this again the larva is unknown, and indeed the habitat is 
doubtful too. According to Mr. F. Moore the specimen was 
obtained from a collection said to have been made in the S. E. 
Himalayas by the late Major J. L. Sherwill ; but Entomologists 
who have long collected in that quarter assure me that they have 
never seen a specimen of Bomhyx from thence. Nevertheless, 
this is but negative evidence; and if once a specimen has been 
obtained others may probably follow. According to Mr. Moore 
it is "allied to B. Hultoni, and differs from it in being somewhat 
larger, and of a greyer colour, the forewing having the apical 
patch fuliginous instead of black, and it has only a single trans- 
verse discal streak (instead of the two, as in B. Huttoni). A most 
prominent character is that the abdomen is tipt with black, as well 
as having the dark ashy waistband." 

Large light-coloured specimens are sometimes seen of B. Hul- 
toni, but I do not remember ever to have seen the abdomen tipt 
with black. 



Silk-producing Bomhycidis. 325 

12. BoMBYx religiosjE, Heifer. 
Syn. Bombyx religiosce, Heifer, J. A. S. Beng. vi. p. 41. 
Bornhijx Hutloni, apud Moore, Cat. Ind. Mus. 
The Joree Silkworm Moth, Heifer. 

The Deo-mooga Silkworm, Hiigon, J. A. S. Beng. vi. pp. 
32, 41. 

Habitat Assam, Sylhet. 

Of this species, notwithstanding the number of years that have 
elapsed since its discovery, and ray repeated efforts to obtain it 
through the assistance of gentlemen resident in Assam, nothing 
more appears to be known than what Dr. Heifer recorded in 
1837. It is said to be somewhat rare, but this I suspect is rather 
to be attributed to the want of research than to any actual scarcity, 
since the insect appears to have been in considerable abundance 
on the trees at the time when its discovery was made. 

The larva of B. rel'ig'tosce is said to feed on the leaves of the 
Peepul tree or Ficus religiosa, and for want of more recent infor- 
mation I must content myself with the account furnished by Dr. 
Heifer (^ubi sup.), calling attention to the fact of the worm 
bearing two names, — " The Joree" and "The Deo-mooga" silk- 
worm, whence, together with one or two other circumstances to 
be pointed out, 1 am inclined to think there are two species united 
under this name, and that neither of them belongs to the genus 
Bombi/x. 

It is to be observed that the species was discovered in Cachar 
by Mr. Hugon in 1834, and he describes the worm as being 
active, very slender in proportion to its length, scarcely 2\ inches 
long, of a reddish colour, and glazed, or shining. The moth, he 
says, is " very much like that of the mulberry ; so is the cocoon 
also in appearance, colour and size." 

Now in describing the worm there is not the least allusion to 
the slender semi-horny spines which are so remarkable both in 
B. Hutloni and B. Bengalensis, while the slender glazed form is 
again unlike those species, and seems to approach more closely to 
the genus Ocinara. 

In regard to the cocoon, while Mr. Hugon declares it to be 
very like that of the mulberry worm, '* in appearance, colour and 
size," Dr. Heifer, on the other hand, declares it to be " very 
different from the cocoon of the mulberry moth." 

It is to be remembered, however, that Mr. Hugon spoke of an 
insect which he discovered in Cachar, while Dr. Heifer describes 
one discovered by Major Jenkins in Assam, where " it yields a 



326 Captain T. Hutton's Characters of 

silk, if not superior, yet certainly equal, to that of B. Mori, 
\^1 B, textor, or B. Crcesi, probably]. The cocoon shows the 
finest filament, and has very much silky lustre. It is exceedingly 
smooth to the touch, and very different from the cocoon of the 
mulberry moth. The worm lives on the Pipul tree (Ficus 
leligiosa)." 

It seems to have been entirely overlooked that Mr. Hugon in 
Cachar found his worms on " the Bur-tree {Ficus Indica)," and 
that " in appearance, colour and size," they were very like the 
mulberry worm ; while Major Jenkins in Assam found his on an 
allied, but still a different tree, " the Pipul (Ficus reUgiosa),' and 
the cocoon w^as " very different from that of the mulberry moth." 
Is it not quite possible that there may be two distinct species, the 
Deo-mooga of Cachar, and the Joree of Assam? 

What renders the uncertainty still greater is the fact that Mr. 
Hugon himself " was unable to determine whether the Joree and 
Deo-mooga were the same, and was inclined, from the colour of 
the cocoons and the slight observations he was able to make on 
the latter, to think them distinct." My own opinion, judging 
from what has been advanced, and from the fact that the cocoons 
are said to be less even than those of the Dasee (^B.fortunatus), 
is, that neither the one nor the other belongs to Bombyx, but will 
be found to be species of the allied genus Ocinara, an opinion 
supported in some measure by the nature of the food, these insects 
feeding on two species of Ficus, ^ust as our two mountain species 
atMussooree are confined to the Ficus venosa. 

Genus Ocinara, Walker. 
The insects of this genus, although in some respects allied to 
Bombyx, show likewise in the larva state a strong approach to the 
Geometry, being characterized by knotty and dry bud-like ex- 
crescences, which, with the rigid attitude assumed when at rest, 
give the insect the appearance of a withered twig or piece of dry 
stick. In those discovered at Mussooree the larvae appear to be 
almost entirely night-feeders, seldom moving during the day 
from the position they have taken up, which is usually at the 
end of a thin twig, along which they lie stretched out immovable, 
and to which they are so much assimilated, both in colour and 
ruggedness of appearance, as easily to pass unnoticed. 

1. Ocinara Moorei, Hutton. 
The larva of this species feeds on the Ficus venosa, and is found 
at Mussooree at an elevation of about 5,400 feet ; it spins a small 



Silk-producing Bombycidce. 327 

white silken cocoon on the inner surface of the leaf, or even, 
should it fall from the tree, under a tile or stone, or against a 
flower-pot. There are certainly two broods during the summer 
months, and I suspect as many as three or four. 

The larva is of an earthy-brown colour, and covered with short 
hairs ; it has a raised transverse ridge across the second segment, 
in front of which is a blackish patch ; it has a very short truncated 
spine on the middle of the penultimate segment, which usually lies 
down pointing backwards, and even with the plane of the back ; 
it is, however, capable of being raised into an erect position when 
the insect is disturbed. The general appearance is rough and 
bark-like, and the ventral line is thickly fringed, as are the feet 
also, with rather long hairs. 

The moth, judging from the description given by Mr. Moore of 
his species 0. Lida, appears closely allied to it, and were it not 
that he makes no mention of the three black spots on the ab- 
dominal margin of the lower wings, of a black dot on the disc 
beneath, and gives palpi ferruginous instead of dusky black, I 
should have been strongly tempted to consider them as identical. 

The wings in both sexes are of a creamy white, partially suffused 
with a faint ferruginous tinge ; an indistinct undulating sub- 
marginal line bearing a ferruginous mark on each nervure, the 
largest being on the costal margin ; abdominal and outer edges of 
the wings well fringed with long cilia, forming a well-marked 
border ; an indistinct sub-basal wavy line with one or two in- 
distinct ferruginous dots on the nervures ; on the hinder wing is 
a wavy, very indistinct pale-brown band at about one-third from 
the margin ; the fringe of the lower wings terminates in a pro- 
jecting square patch, caused by the turning down or folding of the 
remaining portion of the abdominal margin, on which are three 
ferruginous dots. Body tricarinated, or having a dorsal and a 
lateral line on each side composed of tufts of long scales of a 
triangular form, and appearing like a projecting serrated line ; 
colour very faint ferruginous, or sandy brown, very little darker 
than the wings. Antennae bipeclinated and faintly tinged with 
ferruginous ; thorax, and forehead between the eyes, white ; eyes, 
palpi, and inner side of forelegs, dusky black ; under side ashy 
white, the wavy brown bands and spots well defined, and there is 
a black dot on the disc of the lower wings ; body beneath whitish. 
Expanse of wing in the male Ig inch, in the female 2 inches. 

The silk of this species is fine and elastic ; the cocoon oval, 
flattened beneath where in contact with the leaf, convex above ; 
it is enveloped in a light screen of floss silk, spread over it in 



328 Captain T. Hutton's Characters of 

curls, and not web-like as in Bomhyx. The cocoon is too small 
to become valuable. I have taken cocoons both in May and in 
August. The larva is usually found stretched along a thin branch, 
to which it clings very closely, and is scarcely distinguishable 
from the wood. 

2. OCINARA LACTEA, Hutton. (PI. XIX. fig. 6.) 

The larva of this species feeds likewise upon the Ficus venosa, 
at the same place and elevation as the last, and is often found 
with it on the same tree. It appears to be a far more abundant 
species than the former, and is usually found stretched along the 
extreme end of a twig, and so close that it appears to be part and 
parcel of the branch ; at other times it will be found obliquely 
erect and stiff so as to resemble a dry stick. When very young 
it resorts also to the edges and back of the leaf. It is without 
hairs, and quite naked. The young worm is of a pale-yellowish 
green, resembling the leaf-stalk upon which it rests ; on the back 
of the second segment is a slightly raised transverse ridge tinged 
with brown, and on the fifth and ninth segments are two slightly- 
raised round tubercles of the same colour ; an anal horn, on the 
penultimate segment, which is also light brown. When adult, the 
colour changes to a russet brown like the bark of the tree, and 
the transverse ridge and tubercles become well developed and 
somewhat darker than the rest of the body ; the anal horn or 
spine generally appears as if truncated by the loss of the summit, 
— yet such is not the case, as the extremity is retractile, and is 
generally withdrawn into the lower part as a sheath ; when the 
animal is about to moult, or is disturbed and irritated, the sum- 
mit of this spine is exserted, and instead of being brown, like the 
base, is whitish ; when exserted the whole stands erect, slightly 
inclining backwards. It would be a difficult task to explain the 
use of this curious contrivance, and I have been hitherto unable to 
detect anything that could lead me even to conjecture what purpose 
it can possibly serve. 

The shape of the larva is similar to that of 0. dilectula, as 
fiij-ured in the second volume of the Lepidopierous Insects in the 
India Museum, except that in the figure of the latter there are no 
raised tubercles. 

From the larva of the preceding species it differs both in shape 
and habits. In 0. lactea the entire form and appearance are those 
of a Geometra, but it nevertheless progresses in the usual way like 
the larva of Bombyx. In its manner of stretching from the twig 
to an adjacent leaf while feeding, and in its habit, when at rest, 



Silk-producing Bomhycid(B. 329 

of folding tlie prolegs together and obliquely raising all the 
anterior segments of the body, as far back as tlie sixth, off the 
surface of tlie twig or leaf, and at an acute angle with the plane 
upon which it stands, it very strongly resembles a Geometra, and 
gives one the idea of its forming a connecting link between that 
curious genus and the Bombyces. It feeds principally at night 
like the last, and in its younger stages is usually found at the 
extreme end of a young leafy twig, the terminal bud of which it 
strongly resembles. It spins a small compact cocoon, shaped like 
that of the last, but of a sulphur-yellow colour instead of white, and 
the flossy web which covers it is more closely woven into a kind 
of network, with regular open circular meshes. The eggs are at 
first of a very pale straw yellow, and are deposited in short lines 
of three to eight in each ; after a time a red dot appears in the 
centre of the egg, and then, in a day or two more, the entire egg 
changes to a dark stone-grey, and the young worm speedily 
emerges. 

The moth is small and white, often with the wings partially 
hyaline and iridescent, though this, I am inclined to think, arises 
from the abrasion of the scales, which are very loose and easily 
rubbed off. The upper wing has an indistinct and nearly obsolete 
submarginal and slightly undulating double line, vvith a minute 
black dot on each nervure, and a larger one on the costal margin 
flanked on each side by a smaller one. About the middle of the 
costal margin, at a little distance within the wing, is a black spot 
formed by two short parallel lines close togetiier, and an almost 
obsolete double-curved line near the basal angle, running from the 
anterior to the posterior margin ; both the wings are rounded ex- 
ternally. The lower wing lias also an obscure brownish sub- 
marginal line without dots ; a small black dot on the disc, w-hich 
however is not always present, and three well-defined black spots 
on the fringe of the abdominal margin, which, as in the foregoing 
species, is folded down. 1'he under-side is dull white, with the 
discal spots and submarginal lines more clearly developed than 
above. Eyes and palpi black ; antennae with white shafts and 
ferruginous plumes : body densely clothed with long hair-like 
scales; upper surface of body smoky ash-grey; thorax and 
forehead between the eyes white. 

Throughout July and August the larvae of this species are 
abundant at an elevation of 5,400 feet on the fleas renosa, which 
the natives term " Doodli," from the milky nature of its juices which 
exude freely when a leaf is plucked. In the female of this moth 

VOL. II. THIRD SERIES, PART IV. MARCH, 1865. BB 



330 Captain T. Hutton's Characters of 

tliere is a dorsal keel, serrated, and composed of long scales. 
Expanse of female 1^^^ inch, of male l-f^^ inch. 

3. OciNARA Comma, Button. 

This occurs in the Dehra Doon at the foot of the mountains, 
where the moth is said to be usually found on the Mango tree, but 
it has not yet been ascertained whether the larva feeds upon its 
leaves or not. 

The nioth is white, both in wings and body, with a single 
comma-like black mark about the centre of the anterior margin of 
the upper wing and at a little distance from the margin ; under- 
side also white, with the comma mark a little less distinct, and on 
the centre of the hinder wing is a very faint indication of a black 
spot; antennae bipectinate, the shaft white, with faint ferruginous 
plumes ; the face and palpi dull yellowish ; the two anterior pairs 
of legs each bearing two black spots on the outer edge; expanse 
of wing in a female \-^^ inch. 

Appears in July and August. 

Besides these, I am informed that other Continental species 
have been captured at Darjiling, but to these at present I have no 
access. 

There are likewise two species from Java, noticed by Mr. 
Moore in the second volume of the Lepidoptera contained in the 
India Museum. These are — 

4. OciNARA DiLECTULA, Walker. 
Syn. Ocinara dilectula, Walker, List Lep. Het. Brit. Mus. pt. 

vii. p. 1768(1856); Moore, Catal. Lep. 

Ind. Mus. ii. p. 381. 
Habitat Java, where procured by the late Dr. Horsfield. 
Like the species at Mussooree it is said to " feed upon a species 
of Ficus, bearing the native name of Weringin." This circum- 
stance seems to point out the species of Ficus as the natural 
food of the genus, and makes me still more inclined to regard the 
Bomhyx religiose^ as belonging in reality to Ocinara. 

5. OciNAUA LiDA, Moore. 

Syn. Ocinara Lida, Moore, Cat. Lep. Ind. Mus. ii. p. 381. 

This is likewise a Javanese species discovered by Dr. Horsfield, 

but nothing is recorded of the larva or its food. The moth is 

described in the above-named publication, and appears to be 

closely allied to my O. Moorei. 



Silk-producing Bomhycidce. 3.31 

Genus Trilocha, Moore. 
1. Trilocha varians, Moore. (PI. XIX. fig. 1 $ , fig. 2 ? .) 
Syn. Trilocha varians, Moore, Cat. Lep. Ind. Mus. ii. p. 382. 

Naprepa varians, Walker, List Lep. Het. Brit. Mus. pt. v. 
p. 1153 (1855). 
This species, vvliich is figured in vol. ii. of the Catalogue of 
Lepidoptera in the India Museum, is said to have been presented 
by J. N. Ward, Esq., from Canara, but nothing more is recorded ; 
the figure given by Mr. Moore (ubi sup.) looks wonderfully like 
an Ocinara. 

Note. — The larvae here figured (PI. XIX. figs. 1,2), which I believe to be 
those of the male and female (the moths of both being also figured in the ori- 
ginal drawings from which these are copied) were discovered in the neighbour- 
hood of Calcutta, by Mr. A. Grote, by whom they were kindly forwarded to me. 
They were found in February and March, feeding on Ttophis aspera, other larvae 
being also taken on Ficus indica and F. religiosa. Spins a small yellowish-white 
cocoon, within the leaf or naked. Drawings of the same insect in all its stages 
were made by Mr. Walter Elliot during his residence in Madras, the larvae 
there also being found on Fictis religiosa. — F. IMoore, February, 1865. 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATE XIX. 

Fig. 1. Larva of Trilocha varia7is, $. 



2. 


„ „ $. 


3. 


, Bomhyr fartiinatus. 


4. 


, Bomhy.i Huitoni. 


5. 


, Bomhyx Bengalensis, 


6. 


, Ocinara lactea. 


7. 


, Bombyx Mori, reverted. 


8. 


, „ „ as cultivated 



B Ii 2 



( 333 ) 



XV. Descriptions of new Genera and Species q/'Phy- 
tophaga. By J. S. Baly. 

[Read 6th February, 1865.] 



Pontocometes Dowuesii. 
Glyptoscelis aneipennis. 
„ fascicularis. 
,, albicans. 
Myochrous Satlei. 

,, eiplanattis. 
,, armatus. 

Corystheaferoi. 
Lamprnspharus (n. g.) Hebe, 
„ 5-pustulntiiS. 

,, lateralis. 

,, sciiitiUaris. 

Chalcoplacis (n. g.) snmptuosa, 
Chalcophyma (n,g.) cretijera. 
„ Imla. 

„ tarsalis. 

„ tuberculosa. 

Endocephaliis spilotus. 
Colaspis elegantula, 
Sophrtenii (n. g.) ornala. 
Crepidodera elegantula. 
„ Biaiiliensis. 

Aphlhona masi-ens. 



List of Species. 

Cmlomera rujicornis. 

„ Iceta. 

,, bipustulata. 
Diabrotica cocci nea. 

,, piiUhra. 

,, puncticoUis. 

,, sublimbata. 

,, Deyrollei. 

„ tenella. 

,, suturalis. 
Hebe. 

,, discoidalis. 

,, 4-vittata^ 

,, dimidiatipentiis. 

,, Saundersi. 

,, suhsulcata. 

,, tetruspiliita, 

Uroplata \2-macnlata, 

,, Walkeri. 

,, Sievensi. 

,, Grayi. 

,, terminalis. 

„ \ti-gnttata. 



Fam. CLYTHRIDiE. 

Genus Clythra, Fabr. 
1. Clythra {Patitocometcs) Downesii. 

Elongata, subcylindrica, cseruleo-viridis, nitida, subtus dense, 
supra sparse pube grisea vestita ; thorace transverse, angub's 
posticis late rotundatis, lateribus anguste flavo-marginatis ; 
elytris distincte subremote punctatis, pube suberecta sparse 
vestitis, fulvis, fascia transversa pone medium caerulea. 

Mas. — Capite exserto, infra oculos prolongate, mandibulis pro- 
ductis, acutis, intus fortiter lobatis, facie rugosa ; tborace 
lateribus rotundatis, antice convergentibus, disco sat profunde 
transversim excavato, subremote punctato ; pedibus anticis 
longissimis. 



334 Mr. J. S. Baly's Descriptions of 

Fcem. — Capite brevi, infra oculos non prolongate, mandibulis 
brevibus ; facie laevi ; tborace lateribus basi rotundaiis, bine 
ad apicem convergentibus, disco minus distincte transversim 
excavato, pedibus anticis non elongatis. 

Long. ^ 4, ¥ Si lin. 

Hab. Bombay. Collected by E. Downes, Esq. 

Fam. EUMOLPIDiE. 

Genus Glyptoscelis, Leconte. 
1. Glyptoscelis ceneipennis. 

Elongatus, parallelus, subcylindricus, obscure rufus, nitidus, 
pilis albidis adpressis dense vestitus ; antennis pedibusqne 
pallidioribus, tborace transverse, sat crebre punctato, lateribus 
rotundato-angustatis ; elytris viridi-aeneis, inordinatim punc- 
tatis, transversim rugulosis, singulis apice productis, acumi- 
natis, pilis fulvis et albis intermixtis vestitis, his hie illic in 
fasciculis parvis congregatis. 

Long. 3 lin. 

Hab. Venezuela, Trinidad. 

2. Glyptoscelis fasciculans. 
Elongatus, parallelus, subcylindricus, obscure piceus, supra pilis 
fuscis, subtus pilis albidis adpressis dense vestitus ; pedibus 
obscure rufis, antennis rufo-fulvis, ad apicem infuscatis ; 
tborace vix transverso, lateribus fere rectis a basi ad apicem 
convergentibus, minus crebre punctato, disco vittis quatuor 
pilorum pallidorum,duabusinternis antice abbreviatis, ornato; 
elytris pai-allelis, apicem versus vix angustatis, singulis apice 
paullo productis, acuminatis, inordinatim punetatis, trans- 
versim rugulosis, obscure viridi-aeneis, pilis fuscis et albis 
intermixtis vestitis, his hie illie fasciculatis. 
Long. 4 lin. 
Hab. Columbia. 

This insect is easily separated from the foregoing by its some- 
what larger size, different coloration, and by the fuscous pubes- 
cence of the upper surface of the body ; the pale vittae on the 
thorax are only visible in fresh specimens. 

3. Glyptoscelis albicans. 
Elongatus, subparallelus, subcylindricus, piceus, non metal- 
licus, pilis adpressis obscure albidis dense vestitus, ely- 
trorum pilis squamiformibus; antennis pallide fulvis, pedibus 



New Genera and Species of Phytophaga. 335 

rufo-testaceis; thorace subcylindrico, latitudine vix longiori, 
lateribiis fere rectis, a basi ad apicem angustatis; elytris ciebre 
punctatis, singulis apice vix productis, acutis. 

Long. 4 lin. 

Hab. ?. 

Genus Myochrous, Erichs. 
1. Myochrous Sallei. 
Elongatus, angustatus, parallelus, subcylindricus, dorso depla- 
natus, rufo-piceus aut piceus, sqiiamulis adpressis albo-fuscis 
dense vestitus ; antennis pedibusque pallide rufo-testaceis, 
genubus tarsisque obscurioribus; thorace elongatulo, lateribus 
obsolete tridentatis, cylindrico, basi subdeplanata, apice an- 
trorsum valde porrecto; elytris fortiter punctato-striatis; tibiis 
anticis intus ante apicem spina brevi armatis. 
Long. 3 lin, 
Hab. Mexico. 

Thorax more than a third longer than broad, sides not dilated, 
armed with three very minute teeth ; anterior margin strongly 
produced, entirely concealing the head from above. 

This pretty species may be distinguished from M. explanatus by 
the narrower body, and entirely different form of thorax. 

2. Myochrous explanatus. 
Elongatus, minus parallelus, convexus, dorso deplanatus, piceo- 
seneus, squamulis fuscis dense vestitus; antennis, labro, pedi- 
busque (genubus tarsisque exceptis) obscure rufo-testaceis ; 
thorace longitudine paullo latiori, margine antico sat valde 
porrecto, lateribus obsolete denticulatis, a basi ultra medium 
sat explanatis, ante apicem abrupte desinentibus; dorso antice 
convexo, postice deplanato ; elytris minus parellelis, fortiter 
punctato-striatis ; tibiis anticis intus ante apicem spina 
brevissima armatis. 
Long. 3^ lin. 
Hab. Caracas. 

Thorax rather broader than long, sides distinctly dilated, 
gradually diverging from the base to beyond the middle, where 
they abruptly terminate, their outer border furnished with three 
or four indistinct teeth ; sides of elytra slightly oval. 

3. Myochrous armalus. 
Subelongatus, convexus, dorso modice deplanatus, obscure 
piceo-aeneus, squamulis adpressis fusco-fulvis dense vestitus ; 



336 Mr. J. S. Bal}''s Descriptions of 

antennis obscure rufo-fulvis, seneo-maculatis; thorace latitu- 
dine vix longiori, lateribus distincte tridentatis, margine apicali 
antrorsum modice producto; elytris fortiter et rude punctato- 
striatis ; tibiis anticis intus ante apicem spind valida, armatis. 
Long. 3 lin. 
Hab. Brazil. 

Thorax scarcely longer than broad, sides moderately dilated, 
abruptly terminating before the apex, armed with three distinct 
teeth, anterior margin moderately produced ; upper surface trans- 
versely convex, slightly flattened at the base, closely and coarsely 
punctured. Elytra oblong-subovate, convex, scarcely flattened 
along the suture. 

Genus Corycia, inihi (olim). 
Since the publication of the above genus (Journ. Entom. ii. 221), 
I find that the word Corycia had been already used in Lepidoptera ; 
I therefore propose to substitute Coryslhea as the generic name. 

Genus CORYSTHEA. 

1. Corystheaferox. 
Oblonga, convexa, obscure cuprea, nitida; antennis pallida fulvis, 
ad apicem infuscatis; thorace elytris latitudine fere sequali, 
subcrebre punctato; elytris punctato-striatis, singulatim infra 
basin iransversim impressis ; tibiis posticis spina valida 
armatis {$). 
Long. 3 lin. 
Hab. Cayenne. 

Face coarsely punctured, forehead impressed with an oblong 
fovea, vertex smooth, nearly impunctate. Thorax about equal in 
width to the elytra, sides slightly rounded and subparallel behind 
their middle, obliquely converging in front ; above convex, anterior 
angles strongly deflexed, surface distinctly and somewhat closely 
punctured. Elytra slightly attenuated towards their apex, the 
latter regularly rounded ; above convex, slightly deflexed from 
before their middle to the apex ; basilar space in each elytron 
bounded outwardly by a perpendicular, and below by a transverse 
depression, the latter, however, not reaching to the suture ; surface 
finely but distinctly punctate-striate, the striae becoming some- 
what confused towards their apex. Body beneath smooth and 
shining, the middle portion of the metasternum entirely occupied 
by a large transverse concave depression ; apical segment of 
abdomen transversely sulcate. 



New Genera and Species of PhytopJiaga. 337 

Genus Lamprosph.brus, mihi (olim). 
In a paper in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History 
(1859, p. 121), T described some species oi Eumolpidcs as belong- 
ing to the genus Lamprosphcerus, the characters of which, as then 
understood by me, 1 at the same time laid down ; subsequent study 
however of the group has shown me that the insects then described 
belong to no less than three very natural genera, confounded by 
me under one common head. I propose in the present place to 
give briefly the diagnostic characters of these three genera, retain- 
ing for one of them my old name — Lamprosphcerus. 

Genus Lamprosph^rus. 

Corpus breviter ovato-iotundatum aut rotundatum, valde con- 
vexum. Caput in thoracem insertum, perpendiculare ; an- 
tennis gracilibus, filiformibus, longitudine corporis breviori- 
bus. Thorax basi elytrorum latitudini fere aequalis, margine 
laterali inferiori non incrassato ; supra convexus, nunquam gib- 
bosus, lateribus muticis, basi aut rotundato-angustatis aut 
rotundatis, hinc ad apicem angustatis. Elytra iaevia aut 
confuse aut subseriatim punctata, limbo inflexo obliquo. 
Pedes mediocres ; femoribus posticis muticis ; unguiculis 
appendiculatis. Proslernurn latitudine paullo longius, rarius 
transversum, sulcis suturalibus inter prosternum et episterna 
antica obsoletis ; episterni antici angulo externo antico ad 
thoracis angulum non producto. 

Type Lamprosphcerus collaris, mihi, (Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 
1859, p. 124). 

1. Lamprosphcerus Hebe. 

Ovato-rotundatus, valde convexus, fulvo-rufus, nitidus; vertice, 
thorace, elytrorunique tertio postico viridi-asneis ; antennis 
pedibusque pallide fulvis, tibiis posticis intus curvatis, apice 
acuniinatis ; elytris seriatim punctatis ; abdomine medio piceo. 

Long 1 \ lin, 

Hab. Amazons. 

2. Lamprosphcerus 5-pustulatiis, 

Ovato-rotundatus, valde convexus, niger, nitidus ; antennis 
pedibusque fulvis; abdomine, elytrorumque singulorum 
apice et pustulis duabus magnis, una basali, alterd pone 
medium posild, rufo-testaceis. 

Long. 1 2 lin. 

Hab. Amazons. 



338 Mr. J. S. Baly's Descriptions of 

Antennae slender, filiform ; head and thorax distinctly but not 
closely punctured ; elytra more coarsely and deeply punctured, the 
puncturing arranged in irregular rows ; strise near the lateral 
border sulcate, their interspaces subcostate. Hinder pair of 
tibiae inwardly curved, their apex produced, acuminate. 

3. Lamprosphisrus lateralis. 
Valde convexus, subrotundatus, postice pauUo angustatus, 

niger, nitidus ; thoracis lateribus late fulvis; pedibus 

nigro-piceis, femoribus tibiisque anticis obscure fulvis; 

elytris fortiter subseriatim punctatis, apice obsolete acumi- 

natis. 
Long. 1| — 2 lin. 
Hab. Brazil. 

4. Lamprosphcerus scintillaris. 

Rotundato-ovatus, valde convexus, viridi-aeneus, nitidus, subtus 
obscurior ; labro antennisque flavo-fulvis, his apice infuscatis ; 
thorace remote punctate ; elytris aeneis, sat fortiter sub- 
seriatim punctatis. 

Long. 2 lin. 

Hab. Amazons. 

Genus Ciialcoplacis, Chev., M.SS. 
Corpus rotundatum, semiglobosum. Caput in thoracem pro- 
funde insertum, breve, perpendiculare ; antennis gracilibus, 
subfiliformibus, corporis dimidio paullo longioribus. Thorax 
transversus, latitudine elytrorum paullo angustior, raargine 
inferior! laterali incrassato ; supra convexus, nunquam gib- 
bosus, lateribus integris, muticis. Elytra confuse subseriatim 
punctata, interstitiis laevibus ; limbo inflexo horizontal!, 
plerumque concavo. Pedes mediocres, modice robusti ; 
femoribus posticis muticis ; tibiis paullo compressis ; un- 
guiculis appendiculatis. Prosternum subquadratum, sulcis 
suturalibus inter prosternum et episterna antica obsoletis ; 
episterni antici angulo externo antico ad thoracis angulum 
non producto. 
Type Ciialcoplacis abdominalis, mihi, (Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 
1859, p. 124). 

1. Chalcoplacis sumptuosa. 
Subrotundata, valde convexa, nigro-caerulea, pedibus fulvis, 
supra aurea ; antennis nigris, basi fulvis ; elytris distincte 



New Genera and Species of Phytophaga. 339 

punctatis, utrisque infra basin transversim excavaiis, laete 
purpureis, limbo inflexo leviter concavo. 

Long. 2 lin. 

Hab. Amazons. 

Epistome slightly depressed, subtrigonate, its surface granulosa ; 
face broad, its lower portion slightly concave ; forehead impressed 
with a short, longitudinal groove ; eyes black, their inner edge 
obsoletely notched ; surface of head and thorax finely but .sub- 
remotely punctured. Elytra rather more coarsely punctured than 
the preceding parts. 

Genus ClIALCOPHYMA. 

Corpus breviter ovato-rotundatum aut rotundatum, valde con- 
vexum. Caput in thoracem insertum, perpendiculare ; 
antennis gracilibus, filiformibus, corporis longitudini aequalibus 
aut paullo brevioribus. Tliorax transversus, elyt-rorum 
latitudini sequalis aut $ etiam paullo latior, margine laterali 
inferiori incrassato ; supra convexus, interdum gibbosus, 
lateribus rotundatis, plerumque dentatis aut emarginatis, 
rarius simplicibus. Elytra irregulariter aut subseriatim 
punctata, saepe tuberculata vel costata, limbo inflexo obliquo 
aut subhorizontali, aut plerumque piano. Pedes subelongati, 
graciles ; femoribus posticis subtus unidentatis, unguiculis 
appendiculatis. Prosternum subquadratum, sulcis suturalibus 
inter prosternum et episterna antica obsoletis ; episterni 
antici angulo externo antico ad thoracis angulum non pro- 
ducto. 
Type Chalcophyma ceruginosa, mihi, (Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 
1859, p. 125). 

1. Chalcophyma cretifera. 
Breviter ovato-rotundata, valde convexa, cuprea, subnitida, 
subtus nigra; pedibus obscure rufo-fulvis ; antennis pallide 
fulvis, extrorsum infuscatis ; thorace rude rugoso, dorso 
bimamilloso, lateribus bidentatis ; elytris rude punctatis, 
rugosis, cretis elevatis brevibus nonnullis longitudinaliter 
dispositis instructis. 
Long. 2 lin. 
Hab. Amazons. 

Head coarsely punctured, face impressed with a longitudinal 
groove, the surface on either side obliquely strigose ; antennae 
equal in length to the body, very slender, filiform. 'J'horax very 
coarsely rugose-punctate, sides armed about their middle with 



340 Mr. J. S. Baly's Descriptions of 

two short but stout teeth ; middle of disc strongly raised, the 
gibbosity being separated, by a broad longitudinal sulcus, into 
two mamillose protuberances ; the bases of each surrounded by 
a broad ill-defined circular groove. Elytra even more coarsely 
rugose than the thorax : on their surface are numerous short, 
strongly elevated ridges, which are arranged in three or four lon- 
gitudinal rows. Four hinder thighs each armed beneath with a 
short tooth. 

2. Chalcophyma Icela, 
Ovato-rotundata, valde convexa, nitida, subtus seneo-picea? 
supra metallico-viridis ; antennis rufo-fuscis, his basi tarsisque 
fulvis ; thorace lateribus rotundatis, ante medium angustatis, 
obsolete bidentatis, dorso convexo, ad latera crebrius, disco 
remote foveolato-punctato j elytris fortiter sed remote punc- 
tatis, punctis substriatim dispositis, interstitiis planis, im- 
punctatis ; femoribus quatuor posticis subtus obsolete uni- 
dentatis. 
Long. If lin. 
Hab. Amazons. 

Antennae slender, rather longer than the body; above bright 
metallic green, beneath asneo-piceous, with a faint violaceous 
tinge. 

3. Chalco'phijma tarsalis. 
Ovato-rotundata, valde convexa, cuprea, subtus nigro-picea, 
nitida; pedibus purpureo-seneis; labro, tarsis, antennisque 
fulvis, his obscuris, articulis septimo apice penultimo 
ultimoque totis fuscis ; thorace lateribus rotundatis, obsolete 
bidentatis, dorso profunde foveolato-punctato ; elytris sub- 
remote fortiter punctatis, infra basin transversim depressis, 
modice elevato-costatis, costis antice interruptis ; femoribus 
quatuor posticis subtus unispinosis. 
Long. 2 lin. 
Hab. Amazons. 

Head punctured, face obliquely strigose on either side, im- 
pressed in the middle with a broad, longitudinal furrow. 
Thorax deeply impressed with numerous punctiform foveae, 
which are rather less crowded, in the middle of the disc ; on the 
centre of the latter are also four or five slightly raised impunctate 
spaces. Elytra subacutely rounded at their apex, very convex, 
their hinder portion obliquely deflexed ; surface subremotely 
punctate, the punctures arranged in irregular striae ; on each 



New Genera and Species of Phytophaga. 311 

elytron are about eight broad but moderately raised costae, 
which, entire towards their apex, are more or less interrupted on 
the anterior portion of the elytron. 

4. Chalcophyma tuberculosa. 
Subrotundata, valde convexa, obscure senea aut cuprea, sub- 
nitida, subtus piceo-senea ; pedibus pallide rufo-piceis ; 
antennis fulvoifuscis, basi fulvis ; thorace lateribus medio 
angulatis et unidentatis, dorso rude rugoso, elevato- 
reticulato, disco obsoletius gibboso, medio longitudinaliter 
sulcato ; elytris rugosis, tuberculis conicis numerosis hie 
illic (praesertim ad basin et ad apicem) coeuntibus et cretas 
longitudinales breves formantibus ; femoribus quatuor poste- 
rioribus subtus unidentatis. 
Long. 1^ — 2 lin. 
Hab. Amazons. 

Head distinctly punctured, face obliquely strigose on either 
side, impressed in the middle with a broad longitudinal furrow ; 
antennae fusco-fulvous, the fifth, sixth and seventh joints being 
stained with fusco-asneous ; two basal joints, together with the 
labrum and palpi, bright fulvous ; jaws nigro-piceous, epistome 
piceo-aeneous. Elytra closely covered with small strongly raised 
conical tubercles, which here and there coalesce and form short 
longitudinal ridges : of these latter four at the base of each elytron 
and two on the middle disc are more strongly raised than the rest. 

Genus Endocephalus, Chevr., Dej. Cat. 
1 . Endocephalus spilotus. 

Anguste-oblongus, subparallelus, fulvus, nitidus ; oculis, mandi- 
bulis, capitis macula, thoracis maculis quatuor subquadratim 
dispositis, scutello elytrorumque maculis decern (his in serie- 
bus transversis tribus, 2 — 4 — 4, prima, infra, secunda 
vix ante tertiaque pone medium dispositis) nigris ; elytris 
sat fortiter subcrebre punctatis. 

Long. 3^ — 4^ lin. 

Hab. Amazons. 

Genus CoLASPis, Fabr. 
1. Colaspis eleganlula. 
Oblongo-elongata, rufo-fulva, nitida ; antennis (basi praetermissd) 
oculisque nigris; thorace transverso, lateribus medio angulatis; 
elytris rugoso-, prope suturam substriatim-punctatis, infra 



342 Mr. J. S. Baly's Descriptions of 

basin transversim depressis, Isete metallico-viridibus, utiisque 
macule magna orbiculatd basali, vittaque latd vix ante medium 
fere ad apicem extensa cupreis. 

Long. 2| lin. 

Hab. Amazons. 



Fam. GALLERUCIDiE. 

Sub-fam. HALTICIN^. 

Genus Sophr^na. 

Corpus anguste ovale, convexum. Caput modice exsertum, 
perpendiculare ; antenn'is brevibus, robustis, subincrassatis, 
articulo Imo incrassato, 2do brevi, modice incrassato, 3tio 
paullo elongato, 4to brevi, obtrigono, 5to ad lOum singulis 
adhuc brevioribus, transversis, paullo arapliatis, leviter com- 
pressis, 11 mo articulum basalem longitudine fere sequante, 
subovato ; facie late carinata ; oculls subrotundatis, pro- 
minulis. Thorax transversus, lateribus rotundatis, an- 
guste marginatis. Scutellum trigonum. Elytra thorace 
paullo latiora, ovata, anguste marginata, limbo inflexo fere 
horizontali ; supra confuse punctata. Pedes modice robusti ; 
coxis anticis vix elevatis, transversis ; femoribus posticis in- 
crassatis, subtus canaliculatis; <i6as posticis dorso tricarinatis, 
apice spind brevi acuta armatis ; tarsis posticis tibiarum 
apicibus insertis. 

Type Sophrcena ornata. 

1 . Sopkrcena ornata, 

Ovalis, modice convexa, flava, nitida; antennis extrorsum ocu- 
lisque nigris ; elytris postice rufo-fulvis; thoracis maculis 
arcuatis duabus disco transversim positis, elytrorum linea 
suturali antice, limbo laterali utrimque abbreviate, fascia 
sinuata prope medium posita, maculisque nonnullis disci 
anterioris, nigro-piceis. 

Long. 3 lin. 

Hab. Amazons. 

Genus Crepidodera, Foud., Allard. 

1 . Crepidodera elegantula. 

Elongata, subparallela, cupreo-aenea, nitida ; pedibus antennisque 

flavis, his extrorsum fuscis ; capite laevi, vertice utrinque 

foveis rotundatis (circa 5) leviter impressis; thorace vix 

transverso, antice convexo, Isevi, punctis minutis sparse im- 



New Genera and Species of Phytophaga. 31-3 

presso ; elytris setulis suberectis sparse vestitis, fortiter punc- 
tato-striatis, interstitiis planis, ad latera convexiusculis. 

Long. 1 lin. 

Hab. Brazil. 

Head triangular ; lower portion of face clothed with long silky 
hairs, facial ridge narrow, encarpce subtriangular, mouth obscure 
fulvous ; antennae rather longer than the head and thorax, stout, 
distinctly tliickened towards their apex, five or six basal joints 
fulvous, the rest fuscous. Thorax rather broader than long, its 
anterior margin sparingly clothed with silky hairs ; sides nearly 
straight and parallel, converging at their apex, broadly margined, 
the anterior angles slightly thickened, obtuse. Elytra much 
broader than the thorax, nearly four times its length, sides sub- 
parallel ; interspaces between the striae impressed with a row of 
distantly-placed minute punctures. 

2. Crepidodera Brasiliemis. 
Subelongata, ovata, fulva, nitida ; antennis extrorsum oculisque 
nigris ; capite thoraceque Isevibus, impunctatis; elytris 
tenuissime sed regulariter punctato-striatis, striis ad latera 
obsolete sulcatis ; tarsis infuscatis. 
Long. 1| lin. 
Hab. Brazil. 

Very similar in form to C. imprcssa : the antennae, their three 
basal joints excepted, black ; elytra much more finely and regu- 
larly punctured, each stria being formed of a single row of regu- 
larly-placed punctures ; sides of thorax rounded, converging at 
apex, anterior angles very slightly thickened. 

Genus Aphthona, Foud., AUard. 
1. Aphthona mcerens. 
Breviter ovato-rotundata, convexa, nitida, supra nigra ; antennis 
obscure fulvis, extrorsum infuscatis ; subtus picea, pedibus 
fusco-fulvis ; ihorace tenuissime subcrebre punciato ; elytris 
subremote tenuissime punctatis. 
Long. 1| lin. 
Hab. Brazil. 

Sub-fam. GALLERUCIN^. 

Genus CcELOMERA, Erichs. 
1. Coilomera rujicornis. 
Subelongata, nigra, nitida; capite thoraceque coccineis; antennis 
scutelloque rufo-fulvis ; elytris postice vix ampliatis, creber- 
rime punctatis, opacis, nigro-sericeis. 



344 Mr. J. S. Baly's Descriptions of 

Long. 41 lin. 

Hab. Brazil (Spirito Sancto). 

Head sparingly clothed with long fulvous hairs, jaws black, 
labrum fulvous ; front and vertex impressed with a longitudinal 
groove. Thorax transverse, sides obtusely angled about their 
middle, eraarginate posteriorly ; upper surface deeply transversely 
sulcate, smooth and shining, impunctate and glabrous on the disc, 
irregularly excavated, subrugose and sparingly pubescent on 
the lateral margin. Elytra oblong, scarcely dilated posteriorly. 
Under surface clothed w^ith somewhat coarse adpressed pubescence. 
Abdomen punctured, apical segment emarginate, impressed before 
the apex with a distinct fovea. 

2. Coelomera Icela. 

Elongata, subparallela, rufo-testacea, nitida, fulvo-sericea ; 
femorum apice, tibiis, tarsis, antennisque nigris ; elytris nigro- 
caeruleis, subnitidis, crebre punctatis, minute granulosis. 

Long. 5| lin. 

Hab. Rio Grande. 

Front excavated, impressed together with the vertex with a 
longitudinal groove. Thorax transverse, sides rounded, narrowed 
behind the middle ; upper surface broadly excavated transversely, 
remotely punctured, disc glabrous, sides sparingly pubescent. Elytra 
narrowly oblong, scarcely dilated posteriorly, moderately convex, 
slightly flattened along the suture, clothed at the base and sides with 
fulvo-sericeous hairs. Apical segment of abdomen emarginate. 

I only know a single specimen of this species ; it is probable that 
when in a fresh state the whole surface of the elytra is covered 
with sericeous pubescence. 

3. Coelomera bipustulata. > 

Subelongata, pallide fulva, nitida, pube concolori vestita, supra 
subopaca, fusco-sericea ; vertice, thoracis disco, elytrisque 
viridi-nigris ; antennis nigro-piceis, mandibulis nigris, tibiis 
apice tarsisque fuscis ; thorace transverso, lateribus angulatis ; 
elytris subparallelis, modice convexis, subfortiter crebre punc- 
tatis, singulatim limbo exteriori pustulaque magna disci 
medio posita obscure fulvis. 
Long. 4j lin. 

Hab. Ega, Upper Amazons. 

Front and vertex impressed with a longitudinal groove. Thorax 
transverse, transversely concave, closely punctured ; the dark 
patch on the disc is transversely-quadrate and covers nearly the 
whole of the surface. 



New Genera and Species of Phytophaga. 345 



Genus DiABROTicA, Ericlis. 
1. Diabrotica coccinea. 

Elongata, convexa, nitida, subtus flava ; abdominis apice pleu- 
risque nigris ; tarsorum articulis duobus ultimis fiiscis; supra 
hete coccinea; antennis flavis, harum articulis tribus ultimis, 
oculis labroque nigris, epistomate piceo ; thorace sub- 
quadrato, lateribus subrectis, leviter sinuatis, apice con- 
vergentibus, dorso laevi, vix pone medium bi-foveolato ; 
elytris subparallelis, postice vix ampliatis, singulatim apice 
sinuatis, angulo suturali acuto ; dorso subcrebre tenuiter 
punctatis, profunde excavatis et sulcatis, basi et inter sulcos 
ventricosis. 

Long. 5 lin. 

Hab. New Granada. 

Front impressed with a short longitudinal groove, which runs 
upwards and terminates on a level with the upper margin of the 
eyes in a deep fovea. Elytra impressed on the outer disc below 
the humeral callus with three or four large shallow foveae ; 
in addition on the inner disc are three broad transverse grooves; 
the first of these, semicircular, bounds the basilar space beneath ; 
the second slightly curved, but the reverse way of the former, 
runs across the inner disc about its middle, and the third, 
oblique, is placed a short distance below the second ; the basilar 
space on each elytron and the surfaces between the transverse 
sulci are slightly raised and thickened. 



2. Diubiolica pidchra. 

Elongata, subparallela, nigra, nitida; abdomine pedibusque flavo- 
fulvis, illo basi tarsisque saepe infuscatis; tarsorum articulis 
duobus ultimis nigris ; antemiarum articulis basalibus tribus 
obscure fulvls, penultimis tribus albis ; thorace transverso, 
disco transversim. excavato, rugoso-punctato, fulvo, piceo- 
infuscato ; elytris subelongatis, dorso subdeplanatis, rugosis, 
elevato-vittatis, viridi-aeneis, limbo laterali, apice, fasciaque 
transversa vix pone medium posita, fulvis. 

Mas. — Elytris apicem versus prope suturam creta brevi elevala 
instructis. 

Long. 4 — 4g lin. 

Hab. New Granada (Magdalena River). 

VOL. II. THIRD SERIES, PART IV. — MARCH, 1865. C C 



346 Mr. J. S. Baly's Descriptions of 

Heatl smooth, impunctiite, forehead impressed with an oblong 
fovea. Thorax transverse, sides nearly straight, slightly sinuate 
behind their middle, obliquely deflexed, slightly diverging from 
behind forwards; disc depressed, broadly transversely excavated, 
rugose-punctate. Elytra subelongate, subparallel, slightly dilated 
from the base towards the apex, the latter rounded; surface 
ruCTOse-punctate, disc of each elytron with five or six elevated 
vittse, which commencing below the base are gradually lost towards 
the apex of the elytron, their surface equally rugose with the rest 
of the disc ; the curved ridge in the S smooth and nitidous, the 
fulvous colour of the apex extending upwards and covering its 
hinder two-thirds. 



3. Diabrotica punclicollis. 

Elongata, nitida, subtus nigra, supra nigro-senea ; pedibus pallide 
flavo-fulvis ; tarsis antennisque pallide fuscis, his basi fulvis, 
articulo septimo abdomineque albis ; thorace fortiter crebre 
punctato, dorse utrinque foveolato ; elytris subelongatis, 
modice convexis, dorso subdeplanatis, crebre subrugoso-punc- 
tatis, elevato-vittatis, subopacis, margine laterali apice 
dilatato, fulvo. 

Mas. — Elytris ante apicem prope suturam callo valido antice 
excavato armatis. 

Long. 3 lin. 

Hab. Columbia. 

Lower portion of face coarsely punctured ; front obliquely 
strigose on either side, impressed in the middle with a longitudinal 
groove. Thorax transverse, sides nearly straight, slightly di- 
verging in front, sinuate behind their middle, all the angles pro- 
minent; disc closely and coarsely punctured, slightly flattened in 
the middle, impressed on either side with a deep fovea, the medial 
space between the two excavations being also depressed. Elytra 
subelongate, subparallel, slightly dilated towards the apex, mode- 
rately convex, flattened along the suture ; each elytron with six 
or seven smooth elevated vittae, the interspaces closely punctured, 
subrugose. The elytra in the $ are armed with a large smooth 
semi-lunate protuberance, placed transversely close to the suture, 
the concavity looking forwards. 



New Genera and Species of Phytoiihaga. 347 

4. Diahrotica siiblimhata, 

Elongata, viridi-fusca, nitida ; abdominis segmenlorum mar- 
ginibus femoribusque pallidis; antennis nigris, articulis duobiis 
ultimis (ultimi apice excepto) albis ; thorace elytrisque pra- 
sinis, illo dorso bi-impresso, fusco-signato, his intra mar- 
ginem unicostatis, crebre punctatis, sutura lineaque submar- 
ginali nigro-fuscis. 
Long. 2\ lin. 
Hab. Amazons. 

Thorax subquadrate, sides nearly parallel, slightly sinuate, con- 
verging towards their apex ; upper surface flattened, impressed 
in the middle with two large fovese; three small patches placed in 
a triangle on the disc, together with a snbmarginal vitta on either 
side, fuscous. Elytra subelongate, slightly increasing in width 
from the base towards their apex, moderately convex, closely 
punctured; on each elytron, just within the lateral border, is a 
broad costa, which, commencing at the humeral callus, termi- 
nates a short distance below the middle of the elytron ; surface 
immediately within the costa sulcate. Body beneath clothed with 
coarse adpressed griseous hairs. 

5. Diahrotica Deyrollei. 

Elongata, nigra, nitida; antennarum articulis duobus ultimis basi 
albis ; epistomate, femoribus (his nigro-lineatis) thoraceque 
pallide flavis ; hoc laevi, dorso obsolete bi-impresso, vittd 
nigra tenuissima basi dilatata, instructo ; elytris oblongis, 
subparallelis, modice convexis, subopacis, minute granulosis, 
sat fortiter subcrebre punctatis, obscure viridi-aeneis, utrisque 
fascia lata prope medium, utrinque abbreviata, antice et 
postice emarginatd, maculisque rotundatis duabus, altera 
infra basin alteraque subapicali, flavo- albis. 
Long. 4 lin. 

Hab. New Granada (Magdalena River). 

Front triangularly impressed above the eyes. Thorax transverse, 
sides nearly straight and parallel, converging at their apex, anterior . 
angles produced into an obtuse tooth ; disc smooth, faintly ex- 
cavated on either side. Elytra narrowly oblong, subparallel, 
apex regularly rounded ; surface finely granulose, somewhat 
coarsely punctured. 

I have named this species after INL IL Deyrolle of Paris. 

c c2 



318 Mr. J. S. Baly's Descriptions of 

• ' V« '^®*" 
6. D'lubrotica tenella. ^^ '^''V "^ 

Elongata, viridis, nitida; pectore/abdomiiie, pedibus antennisque 
flavis, his articulis qiiatuor ultimis nigro-fiiscis ; tliorace sub- 
quadrato, laevi, dorso bifoveolato ; elytrls paullo ampliatis, 
apice subtruncatis, prope suturam leviter obsolete sinuatis, 
prasinis, subnitidis, crebre punctatis. 
Long. 3^ lin. 
Hab. Mexico. 

Front impressed with a large fovea ; mouth fulvous. Thorax 
subquadrate, sides nearly straight and parallel, slightly converging 
at their apex, anterior angles tuberculate ; disc moderately convex, 
flattened at the base, smooth, impunctate, impressed on either side 
behind the middle with a large fovea. 



7. Diabrotica suturalls. 
Elongata, nigra, nitida ; antennis sordide albis, basi infuscalis ; 
thorace transversim excavato, piceo, apice, superficiei infe- 
rioris lateribus, femoribusque paliide fulvis, his dorso versus 
apicem, tibiis tarsisque fuscis ; elytris subelongatis, paullo 
ampliatis, modice convexis, dorso subdepressis, tenuiter 
subcrebre punctatis, sordide fulvis, vitta, lata suturali a basi 
fere ad apicem extensa, medio constrict^, nigra. 
Mas. — Elytris apicem versus prope suturam creta elevata brevi 

instructis. 
Long. 4 lin. 
Hab. Cayenne. 

Front impressed with a longitudinal groove, which runs upwards 
to the vertex, its middle impressed with a distinct fovea. Thorax 
transverse, sides nearly straight and parallel, sinuate behind the 
middle, converging in front, obliquely deflexed ; upper surface 
nitidous, remotely punctured, broadly excavated transversely, 
either side of the excavated portion being more deeply excavated 
than the centre, and forming two distinct foveas on its surface. 

8. Dlahrolica Hebe. 

Subelongata, nigra, nitida ; vertice thoraceque trifoveolato 
rufo-piceis; femoribus antennisque flavis, harum articulis 
quinque basalibus dorso piceis, articulo ultimo apice nigro ; 
elytris ampliatis, subventricosis, singulatim apice obsolete 
sinuatis, sat fortiter subcrebre punctatis, castaneis, margine 



New Genera and Species of Phytophaga. 349 

laterali, parte tertia postica fasciaque lata vix pone medium 
posita. marginem non attingente, sordide flavis. 

Long. 4 lin. 

Hab. Columbia (Bogota). 

Front impressed with a large deep fovea. Thorax transverse, 
sides nearly straight, slightly converging from base to apex, an- 
terior angles thickened ; disc subremotely punctured, impressed on 
either side with a deep oblique fovea, a third smaller and rotundate 
being placed in the centre of the base, just in front of the scu- 
tellum. 

9. Diahrotica discoidalis. 

Subelongata, pallide flava, nitida ; capite, scutello, pectore, 
femorum linea dorsali, tibiis tarsisque nigris ; antennarum 
articulis tribus ultimis (ultimi apice excepto) albis ; thorace 
vix transverso, dorso Itevi, non foveolato ; elytris a basi 
apicem versus ampliatis, convexis, tenuiter punctatis, disco 
nigris, fascia latissima mediali, antice posticeque profunde 
sinuat^, limbum non attingente, flava. 
Long. 4| lin, 

Hab. Banks of Napo, Ecuador. 

Front impressed with a deep fovea. Thorax scarcely broader 
than long, sides nearly straight, slightly converging from base to 
apex, more quickly narrowed at the apex itself, posterior angles 
produced into an obtuse tooth ; disc smooth, remotely and obso- 
k tely punctured ; in the middle of the basal margin is an indistinct 
depression. Elytra finely punctured, subovate, somewhat en- 
larged posteriorly, lateral margin broadly dilated. 

10. Dlabrot'ica i-viltata. 

Elongata, subtus nigra; thorace, metasterno plaga utrinque, 
abdominisque segmentorum marginibus sordide albis ; supra 
sordide alba, ore, vertice, antennis totis, thoracis plagis 
duabus scutelloque nigris ; thorace transverso, dorso la^vi, 
bifoveolato ; elytris sat ventricosis, fortiter crebre punctatis, 
subopacis, utrisque vitta submarginali, alterd intra suturam, 
niaculaque subapicali nigris. 
Long. 4g lin. 
Hab. Brazil. 

Front impressed with a deep fovea. Thorax transverse, sides 
nearly stra-ght, slightly diverging from base towards the apex, 
sinuate behind the middle ; disc smooth, impunctate, deeply im- 



350 Mr. J. S. Baly's Descriptions of 

pressed on either side, the space between the foveae being also 
depressed ; the two black patches, triangular in shape, are placed 
one on each of the foveae, the surfaces of which they more than 
cover. Elytra moderately inflated, gradually increasing in width 
from their base towards the apex, the latter regidarly rounded ; the 
two longitudinal vittae, which are moderately broad, commence at 
the base and terminate each a short distance from the sutural 
angle, the spot which ought to form their point of junction being 
occupied by a small square patch ; in some individuals the sub- 
marginal vitta is continued onwards and is united with the patch 
itself. 

11. Diabrotica dimidiatipennis. 
Subelongata, nigra, subnitida ; elytris a basi apicem versus am- 
. pliatis, dense punctatis ; capite (ore, antennis oculisque prae- 
termissis), thorace bifoveolato, elytrorumque dimidio antico 
flavo-fulvis. 
Long. 4 lin. 
Hab. Peru. 

Front impressed with a longitudinal groove, which, dilated at its 
middle, extends upwards to the vertex ; antennae entirely black. 
Thorax transverse, disc smooth, impressed on either side, just 
behind the middle, with a large oblique fovea. Scutellum triangular. 
Elytra closely and somewhat coarsely punctured. 

12. Diabrotica Saundersi. 
Subelongata, nigra, subopaca; capite, thorace bifoveolato, elytris- 
que fulvis, subnitidis, his ampliatis, dimidio postico nigro, 
opaco, granuloso, impunctato ; antennarum articulis dorso 
piceo-maculatis, tribus ultimis nigro-piceis. 
Long. 4i lin. 
Hab. Quito. 

Front impressed with a deep groove, which terminates just above 
the upper margin of the eyes in a deep fovea ; antennae fulvous, 
their joints more or less stained above and at the apex with 
piceous, three terminal joints pitchy-black. Thorax broader than 
in D. dimidiatipe7inis, impressed on either side, just behind the 
middle, with a very oblique fovea. Elytra much broader than the 
thorax, gradually increasing in width from base towards the apex, 
very convex ; fulvous portion of their surface, which extends 
from the base to immediately before their middle, subnitidous, less 
closely and deeply punctured than in D. dimidiatipennis ; black 
portion very opaque, impunctate, minutely granulose. 



New Genera and Species of Phytophaga. 351 

13. Diabrotica subsulcata. 
Subelongata, obscure viridi-nigra, nitida ; abdomine, femoribus 
antennisque flavo-fulvis, his articulo ultimo fusco ; tibiis tar- 
sisque pallide flavo-viridibus ; thorace subquadrato, dorse 
laevi, non foveolato, lateribus et infra laete viridi ; elytris a 
basi apicem versus ampliatis, subcrebre punctatis, disco ante 
mediimn obsolete bisulcatis, margine laterali apiceque laete 
viridibus, margine apicali rufo-piceo. 
Long. 3| lin. 

Hab. New Granada (Magdalena River). 

Thorax rather longer than broad, sides nearly straight and 
parallel, disc not impressed with the usual foveae. Middle disc 
of each elytron with two ill-defined slightly-curved longitudinal 
grooves, which, commencing at the base, terminate below the 
middle of the elytron ; interspace slightly thickened. 

14. D'lahrol'ica tetraspUota. 
Subelongata, robusta, pallide rufo-fulva, niiida ; genubus, tibiis, 
tarsis antennisque flavis, harurn articulis quatuor ultimis 
elytrorumque maculis magnis quatuor nigris; unguibus piceis; 
thorace transverso, dorso laevi, non impresso ; elytris sub- 
ovatis, valde convexis, infra basin transversim sulcatis, sub- 
remote tenuiter punctatis. 
Long. 5 lin. 
Hab. Mexico. 

Front impressed with a large fovea. Sides of thorax straight 
and parallel, converging at their apex ; disc shining, impunctate. 
Elytra subovate, slightly dilated posteriorly, somewhat broadly 
margined : on the disc of each are placed two large black 
patches ; one just below the base, subtrigonate, with all its angles 
rounded ; the second immediately below the middle, subrotundate. 

Fam. HISPID/E. 
Genus UROPLATA,.Chevr. M.S. 
1. Uroplala \2-muculala. 
Subcuneiformis, subdepressa, fulva ; antennis thoracisque 
lateribus nigris ; elytris obscure metallico-purpureis, utrisque 
maculis sex fulvis. 
Long. 3 lin. 

Hab. Santarem. Collected by Mr. Bates. 
Narrowly wedge-shaped, subdeprcssed, bright fulvous ; antennae 



352 Mr. J. S. Buly's Descriptions of 

modei'ately robust, subfusiform, slightly compressed, two basal 
joints short, nearly equal ; the first strongly, the second mode- 
rately dilated ; third nearly equal in length to the two pre- 
ceding ; fourth, fifth, and sixth short, equal; seventh slightly 
longer ; eighth and three tern)inal joints closely united, their 
articulations distinct. Head smooth, impunctate ; eyes pitchy 
black. Thorax at the base more than half as broad again as 
long ; sides rounded, narrow ed and sinuate in front ; above 
subcylindrical, transversely excavated near the base ; middle 
of disc with a shallow longitudinal groove ; surface coarsely 
punctured, the punctures crowded at the sides. Scutellum 
smooth, its apex obscure purple. Elytra broader than the 
thorax, slightly increasing in width towards the posterior angles, 
the latter produced into a flattened spine, its apex bidentate ; 
sides narrowly margined, iheir outer border coarsely serrate, 
serrations more distant w hen approaching the posterior angles ; 
apex obtusely rounded, its margin slightly dilated, serrate ; 
above subdepressed, each elytron with four elevated costae, the 
two outer ones less raised, the second from the outer margin 
being interrupted for nearly the whole of its length ; suture also 
raised, interstices each with a double row of deep punctures ; 
dark metallic purple, each elytron with six bright fulvous 
spots ; one at the base, the second oblique placed on the inner 
disc before its middle ; two others beyond the middle, placed 
obliquely, the outer one attached to the lateral margin ; the fifth 
transverse, subapical, confluent at the suture with its fellow on the 
opposite elytron, and the sixth narrow and transverse, placed on 
the apical margin, also confluent at the suture. Beneath shining 
fulvous; anterior pair of thighs simple. 

2. Uroplata Walkeri. 
Elongata, posticevix ampliata, subdepressa, fulva; thoracis vittd 
laterali maculisque indistinctis duabus elytrisque viridi-me- 
tallicis ; his serratis, apice truncatis, angulo postico acuto, vix 
producto, utrisque tricostatis, maculis quinque fulvis in- 
structis. 
Long. 3| lin. 
Hab. Brazil. 

Head strongly produced between the eyes, vertex smooth, im- 
pressed in the middle with a deep fovea ; antennae longer than the 
head and thorax, robust, indistinctly thickened towards their 
apex ; two basal joints equal, subovate, very slightly thickened ; 
third equal inltngth to the two preceding; fourth about half the 



New Genera and Species of Phytophaya. 353 

lengtli of the third ; the fifth still shorter ; sixth transverse, two- 
thirds the length of the fifth ; seventh not quite equal in length to 
the fifth, and, together with the four terminal joints, indistinctly 
thickened and slightly compressed, the apical joint acute ; sutural 
lines between these last four joints entirely obsolete. Thorax at 
the base rather more than one half as broad again as long, sides 
nearly straight behind, narrowed and shghtly rounded in front; 
basal margin deeply sinuate on either side, its middle portion pro- 
duced into a short broadly truncate lobe, the surface of which is 
oblique and deeply impressed with a transverse groove ; above 
subcylindrical, somewhat flattened in the middle, hinder portion 
of disc transversely excavated ; surface closely covered with large 
round deep punctures. Scutellum transverse, subpentagonal. 
Elytra broader than the thorax, subparallel in front, scarcely 
dilated towards the hinderangles ; lateral border narrow, indistinctly 
toothed ; produced at the hinder angle into a flattened nearly rec- 
tangular plate, the apex of which is armed with one or two strong 
teeth; interspaces between the costae deeply gemelhite-punctate; 
third interspace dilated for a short space, commencing just below 
its middle ; the puncturing in that portion of the surface being 
less regularly placed; each elytron with five large fulvous patches 
placed as follows — one on the humeral margin ; a second on the 
inner disc, just below the basilar space, common and forming with 
its fellow on the opposite elytron a large subcordate patch, from 
the upper and outer angle of which a narrow ramus passes upwards 
along the second costa to the base of the elytron, where it is dilated 
and foi ms a small spot ; the third quadrate, placed on the outer 
disc, about its middle, attached to the lateral border, and extend- 
ing across the elytron as far as the first costa ; the fourth, com- 
mencing at a point parallel with the lower edge of the third, is 
placed on the inner disc, common like the second, and extends 
downwards nearly to the apex of the elytron, its hinder half being 
outwardly dilated, and forming a transverse subapical fascia, 
abbreviated on the outer disc by the extreme edge of its dilated 
portion; it is confluent with the fifth patch, which is placed on the 
outer margin halfway between the middle and apex. 



3. Uroplata Stevensi. 

Elongata, subcuneiformis, subdepressa, fulva; antennis nigris ; 

thoracis lateribus vittaque elytrisque viridi-aeneis; his qiuid- 

ricostatis, angulo postico in spinam compressam acutam 

lateraliter productis, apice obtuse truncatis, utrisque quad- 



354 Mr. J. S. Baiy's Descriptions of 

ricostatis, et maculis quinqiie fulvis instructis ; corpore 
subtus obscure fulvo ; pedibus flavis. 

Long. 3 lin. 

Hab. San Paulo, Upper Amazons. 

Elongate, subcuneiform, subdepressed. Antennse moderately 
robust, subfusiforra ; their basal joints nearly equal in length, the 
first two thickened, the third slender ; fourth and fifth each rather 
shorter, equal; sixth about equal to the third, seventh distinctly 
elongate ; eighth and three following closely united, their articu- 
lations obsolete. Head smooth, front indistinctly impressed 
between the eyes, vertex with a dark metallic green patch. 
Thorax nearly one third broader at the base than long ; conic, 
sides slightly sinuate, the anterior angles produced into a small 
obtuse tooth ; above convex, transversely excavated near the 
base, basal lobe transversely grooved ; surface rugose-punctate ; 
fulvous, a narrow line on the extreme lateral margin, together with 
a broad vitta down the middle, metallic green. Scutelhim sub- 
quadrate, its apex rounded, surface smooth, impunctate. Elytra 
broader than the thorax, humeral angles rounded ; sides nearly 
parallel, scarcely diverging posteriorly, narrowly margined, their 
outer edge serrate, posterior angles produced laterally into a large 
flattened acute spine ; apex obtusely truncate, its outer edge 
toothed ; above subconvex, flattened along the suture, shoulders 
slightly prominent ; each elytron with four elevated costae, the 
suture also costate, interspaces each with a double row of deep 
regular punctures, first interspace from the suture with a third 
row at its base ; metallic green, each elytron with five bright 
fulvous patches; the first elongate, extending from the base to 
beyond the middle, its base and apex curving inwards ; the second 
small, placed just below the scutellum, common, confluent at 
its outer edge with the first ; the third narrow, on the outer border 
just above the posterior angle ; the fourth subapical, common and 
forming a broad transverse patch ; and the last narrow, placed on 
the apical border, rufous. Beneath obscure fulvous ; legs yellow ; 
thighs simple. 

4. Uroplata Grayi. 
Late oblonga, subcuneiformis, depressa, subtus nitida, rufo- 
picea ; pleurisprothoracequenigris; pedibus fulvis, tarsisinfus- 
catis; supra subnitida; capite nigro, thorace scutelloque fulvis, 
illo vittulis quinque nigris ; elytris apice obtiisis, serratis, an- 
gulo postico lamina compressa trigona obtusa, postice serrata, 
dorso concava, lateraliter valde producta, instructis; utrisque 



New Genera and Species of Phytophugu. 355 

qiiadn'costatis, costis duabus exterioribus apice confluentibiis, 
tertia medio fere interrupta ; obscure nigro-purpureis, maculis 
parvis numerosis disci, maculaque transversa communi ante 
apicem, fulvis ; femoribus anticis subtus spina brevi armatis. 
Long. 2| lin. 
Hab. Brazil, 

Head moderately produced between the eyes, vertex lon- 
gitudinally grooved ; antenna; longer than the head and thorax, 
robust, subincrassate, two basal joints short, equal, the basal one 
slightly thickened, third rather longer than the second, fourth 
scarcely equal to the third, fifth and sixth very short, transverse, 
nearly equal, the sixth however being visibly shorter than the 
fifth, seventh nearly as long as the two preceding taken conjointly, 
thickened, and forming with the four terminal joints an elongated 
slightly-compressed club ; the sutural lines between the last four 
joints obsolete. Thorax twice as broad as long, sides obliquely 
narrowed from just above the extreme base to the apex ; upper 
surface subcylindrical in front, flattened and transversely excavated 
on the hinder disc, deeply impressed with large deep round punc- 
tures, which, closely crowded on the sides, are irregularly placed 
at m.uch more distant intervals on the disc ; whole surface of basal 
lobe excavated, depressed. Scutellum transverse, its apex obtuse. 
Elytra scarcely broader at their base than the thorax ; humeral 
callus laterally prominent, its apex not extending beyond the lateral 
border, obtuse ; sides gradually dilated from below their base to 
the hinder angles, narrowly margined, their outer edge distantly and 
irregularly serrate ; hinder angles produced slightly outwards and 
obliquely upwards and scarcely backwards into a triangular plate, 
the upper surface of wliich is deeply concave, its apex obtuse, and 
its apical border armed with four or five coarse teeth ; upper sur- 
face flattened, interspaces deeply gemellate-punctate, the first irre- 
gularly punctured at the base, a space on the outer disc just below 
the middle, extending between the second and fourth costa;, irre- 
gularly punctured. 

5. Uroplata terminalis. 

Elongata, apicem versus vix ampliata, subdepressa, obscure 
fulva, subnitida ; pedibus flavis ; vertice macula utrinque, 
antennis, thorace utrinque vitta lata laterali, abdouiinisque 
segmento ultimo, nigris ; elytris apice obtusis, distincte 
subfortiter serratis, angulo postico parum prominulo, ro- 
tundato, utrisque tricostatis, linea suturali postice abbre- 



35(3 Mr, J. S. Baly's Descriptions of 

viata, margine apicali, vittaqiie lata lateral!, postice abbre- 
viate, introrsum late eraarginata, obscure metallico-viridibus. 

Long. 31 lin. 

Hab. Amazons. 

Head moderately produced between the eyes, vertex keeled in 
front, furnished posteriorly with an oblong fovea, orbital margin 
black; antennae nearly half the length of the body, moderately 
robust, subincrassate, two basal joints nearly equal, the first 
thickened, the second ovate, third half as long again as the 
second, fourth nearly one half shorter than the third, fifth and 
sixth each gradually decreasing in length, four last joints 
nearly cylindrical, seventh one-fourth shorter than the third, 
slightly thickened, and together with the four following joints 
forming a somewhat compressed indistinct club ; sutural articula- 
tions between the last four obsolete. Thorax nearly twice as 
broad as long at the base, narrowed from base to apex, sides dis- 
tinctly bisinuate, apical angle armed with a short, curved, obtuse 
tooth ; above subcylindrical, flattened and transversely excavated 
on the hinder disc; this latter portion smooth, nearly impunctate, 
remainder of the surface closely covered with large deeply-im- 
pressed punctures; basilar lobe broadly truncate, its surface oblique, 
transversely grooved. Scutellum transverse at the base, sides 
narrowed towards the apex, the latter obtusely truncate. Elytra 
broader than the thorax, narrow, subparallel in front, very slightly 
dilated towards the hinder angle, the latter scarcely produce d ; lateral 
border very narrow, very remotely armed with small teeth ; apical 
border moderately dilated, its edge obtusely rounded, coarsely 
serrate ; each elytron with three raised costae, their interspaces 
deeply gemellate-punctate ; interspace between the second and 
third costae irregularly punctured for a short space below its 
middle. Black apical segment of abdomen marked on either 
side with a small fulvous spot. 

G. Uroplota l6-guttata. 

Elongata, dorso subdepressa, picea, subnitida ; pedibus, antennis 
extrorsum, thoracis vitta elytrorumque guitis 16 pallide 
fulvis ; elytris utrisque tricostatis, parallelis, apice rotundatis, 
angulo postico obsolete. 

Long. 1| lin. 

Hab. Brazil. 

Head not produced between the eyes, vertex longitudinally 
grooved ; antennae short, robust, cylindrical, incrassate, gradually 



New Genera and Species of Phytophaga. 357 

increasing in thickness from their base upwards ; basal joints very 
short, transverse, second and third nearly equal, each about one 
iialf as long again as the first; three following joints gradually de- 
creasing in length from the third, transverse; seventh nearly equal 
to the two preceding united, and conjointly with the four apical 
joints forming a narrowly-ovate club, the sutural lines between the 
four latter joints obsolete, the six basal joints pitchy-black. Thorax 
rather broader than long, sides nearly straight behind, rounded and 
narrowed in front; anterior angles armed with a subacute tooth; 
subcylindrical above, transversely excavated on the hinder disc ; 
surface deeply and closely impressed with large punctures, rugose 
on the sides ; basal lobe depressed. Scutelluni smooth, tri- 
angular, its apex broadly truncate. Elytra parallel, broader than 
the thorax, apex regularly rounded, margin narrowly dilated, 
serrate, sides indistinctly sinuate along their middle ; each elytron 
with three strongly-raised costae, their interspaces deeply gemellate- 
punctate. 



PRIZE ESSAYS. 



As an inducement to the study of Economic Entomology, and 
with a view to increase the practical utility of the Entomological 
Society, the Council offers Two Prizes of the value of Five 
Guineas each to be awarded to the authors of Essays or 
Memoirs, of sufficient merit and drawn up from personal obser- 
vation, on the anatomy, economy, or habits of any insect or group 
of insects which is in any way especially serviceable or obnoxious 
to mankind. The Essays should be illustrated by figures of the 
insects in their different states, and (if the species be noxious) 
must show the results of actual experiments made for the pre- 
vention of their attacks or the destruction of the insects them- 
selves. 

On former occasions the Council has selected a definite subject, 
as e, g.f the Coccus of the Pine Apple, the larva of Agrotls Segetum 
(the large caterpillar of the turnip), &:c. The consequence was, 
that competition was diminished or not called into play. On the 
present occasion, therefore, the selection is left to the candidates 
themselves, provided only that the subject be one fairly belonging 
to the Economic branch of Entomology. 

The Essays must be sent to the Secretary at No. 12, Bedford 
Row, with fictitious signatures or mottoes, on or before the 31st 
December, 1865, when they will be referred to a Committee to 
decide upon their merits ; each must be accompanied by a sealed 
letter indorsed with the fictitious signatui'e or motto adopted 
by its author, and inclosing the name and address of the writer. 

The Prize Essays shall be the property of, and will be pub- 
lished by, the Society. 



( 359 ) 



XVI. On the Species o/Agra of the Amazons Region. 
By H. W. Bates, F.Z.S. 

[Read 3rd April, 1865.] 

The genus Agra is too well known to Coleopterists to render 
necessary a detailed description in this place. It is composed of 
a series of elongated forms of metallic colouring, belonging to 
the Tnmcalipennes division of the great tribe Carabici ; and in 
Lacordaire's system constitutes, with Callcida, Cym'indis and many 
allied genera, the first Group of the Lehiidcs : Z)romm.s forming 
the type of the second Group, and Leh'in of the third Group of 
the same Family (or as he terms it Tribu, in accordance with the 
French nomenclature of assemblages of genera). As a genus 
Agra is distinguished from its nearest relative Calleida by the 
head being constricted behind and forming a distinct neck, and 
by the mentum having a strong tooth in the middle of its emar- 
gination. Both genera have the terminal joint of the labial 
palpi hatchet-shaped, and also strongly- bilobed penultimate joints 
to the tarsi, and claws thickened and pectinated. The form of 
the prothorax, which is not usually admitted in the Carabici as 
offering generic characters equal in value to those furnished by 
the oral organs and tarsi, is a leading feature in distinguishing 
Agra from Calleida and the other allied genera, and is the cha- 
racter which, combined with the form of the head, gives the Agree 
tiieir peculiar facies ; this part of the body having an elongate 
conical shape instead of presenting a distinct, more or less plane, 
pronotum, quadrate or cordate in outline. It is, moreover, always 
sculptured, the mode of punctuation being common to series of 
allied species, so as to admit of serving as a character to group 
them into natural subordinate assemblages. 

Of the genera familiar to European Entomologists, Cymindis is 
the nearest related to this favourite tropical group. An American 
genus recently separated from Cym'indis, namely, Apenes of Le- 
conte, forms a still nearer approximation, as it presents bilobed 
penultimate tarsal joints. But the Cymindes differ greatly from 
the Agree, in facies, in tlie form of the claws, and also in iiabits, 
being terrestrial species found under stones and about the roots 
of herbage, at most climbing the stems of shrubs, whilst the Agree 
are wholly arboreal. In this they are like the Calleidcc, but the 

VOL. II. THIRD SERIES, PART V. SETT. 1 S65. D D 



360 Mr. H. W. Bates on the 

CalleidcB are all diurnal insects, and are seen actively coursing up 
and down the stems and the foliage of shrubs and trees in the 
day-time, whilst the Agree are scarcely ever thus seen, being 
found (with only one exception known to me) concealed in curled- 
up leaves, and motionless in the day-time. The Calleidce are 
found in the tropical and subtropical zones over the whole earth, 
but the Agree are peculiar to tropical America, and they increase 
in number of species in approaching the line of the Equator. 
They are the most purely arboreal in their habits of life of all the 
related genera, it might be said even of all the Geodephaga ; their 
broad tarsi with brushy- palms and divergent pectinated claws 
adapting them for clinging to stems and foliage as beautifully as 
the similar structures in Chrysomelideous insects do in the case 
of those purely phytophagous tribes. The Agree prey doubtlessly 
on the small larvae and soft-bodied insects which abound in the 
masses of adherent and interwoven or folded leaves of the trees 
on which they are found ; but being seen almost always motion- 
less by day, and therefore probably nocturnal feeders, I never had 
the opportunity of observing them in the act of feeding. 

There is very little else to be recorded of the habits of these 
elegant and most interesting insects. I have noticed, however, 
that they possess the crepitating power, which exists in so many 
other genera of the Section and reaches its acme in Brachi- 
nus and Pheropsophus. It is however very feeble, the explosion 
being not audible and perceptible only when the insects are held 
by the fingers near the posterior part of their bodies, when a slight 
explosion is felt, producing a sensation of warmth in the fingers, 
followed by a temporary stain diffused by the acid over the hinder 
part of the elytra. 

Although it has always been a favourite group with collectors, 
the Agree have been, until recently, great rarities in European 
cabinets; Count Dejean, up to the year 1837 (the date of his 
last Catalogue), possessed only 13 species. The German collec- 
tions, however, were much richer, chiefly owing to the assiduity 
with which several German collectors, who were encouraged to 
travel in Brazil on the marriage of the Emperor of that country 
with an Austrian Archduchess in 1817, searched for the rarer 
species of various groups of insects. One of these was Sieber, 
valet to Count HofFmannsegg, whose master sent him to Para to 
collect, where in a short time he gathered some of the choicest 
species, Klug, in consequence, was able in 1824 to describe and 
enumerate 20 species, most of which were represented in the 
Berlin Museum; and in 1834 (in his Jahrbiicher) he increased 



Species of Agra of the Amazons Region. 361 

the number to 28. Since then, tlie researclies of numerous 
collectors in Brazil and New Granada, Moritz in Venezuela, 
Salle in Mexico, Bar in Cayenne, and myself in the region of the 
Amazons, have enabled the Baron de Chaudoir, our best autho- 
rity on the genus, to examine himself and describe 87 species, 
which added to others described by various authors, but unknown 
to M, de Chaudoir, make a total of 12t species described up 
to the present time. To this number I am enabled to add, in 
tiie following pages, 16, in addition to the large number pre- 
viously described by M. de Chaudoir from my collection, which 
advances the number of known species to 140. The general 
rarity and retiring habits of the Agree, together with the extreme 
narrowness of the range of most of the species, lead us to think 
that even this large number will eventually be greatly augmented, 
so that Agra will become one of the most numerous genera of 
the Geodephaga, The species form a most difficult study ; this, 
however, is saying little, for in the present state of the science all 
the large groups of the Geodephaga are in the same predicament; 
the slight but sure differences in the general form, colour and 
sculpture, outline of head and thorax, requiring great labour and 
patience, and a well-trained eye, to discriminate one species from 
another. That the great majority of Agree so discriminated are 
perfectly sound species I have no doubt whatever, this conclusion 
being grounded on the evident physiological and permanent 
separation of several of their closely-allied species which I found 
inhabiting one and the same locality. Such species as A. varians 
and A. crjtherea ; A. chalcoptera and A. b'iseriata, are cases in 
point : the absolute structural characters which separate these are 
detected only by a practised eye, but they are constant, and the 
two groups of individuals in each case show, by the absence of con- 
necting forms, their physiological separation, or, in other words, the 
absence of intercrossing. In other cases the closely-allied forms 
inhabit distant localities ; the physiological test is not then appli- 
cable, and we have to decide on their probable distinctness from 
the analogy of the other cases. Some few species remain of which 
single specimens only were found ; these are described as distinct 
only when there is a certainty, or at least great probability, of 
their being so. When much doubt existed I have preferred de- 
scribing them as doubtful varieties, under the head of the next- 
allied species. 

In the Agree well-marked secondary sexual characters, in most 
cases, offer excellent characters for distinguishing closely-allied 
species. The genus is remarkable amongst the Carabki on this 

D D 2 



362 Mr. H. W. Bates on the 

account. In the great majority of genera of Carabici, as is well 
known, the males are distinguished from the females by the 
dilatation of the anterior and sometimes of the middle tarsi ; the 
number of joints dilated and the nature of the clothing of the 
palms affording characters whereby to distinguish genera and sub- 
families. But the other parts of the body offer only very slight 
differences in the sexes. In the Agree the differences are numerous 
and varied. In some species the anterior tarsi show a dilatation 
of the first joint in the male ; and in others it is the hind feet 
that exhibit this partial enlargement : the femora in the males of 
nearly all are strongly thickened ; and in one series of species 
the middle and hind tibiae are peculiarly bent and flattened, and 
hirsute on their inner side in the same sex. This latter character 
is accompanied in the same species by dense patches of hairs 
arising from closely-punctured spaces in the middle of the meta- 
sternum and abdominal segments. Some species again possess 
this hairy clothing, without the existence of any peculiarity in the 
shape of the tibiae : this clothing in others often extends to the 
bases of the femora and the hind trochantei-s. In all the species 
whose males are thus clothed the under surface of the body of 
the females is naked and the tibice simple ; but in a numerous 
group this sex offers a singular peculiarity in the antennae ; the 
eighth to tenth joints being out of proportion shorter than the 
rest, and the eighth generally extremely abbreviated. The males 
also have generally more broadly dilated palpi, as is the case in 
the Carabi and other genera having these organs hatchet-shaped. 
There is this to be noted, however, in the genus, that, whilst some 
species show these sexual differences in a high degree of perfec- 
tion, there are others in which they are reduced almost to nil. 

The Baron Chaudoir, in his chief work on the Agree, published 
in the Annals of the Entomological Society of France, 1861, has 
divided the genus into two, viz. Agrid'ia and Agra. Agridia is a 
tolerably natural group, and may be adopted or not according as 
the student has analytical or synthetical tendencies, but the sharp- 
ness of its definition from Agra is much affected by the inter- 
mediate character of the first group of the latter genus (the 
Agrae spurice of Chaudoir). I have followed M. de Chaudoir in 
the subordinate grouping of the genus, which seems to me most 
natural. 

Lastly, I may say, by way of hint to future collectors in 
Tropical America, that the best season for Agree is the showery 
weather at the commencement of the rainy season, especially if 
the preceding dry period has been of long duration. When the 



Species of Agra of the Amazons Region. 363 

weather is, however, very showery, it is of little use hunting for 
them ; and it is only in certain peculiar states of the weather that 
more than a solitary specimen can be found in a day's search. 
When the season seems to be favourable to them, beating should 
be resorted to, and then by perseverance a good series of speci- 
mens may be obtained of many species in a few days. All kinds 
of forest yield them ; the dry scattered woods and the lofty 
virgin forests containing each their peculiar species ; in the former 
they are small in size, the large and handsome kinds being found 
only in the more luxuriant parts of the great wilderness. 

Baron Chaudoir, who described in his paper above mentioned 
all the new species of mine of which I could aftbrd him duplicates, 
has since kindly compared the remaining species with his own 
rich collection, and given me manuscript descriptions of many of 
them. Out of the forty-seven species of Agridia and Agra here 
recorded as found in the Amazons region, forty-two were found 
by myself, and of these thirty-one were new species. 

Genus Agridia, Chaudoir. 
Mentum lobis valde angustis, acutissimis, intus acute carinatis. 
Tibice compresso-dilatatae. Tarsi supra glabri, articulis latis 
brevibus, compressis, subquadratis ; unguiculis brevissimis. 



1. Agridia Batesii, Chaudoir. 
Agridia Batesii, Chaud. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, p. 111. 

A. subcylindrica, nigra, nitida, thorace supra viridi- vel violaceo- 
tincto, elytris laetissime viridibns; capite angustato, postice 
elongato, sensim attenuato; thorace angustato, antice atte- 
nuato, dorso convexo, punctato, transversim strigoso, lateri- 
bus baud carinatis ; elytris angustis, cylindricis, humeris 
rotundatis, apice truncatis, apud suturam dehiscentibus, 
angulis suturalibus acutis, exterioribus in dente productis, 
punctato-striatis, punctis transversis, confertis. 

$ Segmentis ventralibus medio punctatis et fusco-hirsutis ; 
segmento apicali medio inciso. 

$ Abdomine glabro, segmento apicali leviter emarginato ; 
antennarum articulis 7-10 reliquis brevioribus. 

Long. 6| — 8 lin.^ ? . 

Ega. 

This very handsome species was seen only on the foliage of low 
trees unconcealed, and seems to be of diurnal habits. 



364 Mr. H. W. Bates on tJie 

2. Agridia phcenicodera, n. sp. 
A. subcylindrica, postice paulo dilatata, nigra, nitida ; thorace 
violaceo, lateribus cupreis ; elytris Isetissime vin'dibiis ; capite 
angustissimo, postice valde elongate, hand attenuato. 
? Antennarum articulo 8^° sequentibus multo breviori. 
Long. 5 lin. ? . 

Very similar to A. Bales'n, the difference in the shape of the 
head and in the length of the eighth antennal joint in the ? being 
the only characters which induce me to believe it a distinct spe- 
cies. The head is much narrower and longer in proportion to its 
width than in the corresponding sex oi A. Batesn ; indeed there 
is no other species in the genus known to me which can be likened 
to it in point of narrowness, its greatest width not much exceeding 
that of the anterior part of the thorax. As in A. Batesii, it is 
greatly prolonged behind the eyes, but its sides are not straight, 
as in that species, but a little bowed outwards, and it is not per- 
ceptibly narrowed to the neck. The thorax differs from that of 
A. Batesii in its colour being violet, passing into brilliant purple 
copper on the sides ; the surface is not perceptibly wrinkled, and 
the punctures are in many parts confluent. The elytra are of the 
same rich silky metallic-green as in A. Batesii. 

Ega. On foliage, one example. 



3. Agridia platyscelis, Chaudoir, 
Agridia platyscelis, Chaud. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, p. 110. 
A. angustata, postice paulo ampliata, nigra, nitida, elytris seneo- 
olivaceis, pedibus palpisque apice piceo-rufis; capite ellip- 
tico, glabro, pone oculos valde elongato, vertice convexo ; 
antennarum articulis apice setosis ; oculis vix prominentibus ; 
thorace capite paulo breviori, antice attenuato, subtus glabro, 
supra transversim strigoso et postice sparse punctato, lateri- 
bus lineatim punctatis et carinatis ; elytris pone basin leviter 
sinuatis, postea ampliatis, apice truncatis, angulis exterioribus 
in dente productis, humeris rectangulatis ; dorso punctato- 
striatis, punctis transversis et confertis. 
Long. 1 1 lin. $ . 

Ega. Concealed in folded leaves on trees in the depth of the 
forest ; extremely rare. I met with females only ; in this sex 
the eighth to eleventh joints of the antennae are much shorter and 
more slender than the preceding. 



species of Agra of the Amazons Region. 365 

Genus Agra. 
Mentum lobis apice rotundatis, intus baud carinatis. Tibia; non 
compressae, teretes. Tarsi supra pilosi, articulis subelongatis, 
haud compressis, cordatis aut trigonis ; unguiculis minus 
brevibus. 

A. Mentum lobis longioribus, angustis, apice subacute rotun- 
datis. 

1. Agra erythropus, Dejean. 
Jgra erythropus, Dej. Sp6c. Gen. i. 199. 

„ „ , Chaud. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, p. 112. 

A. robusta, obscure senea ; capite ovali, postice niodice elon- 
gato, rotundato-attenuato, oculis valde prominentibus; thorace 
antice subito attenuato, lateribus carinatis, episternis valde 
convexis, supra planis, sparsim punctatis ; elytris humeris 
obliquis, pone medium ampliatis, apice peroblique truncatis, 
angulis suturalibus acutis, externis dentiformibus, dorso pro- 
funde punctato-striatis ; antennis pedibusque rufescentibus ; 
tibiis latis, compressis, angulis externis terminalibus haud 
prominulis; intermediis apice intus dilatatis. 

Long. 10 lin. ^ 

S Segmentis ventralibus punctatis, sparsim hirsutis ; segmento 

terminali dorsali inciso,ventraIi Jate triangidariter emarginato; 

pedibus robustis, tarsis latis, articulo ultimo brevi, posticorum 

primo intus valde rotundato-dilatato. 

Villa Nova, Lower Amazons. On foliage. It is on the authority 

of Baron Chaudoir that 1 refer the example I possess of this 

species to A. erythropus of Dejean, the description of this author 

presenting no means of identifying the species with certainty. M. 

de Chaudoir, who possesses the type specimens of Dejean, was 

acquainted only vviih females of this and the other species of 

section A. 

2. Agra latipes, Chaudoir. 

Agra latipes, Chaud. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, p. 112. 

A. nigra, nitida, elytris aeneo-tinctis ; capite ovali, angustato, 
pone oculos elongato, leviter rotundato-attenuato; ihorace 
antice angustato, leevi, medio linea impressa utrinque punc- 
tato, lateribus carinatis, episternis modice convexis ; elytris 
postice paulo ampliatis, apice peroblique truncatis, angulis 
suturalibus acutis, externis dentiformibus, dorso grosse 
punctato-striatis, punctis partim confluentibus ; tibiis com- 
pressis. 

i Segmentis ventralibus medio crebre punctatis, dense fusco- 



366 Mr. H. W. Bates on the 

hirsutis ; femoribus (praesertim posticis) validioribus, tarsis 
latioiibus, posticorum articulo basali sequentibiis raulto ma- 
jor!, intus rotundato-dilatato. 
J Antennis articulis 8-10 abbreviatis, %'"' brevissimo. 
Long. 7 — 9 lin. 

This species occurred more frequently than the preceding, I 
met with it, however, only at Ega, about the commencement of 
the rainy season. 

B. Mentum lobis latis, breviusculis, apice late rotundatis. 

a. Elytris foveolatis. 
a. Capita elongato-ovato. 

3. Agra cenen, Fabricius. 
Agra cenea, Fab. Syst. Eleuth. i. p. 224, n. 1. 
,, ,, , Dej. Sp. i. p. 198, n. 1. 
„ „ , Chaud. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, p. 113. 
A. elongata, senea, nitida ; capita ovato, postice rotundato- 
attenuato, glaberrimo ; prothorace supra grosse punctato, 
postice coarctato ; elytris lineatim confluenter foveolatis, 
apice oblique subsinuato-truncatis ; pedibus piceo-cupreis. 
$ Coxis posticis segmentisque ventralibus medio confertim 

punctatis et j)ilosis. 
$ Antennis articulo 8^° valde abbreviato. 

1 captured one individual of this species on a low tree in the 
forest, at Manaos, on the Rio Negro. It is an inhabitant of 
Cayenne. 

4. Agra melallescens, Chaudoir. 
Agra melallescens, Chaud. Bull. Mosc. 1847, ii. p. 95, n. 12. 
This species, of which the female only is known, is closely 
allied to A. cenea, but differs conspicuously in its darker bronze 
colour. M. de Chaudoir possesses two examples from Para. I 
do not recollect taking the insect myself; and the collections 
which I made in the neighbourhood of Para, in the years from 
1848 to 1850, were sent to England without my reserving a set 
of the Coleoptera. 

5. Agra Megera, Thomson. 
Agra Megera, Thomson, Arch. Ent. i. p. 399. 
„ ,, , Chaud. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, p. 113. 
A. elongata, robusta, nigra, supra oblivaceo-aenea ; capita 
oblongo, pone oculos subquadrato, basi subito constricto ; 
thorace capite vix longiori, grosse confluenter punctato, inter- 



Species of Agra of the Amazons Region. 367 

stitiis glabris, elevaiis ; clytris regulariter lineatim foveolatis, 
apice oblique flexuoso-truncatis, angulis suturalibus pio- 
diictis; tarsis elongatis, fulvo-hirsutis. 
^ Mesosterno et segmentis ventralibus (apicali excepto) punc- 
tatis et longe fiilvo-hiisiitis ; femoribus crassis, tibiis intcr- 
mediis intus pone inedium unco armatis, posticis medio 
angulatis et intus dente instructis, pone mediuni intus hir- 
sutis ; tarsis baud dilatatis. 
$ Pedibus teretibus, mesosterno abdomineque glabris ; antennis 

articulo 8''° valde abbreviate. 
Long. 11 — 13 lin. 

This is the largest known species of the genus, and is at once 
distinguishable from its nearest relatives by the quadrate shape of 
the head in both sexes. I met with it only at Ega, where it 
occurred sparingly on leaves of trees in the forest. Baron 
Chaudoir was unacquainted with the true male at the date of his 
monograph quoted above, and described that sex of an allied 
species, our A, anguiiiea, as the male of A. Megera. 

6. Agra anguinea, n. sp. (PI. XX. fig. C, $ .) 
A. Megerce forma et colore simillima, sed minor ; capite multo 
angustiori, baud quadrato, parte postica quam thoracis apice 
vix latiori, pone oculos leviter attenuato ; thorace medio 
paulo dilatato. 
^ Trochanteribus posticis segmentisque ventralibus medio 
dense, mesosterno medio sparsim, punctatis et pilosis ; tibiis 
intermediis prope apicem intus dentatis ; posticis a medio 
usque ad apicem intus incrassatis et pilosis ; femoribus 
validioribus. 
? Pedibus teretibus ; antennis articulo S""" valde abbreviato. 
Long. 10| — 11 lin. 

Found also at Ega, in the same situation as A. Megera. The 
great differences in secondary sexual features between the males 
of this form and of A. Megera forbid their being classed as be- 
longing to the same species ; for it has been generally allowed 
by attentive students that these characters offer the best guides 
in distinguishing species, and they may well be so considered, 
since marked sexual differences afford strong presumption of the 
non-existence of intercrossing, the surest indication of persistent 
separation between closely-allied forms. I should not, however, be 
surprised at intermediate forms of the male sex being found between 
A. Megera and A. anguinea, or any other similarly-related species. 



368 Mr. H. W. Bates on the 

7. Agra infuscata, Klug. 
Agra infuscata, Klug, Entom. Monogr. p. 15, pi. i. fig. 3. 
A. angustior, elongata, nigro-senea, pedibiis interdum rufescen- 
tibus ; capite ( $ ) pone oculos conico, ( $ ) rotundato- 
attemiato ; thorace grosse rugoso-punctato ; elytris apice 
oblique truncato, angulis suturalibus acutis, baud productis 
nee reflexis, dorso lineatim foveolato. 
$ Femoribus validioribus, tarsorum anticorum articulo basali 
magno, dilatato ; mesosterno, trochanteribus posticis, seg- 
mentorum ventralium plagis duabus, confertim punctatis et 
pilosis ; tibiis intermediis prope apicera intus dente parvo 
armatis, posticis pone medium leviter dilatatis, hirsutis. 
$ Pedibus abdomineque simplicibus ; antennis articulo 8"" 

brevissimo. 
Long. 9| — 10 lin. 

Para, Santarem (banks of Tapajos) and Ega, Upper Amazons. 
This species differs from A. anguinea in pretty nearly the same 
degree as the latter does from the giant A. Megera. It has a wide 
range; I have specimens before me from localities 1,100 miles 
apart in a straight line from east to west. 

8. Agra reflexidens, Chaudoir. 
Agra reflexidens, Chaud. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, p. 114. 
A. elongata, nigro-aenea, foveolis elytrorum viridi-nitentibus ; 
capite maris robustiori, feminae angustiori, ovali, pone oculos 
sensim attenuato ; thorace ut in A. anguinea et A. infuscata, 
interstitiis paulo latioribus, IjEvissimis ; elytris apice oblique 
truncatis, angulis suturalibus valde productis, dentiformibus, 
paulo reflexis. 
$ Femoribus validioribus ; segmentis ventralibus intermediis 
medio punctatis et pilosis ; tibiis intermediis intus flexuosis, 
apice subito dilatatis, posticis pone medium vix hirsutis. 
$ Antennis articulo 8"° valde abbreviate; pedibus abdomineque 

simplicibus. 
Long. 9 2 lin. 

Ega, In the same situations as the three preceding species, and 
once taken in copula. The prolongation of the sutural angle is a 
good character whereby to distinguish this species, as it exists in 
both sexes ; it forms a distinct tooth or spine owing to its length 
and to the truncation being a little sinuated or incurved as it ap- 
proaches the angle. 



Species of Agra of the Amazons Region. 369 

9. /Jgra mustela, n. sp. 

A. angustata, antice valde attenuata, nigro-aenea, antennis piceo- 

rufis, articulis apice nigris ; capite angusto, maris pone oculos 

conico vel in lineis rectis attenuate, feminae elliptico vel 

leviter rotundato-atteniiato ; tliorace gracili, grosse punctato, 

spatiis magnis lasvibus, episternis baud convexis, punctis 

grossis sparsis ; elytris pone basin sinuatis, deinde ampliatis, 

apice truncatis, angidis suturalibus vix acutis, dorse lineatim 

foveolatis. 

$ Metasterno sparsira, trochanteribus segmentisque ventrali- 

bus plagiatim dense punctatis et longe fulvo-pilosis; tibiis 

intermediis et posticis intus densissime birsutis, bis medio 

leviter angulatis, illis prope apicem dente parvo instructis ; 

femoribus validioribus. 

$ Antennis articulo S*" valde abbreviate ; pedibusabdomineque 

simplicibus. 
Long. 8 lin. 

Ega. In the same situations as the preceding. It differs from 
A. infuscata, to which it is most closely related, by its smaller 
size and the less oblique truncation of the elytra, which causes the 
sutiiral angle to be less acute than in the allied species. The 
male differs from the corresponding sex of A. infuscata by the 
almost glaljrous metasternimi. These points of difference, it must 
be confessed, are much less important than those which separate 
the rest of these allied forms, and it is not without hesitation that 
I have described the present one as distinct. 

10. Agrafemorata, Klug. 
Agra femorata, Klug,^Entom. Monogr. p. SQ, pi. ii. fig. 8. 

A. elongata, subcylindrica, nigerrima, foveolis elytrorum viridi- 
punctatis; capite elongato-ovali, pone oculos rotundato- 
attenuato ; thorace subcylindrico, prope apicem subito an- 
gustato, supra laevi, punctis lineatim ordinatis, episternis 
sparsim punctatis ; elytris postice minime ampliatis, apice 
transversim utrinque bisinuato-truncatis, tridentatis, dorso 
lineatim foveolatis, foveolis liic illic confluentibus. 

$ Metasterno leviter, segmentis ventralibus 2 — 4 utrinque 
plagis dense punctatis et pilosis; tibiis intermediis et posticis 
apices versus intus breviter birsutis, his medio leviter incras- 
satis, illis prope apicem dentatis ; femoribus validioribus. 

$ Antennis articulo 8"" abbreviate; elytris dente truncaturae 
mediano breviori. 

Long. 6 — 8^ lin. 



370 Mr. H, W. Bates on the 

Baron Cliaiicloir has communicated the following note on this 
species, founded on the specimens brought home by me : — 

" La description -de Klug convient tres-bien aux individus que 
j'ai sous les yeux, et je ne doute point qu'ils ne se rapportent a 
cette espece, mais Klug a tort de dire que le ventre est lisse et 
glabre, car la poitrine du male est pointillee et pubescente sur le 
milieu et les avant-derniers segments de I'abdomen ofFrent pres du 
milieu deux touffes de poils longs (surtout les deux anterieurs), 
separes par un espace glabre mais finement rugeux. La femelle 
seule est lisse. Villa Nova et Obydos." 

I beat a pair of this species, in copuld, out of a flowering bush 
at Villa Nova, on the lower Amazons. 



11. /4gra scrutalrix, n. sp. 

A. mcerenti forma et sculptura simillima ; differt elytris lined 
recta truncatis, antennis articulo 8''"(?) brevissimo. Nigro- 
senea, thorace pedibusque seneo-piceis ; capite elliptico, tho- 
race gracili, elytris angulis suturalibus leviter productis, 
externis acute dentiformibus. 

9 Antennis articulis 8 — 11 reliquis brevioribus, baud graci- 
lioribus, 8'"' sequenti dimidio breviori. 

Long. 7 lin. 

Ega. One example. M. de Chaudoir gave it as his opinion that 
this was simply a variety of A. moerens. The great difference in 
the truncation of the elytra and the relative length of the eighth 
antennal joint compel me to consider it a very distinct form. 

12. Agra mcerens, Chaudoir. 
Agra moerens, Chaud. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, p. 119. 

A. femorutce simillima, minor, nigra, viridi-aeneo tincta, pedibus 
piceo-nigris ; capite angustiori, elliptico ; elytris in utroque 
sexu postice ampliatis, foveolis passim discretis, apice utrm- 
que transversim bisinuato-truncatis, tridentatis, dente sutu- 
rali baud producto. 

$ Metasterno glabro, segraentis ventralibus 2-3 medio utrinque 
punctatis et sparsim pilosis ; tibiis posticis medio leviter an- 
gulatis, pone medium breviter hirsutis. 

$ Antennis articulis 8-11 gracilibus, 8^" sequenti paulo bre- 
viori. 

Long. 7 — 8 lin. 

Ega. Concealed in leaves of trees in the forest. 



Species of Agra of the Amazons Region. 371 

13. Agra caWctis, n. sp. 
A. gracilis, nigra, pedibus pallide flavis, geniculis tibiisque apice 
nigris, tarsis rufescentibus ; capite elliptico ; thorace angusto, 
dorso laevi, lineatim pnnctato, episternis grosse punctatis ; 
elytris postice paulo ampliatis, apice flexuoso-truncatis, an- 
gulis suturalibus baud productis, supra lineatim foveolatis, 
foveolis partim viridi-tinctis; antennis gracilibus, rufescen- 
tibus, nigro-maculatis. 
$ Antennis articulis 8-10 praecedentibus minoribus, S^°sequenti 

quarta parte breviori. 
Long. 7 lin. 

I found this extremely elegant and rare species only at Para. 
M. de Cbaudoir, on the examination of my specimen, concluded 
it to be the female of A. geniculata of Klug, but the difference 
in general form is far greater than that which exists between the 
sexes of all other species whose legitimate partners are known, and 
besides the colour of the legs differs considerably. 

14. Agra geniculata, Klug. 

Agra geniculata, Klug, Entom. Monogr. p. 30, pi. ii. fig. 4. 

A. robustior, nigra, pedibus saturate flavis, geniculis, tibiis apice 
tarsisque nigris, antennis nigris ; capite elongato, pone oculos 
conico ; thorace medio subdilatato, postice valde constricto, 
antice subito angustato, dorso interstitiis latis laevibus, epi- 
sternis sparsim punctatis ; elytris lineis foveolarum in striis 
subimpressis, foveolis viridi-tinctis, apice subflexuoso-trun- 
catis, angulis suturalibus baud productis. 

$ Metasterno medio, segmentis ventralibus 1-3 utrinque 
spatiis exiguis punctatis et sparsim pilosis ; tibiis simplicibus, 
tarsis nigro-hirsutis. 

Long. 7 lin. 

Santarem, Beaten from bushes on the borders of woods. I 
believe I also found this species at Para in the early years of 
collecting. 

15. Agra subcenea, Cbaudoir. 
Agra svbcBnea, Chaud. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, p. 120. 
A. valde angustata, nigro-acnca, elytris cuprescentibus ; capite 
angusto, pone oculos elongato, lateribus rotundato, vix atte- 
nuate, apud collum subiter constricto ; thorace gracili, antice 
sensim attenuate, lineatim punctato, interstitiis latis laevibus, 



372 Mr. H. W. Bates on the 

episternis confertim punctatis; elytris angustis, pone medium 
paulo ampliatis, apice flexuoso-truncatis, angulis externis 
solum demiformibus ; supra lineatim foveolatis, apices versus 
striatis. 
2 Antennis articulo 8^" sequenti non breviori. 
Long. 5| lin. 
Hab. Ega. 

S (?) Robustior, colore obscurior ; capite latiori, thorace punc- 
tis majoribus, confluentibus ; abdomine glabro, pedibus sim- 
plicibus, femoribus paulo validioribus. 
Long. 5 1 lin. 
Hab. Para. 

Baron Chaudoir described this species from a female, agreeing 
in every respect with a second example of the same sex in my 
collection. 1 have no specimen of the male from the same 
locality, but believe the one found at Para and described above 
belongs to the same species. I met with single individuals of the 
same or closely-allied species at other localities ; it is impos- 
sible to decide whether they are distinct or not until further 
material is obtained. Meantime the following diagnoses may be 
useful : — 

(a.) A. Chryseis, $. 
Major, nigro-aenea ; elytris laete seneis, antennis pedibusque ru- 
fescentibus ; thorace ut in A. subcenea, elytris truncaturi vix 
flexuosa, foveolis minoribus. 
Long. 6| lin. 
Hab. Santarem. 

(b.) A. curtula, $ . 
Minor, robustior, nigro-aenea, elytris aeneo-cupreis ; capite 
thorace latiori, oblongo-quadrato, angulis posticis rotundatis ; 
thorace prope apicem attenuato, dorso grosse rugoso-punc- 
tato, episternis plagiatim punctatis ; elytris truncatura prope 
angulum externum sinuata, deinde usque ad suturam recta, 
foveolis plurimum confluentibus ; antennis immaculatis pedi- 
busque rufescentibus ; abdomine glabro, pedibus simplicibus. 
Long. 5 lin. 
Hab. Villa Nova. 
J. gracill affinis, (Lucas, Voy. de Castelnau, Entomologie, pi. ii. 

fig. 6, a.) 
If these two are to be considered as belonging to the same 
species as- A. subcenea, I think it will be necessary to combine all 
three with A, rujicornis of Klug, which is also an inhabitant of 



Species of Agra of the Amazovs Region. 373 

Para. A. ruficornis seems to differ from the typical subcenea only 
in its larger size and duller colouring. The following diagnosis, 
condensed from the description of Klug, will serve to facilitate 
comparison : — 

(c.) A. rufcornis, Klug, Entom. Monogr. p. 35, pi. ii. fig. 6. 
Valde attenuata, nigro-aenea, foveolis elytrorum violaceo-£eneis, 
antennis pedibusque rufo-piceis ; capite perangustato, tho- 
race profunde et irregulariter punctato ; elytris apice trun- 
catis, tridentatis, dente externo acuto, secundo approximate 
obtuso, interno obtusissimo. 
? Long. 6g lin. 
Hab. Para. 

16. Agra femor alls, Chaudoir. 
Agra femoralis, Chaud. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, p. 120. 

A. angustata, aenea, elytris cuprescentibus, antennis (articulo 
basali piceo excepto), tibiis tarsisque testaceo-rufis, femoribus 
piceis, nitidis; capite angusto-ovato, pone oculos minus elon- 
gato, rotundato-aftenuato, oculis magnis ; thorace angusto, 
antice sensim attenuato, grosse punctato, interstitiis glabris, 
tenuibus ; elytris postice vix ampliatis, truncatura prope 
angulum externum sinuata angulum medianum formante, 
deinde usque ad suturam fere recta; elytris foveolis in striis 
impressis ordinatis. 

i Metasterno, tibiis segmentisque ventralibus fere glabris ; 
tarsis anticis articulo basali a basi dilatato. 

Long. 6^ lin. 

Ega. 

The species was not uncommon, but I have neglected to reserve 
specimens of both sexes for my own collection. 

17. Agra tibialis, Chaudoir. (PI. XX. fig. 2, $.) 
Agra tibialis, Chaud. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, p. 121. 

A. femorali forma, colore et sculptura similis ; major, elytris 
oblique subflexuoso-truncatis, nullomodo bisinuatis ; cenea, an- 
tennis tibiis tarsisque rufescentibus, femoribus nigro-piceis ; 
corpore subtus utroque sexu glabro. 

$ Tarsis anticis articulo primo abrupte dilatato. 

$ Tarsis anticis articulo primo simplici, antennis articulo 8" 
nullomodo abbreviato. 

Lon-T. 8 — 9 lin. 



374 Mr. H. W. Bates on ^/^e 

Widely distributed over tlie Amazons region ; being found at 
Para and at Ega. In a Parii example before me the femora are 
pitchy-rufous and the elytra more coarsely foveolated than in the 
Ega specimens. 

/3. Vertice utrinque pluripunctato pilose. 

1 8. Jgra moesla, Chaudoir. 
Agra mcesta, Chaud. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, p. 123. 

A. robusta, nigra, nitida ; capite ovali, pone oculos rotundato- 
attenuato, pluripunctato ; thorace medio dilatato, antice 
valde subito attenuato, supra grosse lineatim confluenter 
punctato; elytris truncatis, angulis suturalibus et externis 
valde productis, supra alternatim striato-punctatis et striato- 
foveolatis ; antennis pedibusque piceo-nigris. 

? Antennis articulo 8"" nullomodo abbreviato. 

Long. 8|— 9| lin. 

Ega. 

b. Elytris distincte punctato-striatis. 
a. Thorace toto dense punctulato. 

19. Agra pulcheUa, Chaudoir. 

' Agra pulchella, Chaud. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr, 1861, p. 126. 

A. nigro-aenea, elytris cupreis, nitidis, certo situ viridi-mican- 
tibus ; capite ovali, postice elongato, rotundato-attenuato, oc- 
cipite lineola impressa ; thorace subcylindrico, prope apicem 
subito' attenuato, punctulato, linea impressa antica dorsali, 
lateribus tenuiter carinatis, episternis crebre punctulatis, 
glabris ; elytris apice truncatis, angulis externis leviter pro- 
ductis, suturalibus acutis, dorso punctulato-striatis, intersti- 
tiis planis ; antennis rufescentibus. 

$ Metasterno, segmentis ventralibus (anali excepto), medio 
laxe punctatis et pilosis. 

? Corpore subtus glabro ; antennis normalibus. 

Long. 4 — 4| lin. 

Ega. 

20. Agra brevicollis, Klug. 

Agra brevicollis, Klug, Entom. Monogr. p. 25, pi. i. fig. 9. 

A. nigro-Eenea, elytris cupreis, certo situ viridi-micantibus; capite 

angustato, postice rotundato-attenuato ; thorace brevi, sub- 

conico, prope apicem subito attenuato, supra lineola dorsali 

inipresso, punctulato, punctis saepius confluentibus, subtus 



species of Agra of the Amazons Region. 375 

distiiictius punctnlatis ; elytris truncatis, dente exteinoacuto, 
interno obtuso. 
(^ Segiiientis ventralibus medio cinereo-tomentosis ; meta- 

sterno sub-hirto. 
Long. 5| lin. 

Parji. This species, which I did not myself meet with, is evi- 
dently closely allied to A. pulc/iella ; it is larger, however, and the 
ventral segments are much more densely pilose in the male. 

21. Jgra Chaudoirii, n. sp. 
M. de Chaudoir has kindly drawn up for me the following de- 
scription of this species : — 

" Nigra ; thorace nigro-seneo ; elytris rubro- aut virescenti- 
cupreis, anguste viridi-marginatis, fulgentibus ; antennis 
extus piceis, articulis singulis nigro-terminatis. Caput 
elongato-ovatum, subangustum, basi sat abrupte stran- 
gulatum, laeve, basi uni-foveolatum, utrinque unipunctatum, 
oculis sat prominulis. Thorax quoad formam ut in A. Cy- 
therea, capite longior, eoque cum oculis fere crassior, latitu- 
dine duplo longior, parce pilosus, ovatus, crassiusculus, 
antice breviter at(enuatus, lateribus ad apicem brevissime, 
ante basin obsolete sinuatis, totus sat dense regulariterque 
punctatus, carinula laterali subelevata, utrinque subcrenata, 
integra. Elytra fere omnino ut in A. Cytherea, thorace 
antice fere duplo latiora, posteriiis ampliata, modice elongata, 
apice suboblique truncata, bidentata, dente externo acute, 
suturali subproducio, obtuso, intra dentem externum sub- 
sinuato ; supra modice convexa, sat tenue punctato-striata, 
interstitiis planiusculis, punctorum seriebus in 3" et 5° fere 
obsoletis. Femora $ valida, pectore medio et vitta latius- 
cula abdominis fere ad apicem dense pubescente-punctulatis. 
Femina subtus glabra, pube murina." 

Long. 6 2 lin. 

Ega. In the Collections of Baron Chaudoir and H. W. Bates. 

22. Agra bicostata, n. sp. 
The following is a description of this species drawn up by M. 
de Chaudoir : — 

" Pra3cedenti valde similis, eadem magnitudo, color idem ; difFert 
capite paulo angustiori, basi minus abrupte strangulate, tho- 
race antice brevius attenuate, costa laterali evidentiori, et 

VOL. II. THIRD SERIES, PART V. SEPT. 1865. E E 



376 Mr. H. W. Bates on the 

fere duplici, supra medio apice breviter costato ; elytra 
similia, paulo minora, apice acute tridentata, dente suturali sat 
producto, intermedio minore, apice baud rotundato ; antennis 
articulis singulis apice baud nigrescentibus ; $ abdomine 
subtus basi glabra, segmentis tribus ultimis medio tantum 
pubescentibus." 

Long. 6 lin. 

Ega. Collections of Baron Chaudoir and H. W. Bates. 

23. Agra hrev'icornis, n, sp. 

'' Praecedenti primo intuitu similis, minor. Caput subelongato- 
quadratum, basi abrupte quadrato-constrictum, laeve, basi 
unifoveolatum et utrinque unipunctatum ; oculis sat prominu- 
lis. Tborax quoad formam non difFert, attamen paulo bre- 
vior, supra minus confertirn et sat irregulariter punctatus, 
supra medio apice subtricostatus, carina laterali elevala, 
integra, exteriori subobsoleta. Elytra paulo breviora, nee 
latiora, minora, similiter punctato-striata, apice recte trun- 
cata, dentibus non prominulis, nee rotundatis. Antennae 
breviores, thoracis basin vix attingentes, articulis tribus basali- 
bus nigris, caeteris rufis. Color obscure cupreus." (Chaudoir.) 

Long. 5\ lin. 2 

Para. One example in my own Collection. 

24. Agra rubrocuprea, n. sp. 

M. de Chaudoir has given me the following description of my 
specimens of this species : — 

"A. CBneipenni certe affinis, differt capite evidenter latiori, magis 
rotundato, oculis sat prominulis, thorace paulo minus 
elongato, antice brevius attenuate, ante basin vix strangulate, 
costa laterali magis elevata ; elytris basin versus minus 
attenuatis, magis parallelis, apicis angulo suturali subacu- 
tiore. ^ subtus pectore medio, abdoniinisque toti fere ad 
apicem vitta lata media pubescenti-punctulatis, pube murina; 
$ glabra ; colore nigro-picea, nitida, thorace virescenti, 
elytris rubro-cupreis, splendidis ; antennae extus ferrugineae, 
articulis singulis nigro-terminatis ; pedes rufo-picei : (J ris 
femora parum incrassata." 

Long. 4| lin. 

This brilliant little species occurred only at St. Paulo, and was 
very rare. Coll. Baron Chaudoir and H. W. Bates. 



Species of Agra of the Amazons Region. 377 

25. Agra ceneipcnntSf Chaudoir. 
Agra ceneipennis, Chaud. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, p. 127. 

A. pulchellce similis ; gracilis, nigro-aenea, thorace elytrisque 
subobsciire viiidi-aeneis ; capite angustato-oblongo, pone 
ociilos modice rotundato-atleniiato, vertice foveola impresso ; 
tliorace elongate, postice coarctato, apicem versus subito 
attenuato, oranino punctulato ; elytris gracilibus, intra dentem 
externum valde sinuatis, supra punctato-striatis ; antennis 
rufescentibus, 

$ $ subtiis glabra. 

Long. 4| lin. 

Ega. Coll. Baron Chaudoir and H. W. Bates. 

26. Agra aurata, n. sp. 

A, rubrocuprece similis, differt capite magis ovato, thorace 
medio crassiori, lateribus magis rotundatis, ante basin evi- 
dentiiis strangulato, caeterum similiter punctato ; elytris 
dentibus apicalibus, praesertim intermedio, acutioribus. 
$ pectore medio tantum punctulato-piloso, abdomine toto 
Isevi, glabro ; femoribus anterioribus coxisque posticis subtus 
basin versus punctato-pilosis; elytris subluteo-auratis, cupreo 
viridique micantibus ; antennis ferrugineis, articulis duobus 
basalibus piceis : specimine subimmaturo. 

Long. 4g lin. 

Villa Nova. One specimen. 

27. Agra gaudiola, n. sp. 

A. parva, nigro-aenea, elytris laete purpureo-cupreis ; capite 
ovato, pone oculos minus elongate, latiusculo, collum versus 
subito strangulato ; thorace postice angustato, antice prope 
apicem attenuato, supra regulariter punctulato ; elytris bre- 
vibus, apice obtuse subtridentatis, recte truncatis ; antennis 
ferrugineis, articulis tribus basalibus obscuratis. 

Long. 3 lin. $. 

Ega. One example. 

/3. Thorace plagiatim punctato. 

28. Agra excavata, Klug. 

A. excavata, Klug, Entom. Monogr. p. 20, pi. i. fig. 6. 
A. nigro-aenea; capite breviter oyato, pone oculos paulo elon- 
gate, rotundato-attenuato, vertice foveola media orbiculari ; 

E E 2 



378 Mr. H. VV. Bates on the 

thorace brevi, antice subito attenuato, dorso plagiatini con- 
fluenter grosse pnnctato; elytris punctato-striatis, apice 
sinuato-truncatis, bidentatis ; antennis robustis, rufescentibus. 
Long. 5 lin. $ . 

Beaten in some numbers from bushes, on one occasion at 
Santarem. 

29. y^gra variolosa, Klug. 
^gra variolosa, Klug, Entom. Monogr. p. 18, pi. i. fig. 5. 
A. nigro-aenea ; corpore toto piloso ; capite (ut in A. excavate) 
breviter ovato, vertice foveola et linea longitudinali irapresso; 
thorace longiori, multo angustiori, antice sensim attenuato, 
supra grosse confluenter punctato ; elytris truncatis, biden- 
tatis, supra punctato-striatis, striis alternis foveolatis ; anten- 
nis robustis, ferrugineis. 
Long. 5 lin. $ . 

Taken once only, at Tunantins on the Upper Amazons. 
Klug's specimens came from Bahia. 

30. Agra biscriala, Chaudoir. 
Agra biseriata, Chaud. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 18G], p. 129. 

A. variolosce similis, at minor, seneo-fusca, pilosa ; capite an- 
gustiori, pone oculos minus quadrato, postice punctato-piloso ; 
thorace antice sensim attenuato, lateribus pilosis ; elytris 
subsinuato-truncatis, bidentatis, supra punctato-striatis, striis 
secunda tertiaque sex-foveolatis, pilosis ; antennis gracilibus 
pedibusque testaceo-rufescentibus. 

$ Metasterno medio dense breviter piloso, abdomine glabro. 

Long. 4| lin. 

Ega. One of the commonest species on the leaves of low trees. 

31. Agrafoveigera, Chaudoir. 
Agrafoveigera, Chaud. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, p. 130. 

A. biseriata similis, major, vix pubescens, nigra, vix metallica ; 
capite breviter ovato, postice baud punctato, vertice foveola 
magna; thorace gracili, antice sensim attenuato, lateribus baud 
pilosis; elytris sinuato-truncatis, dentibus duobus elongatis ; 
supra punctato-striatis, striis 2°'*% i'"*, 6'^ foveolatis, inter- 
stitits planis ; mesosterni episternis punctatis ; antennis 
pedibusque gracilibus, nigris. 

$ Metasterno medio dense hirsuto ; tibiis posticis arcuatis, 
intus late sulcatis. 

Long. 5| — 6 lin. 

Ega. Much less common than A. biseriata. 



Species of Agra of the Amazons Region. 37 J 

32. Jlgra immcrsa, King. 
Agra immerso, King, Entom. Monogr. p. 21, pi. i. fig. 7. 
A. bise.rialce simillima, differt elytris cupreis. 
Long. 4 lin. 

Para. Collected by Sieber. I think it very likely this is only 
a geographical variety of the same stock as A. biseriata. I do 
not find the species among my own Para collections. 

33. Agra clinlcoptera, Klug. 
Agra chalcoplera, Klug, Entom. Monogr. p. 23, pi. i. fig. 8. 

„ elegans, Chaud. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, p. 130. 
A. hiseriatce similis, gracilis, nigro-aenea, pilosa, elytris viridi- 

aeneis vel viridi-cupreis ; antennis valde elongatis, rufescentibus, 

basi piceis ; capita ovato, pone oculos rotundato-attenuato ; 

thorace a medio usque ad apicem attenuato, lateribus cano- 

pilosis ; elytris truncatis, angulis suturalibus hand productis ; 

femoribus piceis, tibiis tarsisque rufescentibus. 
$ Metasterno et abdominis basi medio punctato-pilosis ; tibiis 

posticis simplicibus. 
Long. 4^ — G lin. 

Equally common with A. biseriata at Ega ; also found at Para, 
where Klug's specimens were taken many years ago by Sieber. 

34. Agra graminea, n. sp. 
This species has a general resemblance in form to A. chalcoptera, 
Klug, but differs in its much more slender figure, the bright 
brassy-green colour of its thorax and elytra, and in other points. 
Baron Chaudoir has given me the following comparative descrip- 
tion of it : — 

" Color fere ut in A. chalcoptera, Klug, {elegans, Chaud.), sed 
supra potius viridis, non cupreus ; antennae pedesque simi- 
liter colorati. Quoad formam, A. tenui, Chaud., (Rev. & 
Mug. Zool. 1863, p. 9) affinis ; caput pone oculos magis 
attenuatum, thorax pone medium paulo magis incrassatus, 
intra carinam externam elevatam el juxta lineam medianam 
evidentius inegulariter punctatus. Elytra paulo latiora, minus 
parallela, postice magis ampliata, apice omnino recte truncata, 
angulo externo minus acuto, striis multo grossius punctatis, 
interstitiis convexiusculis. Subter laevis, nitida. A. chalcoptera 
differt capite multo angustiori, basi baud foveolato, linea tenui 
tantum notato ; thorace magis filiforme, omnino aliter punc- 
tate; elytris angustioribus, interstitiis alternis baud seriate- 



380 Mr. I-l. W. Bates on the 

foveolatis, apiceque obsolete dentatis ; corpore subtus vires- 

cente, paginae superioris colore gramineo." 
Long. 5 lin. 

I found one example only of this pretty species, at Ega, on the 
Upper Amazons. 

35. Agra exarata, Klug. 
Agra exarata, Klug, Entom. Monogr. p. 38, pi. ii. fig. 9. 

A. nigra, elytris aeneis, subcyaneis j capite ovato, pone oculos 
modice elongate, rotundato-attenuato ( ^ ), laevi, lineola im- 
pressa occipitali ; thorace robusto, medio ampliato, antice 
apicem versus attenuato, rugoso-punctato, baud piloso ; 
elytris postice ampliatis, tridentatis, supra punctato-striatis, 
striis ramulis interstitiorum interruptis ; antennis pedibusque 
piceo-nigris. 

$ Metasterno segmentisque ventralibus medio et femoribus 
basi subtus dense rufo-pilosis, subcrispatis. 

Long. 8 lin. 

One example, taken at Tunantins on the Upper Amazons. 
Klug's specimen, taken at Para, was a female. 

36. Agra cytherea, Thomson. (PI. XX. fig. 3, $ .) 
Agra cytherea, Thomson, Archiv. Entom. i. p. 134. 

A, nigro senea, thorace aeneo, elytris splendide viridi-metallicis, 
cupreo micantibus ; capite maris pone oculos subconico, 
feminaj rotundato-attenuato ; thorace glabro, rugoso-punc- 
tato ; elytris elongatis, postice ampliatis, bisinuato-truncatis, 
subtridentatis, dente externo solum producto, punctato- 
striatis, interstitiis planis ; antennis rufo-piceis, basi sereo- 
piceis, pedibus aeneo-piceis. 

$ Metasterno segmentisque ventralibus medio densissime pilo- 
sis ; femoribus anticis interdum basi pilosis. 

Long. 7|— 8| lin. 

Ega. A common species, on trees in the forest. 

S7. Agra piinctato-striata, Chaudoir. 
Agra punctato- striata, Chaud. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 18C1, p. 134. 
A, cytherece similh'ma, paulo minor ; capite maris pone oculos 
rotundato-attenuato ut in femina, baud conico; thorace supra 
magis punctato; colore piceo, thorace supra aeneo; elytris 
viridi-auratis, cupreo micantibus. 



Species of Agra of the Amazons Region. 38 1 

S Metasterno segmentisque ventralibus medio minus dense 
pilosis. 

Long. 7 lin. 

This species, which I cannot think is more than a local form of 
the same stock as A, cytherea, occurred at Para and on the Lower 
Amazons, J. cytherea being confined to the neighbourhood of 
Ega on the Upper Amazons. Baron Chaudoir, on whose autho- 
rity I have referred my specimens to his species, records a 
wide range for it, he having two specimens, one from the Rio 
Negro (Amazons) and the other from South Brazil. 

38. Agra varians, Chaudoir. 
Agra varians, Chaud. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 18G1, p. 133. 

A. ci/therecB forma similis, differt in colore, certe species dis- 
tinctissima ; nigra, elytris obscure viridibus, interdum aeneis 
et rubro-cupreis ; capite pone oculos paulo latiori, feminae 
subquadrato, maris rotundato-attenuato ; elytris apice triden- 
tato, dente intermedio validiori, suturali obtuso, supra magis 
fortiter punctato-striatis. 
Long. 7 — 8 lin. 

Still more common than A. cytherea at Ega. I convinced my- 
self on the spot that the two species kept themselves perfectly 
distinct, and no intermediate forms were found which could prove 
that they ever intercrossed. 

39. Agra optima, n. sp. 

M. de Chaudoir has given me the following description of this 
species : — 

"A. splend'idtv, Dej., valde affinis, forsan hujus speciei femina. 
Differt capite postice latiori, pone oculos magis rotundato, 
thorace crassiori, lateribus etiam magis rotundato; elytris 
paulo brevioribiis, apice tridentatis sed dente suturali baud 
producto, obtuso, nee reflexo ; antennis brevioribus, articulo 
8" breviusculo : elytris colore rubro-cupreis, splendidis." 
Long. 9^ lin. $. 
Villa Nova. 

M. de Chaudoir adds, after comparing my specimen with De- 
jean's type in his own collection, that the affinity with A. splcti- 
dida (Dej.) is very great, and that, excepting the sexual diffe- 
rences, he finds no distinctive character except in the conformation 
of the lip of the elytra, which usually offers no difference in the 



382 Mr. H. W. Bates on the 

two sexes ; this case, however, might offer an exception. De- 
jean's example of J. splendida came from Latreille, and is supposed 
to have been received from Peru. 

40. Jgra cuprea, Klug. 

Jgra cuprea, Klug, Entom. Monogr. p. 41, pi. iii. fig. 2. 

/4. varimiti colore simillima, obscure aenea, vel viridis vel seneo- 
cuprea ; differt corpore multo robustiori, elytris apice valde 
acute tridentatis ; capite ovato, pone oculos rotundato- 
attenuato {$), subquadrato, verticeleviter impresso ; thorace 
robusto, medio subdilatato, supra interstitiis Isevibus, latius- 
culis ; elytris punctato-striatis, striis alternis serie punctorum 
majorum, apice acute tridentatis ; antennis piceo-rufis, articulis 
basalibus pedibusque nigris. 

$ Elytris angulo suturali modice producto ; metasterno, femo- 
ribus anticis posticisque intus, et segmento ventrali ultimo 
dense rufo-pilosis. 

S Elytris angulo suturali in dente longissimo producto, antennis 
articulo 8^° breviusculo. 

Long. Sg lin. 

Ega and St. Paulo ; Upper Amazons, 

41. Agrulatici'ps, n. sp. 

A. robusta, nigro-aenea, elytris obscure viridi-seneis ; capite 
late ovato, pone oculos paulo elongato, cito rotundato- 
attenuato, vertice baud impresso ; thorace medio valde di- 
latato, antice subiter sinuato-attenuato, supra piano, lineatim 
subirregulariter punctato, hand rugoso, carina laterali pro- 
minula, episterno sparsim punctato ; elytris latiusculis, apice 
truncatis, angulo suturali parum producto, supra obscure 
aeneo-viridibus, punctato-striatis, striis S"''*, 4**, 6** serie 
punctorum impressis ; antennis nigris, articulis singulis basi 
rufis ; pedibus nigris. 

$ Segmentis ventralibus postice (basali etiam antice) sparsim 
punctato-pilosis. 

Long. 9 lin. 

Ega. Rare. 

42. Agra pficBOgona, n. sp. 
Baron Chaudoir has supplied the following description of this 
remarkable species : — 

" A. Feislharnelu (Buquet) valde affinis ; differt magnitudine mi- 



Species of Agra of the Amazons Region. 383 

noie, capite pone oculos minus elongate, magis trigono, cum 
palpis nigro, antennis gracilioribus, articulis duobus baseos 
paulo obsciirioribus ; tborace paulo breviori, multo minus et 
subtilius et ad lineam mediam vix punctato, epistcrnis laevibus ; 
elytiorum striisin fundosubtiliter rugosis, genubusque nigris." 
Long. 7 lin. ? 

The antennfe (with the exception of the two basal joints) and 
the legs (except the black knees) are clear reddish-yellow ; the 
sutural and external angles of the elytra are produced into long 
teeth. 

Villa Nova. One example. 

Klug has also described the following species, which seem to 
me to differ from all the foregoing and which I did not myself 
meet with. Their place in this genus is uncertain. 

43. Agra multiplicata, Klug. 
Agra multiplicata, Klug, Entom. Monogr. p. 39, pi. iii. fig. 1. 

A. nigro-senea ; occipite subimpresso ; thorace subelongato ; 
elytris punctato-striatis, apice tridentatis, purpurascentibiis, 
supra transversim plicatis ; capite attenuato-elongato ; an- 
tennis rufo-piceis. 
Long. 6| lin. $? 
Para. 

44. Agra clavipes, Klug. 
Agra clavipes, Klug, Jahrbiicher, p. 58. 
A. })icea ; capite postice vix attenuate, obsolete impresso; thorace 
cicatricoso, conico ; elytris subasneis, punctato-striatis, apice 
tridentatis. 
Long. 8 lin. $ 
Para. 

Klug compares it with A. femorata ; but it evidently belongs to 
a quite different group and may be a slightly immature example of 
his A. cuprea. King was not aware of the sexual differences in 
the thickness of the femora. 



( 385 ) 



XVII. New Species of Agra, in the Collection of Mr. W. W. 
Saunders. By H. W. Bates, F.Z.S. 

[Read 1st May, 1865.] 

Whilst engaged in studying this difficult genus in the preparation 
of the foregoing paper on the Amazonian species, I have been en- 
trusted with the examination of the Collection of y^g-r<^ belonging 
to Mr. W. W. Saunders, and finding therein four well-marked 
new species, have obtained permission to describe them by way of 
supplement. 

Jgra Valentina. (PL XX. fig. 7, $.) 
A. robusta, nigra; capite ovato, pone oculos usque ad coUum 
sensim rotundato-attenuato ; antennis nigris, articulis ( $ ) 8 — 
11 abbreviatis, 8^" brevissimo, ovato; thorace capite baud 
longiori, medio lato, antice subito attenuato, episternis con- 
vexis, dorso piano, postice vage punctato ; elytiis oblique 
truncatis, apice sutnrali dehiscenti, angido externo acuto, 
dorso striato-punctato, punctis latera versus majoribus, re- 
motioribus, striis 2-3 foveolis variis ; pedibus nigris, tibiis 
compressis, tarsis articulo ultimo lato. 
Long 9 lin. J 

Closely allied to A. latipes, Chaudoir (Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, 
p. 112), but more robust, and the elytra quite free from metallic 
lustre. The head is similar in shape, i. e. somewhat regularly 
oval and impunctate, but it is a little shorter; the thorax differs 
in being much broader in the middle, and the breadth is still fur- 
ther increased by the convexity of the episterna ; the surface is 
more even and the punctures more scattered and less deeply im- 
pressed. The elytra are of the same shape as in A. latipes, being 
sinuated before the middle and then again dilated before the apex, 
but the rows of punctures differ greatly in having each a number 
of much larger punctures, and in the lateral rows having all the 
punctures larger and more distant. The legs and tibiae are similar 
in form, but the basal joint of each tarsus is rather broader and 
has a mere rounded outline (?) than the same sex of A. latipes ; 
the claw joint is broad. 

One example, from Columbia (Venezuela). 



386 Mr. H. W. Bates on New Species of Agra 

Agra domhnda. (PI. XX. fig. 5, $•) 
A. nigro-picea, nitida; antennis pedibusque piceo-rufis, geniculis 
obscurioribus ; capite oblongo-ovato, pone oculos oblongo, 
imprimis sensim, deinde collum versus citius attenuato ; 
thorace capite vix longiori, medio vix dilatato, apicem versus 
leniter attenuato, episternis convexis, impunctatis, dorso trans- 
versim strigoso,irregulariter punctato, punctis baud profundis; 
elytris apice oblique flexuoso-truncatis, angulis externis 
breviter productis, acutis ; dorso profunde punctato-striatis, 
punctis raro confluentibus, interstitiis angustis, laevibus ; 
pedibus validis, tibiis apices versus compresso-dilatatis, tarsis 
articulo primo dilatato, unguiculari lato. 
Long. 1 1 lin. ? 

Allied to A. erythropus (Dejean), but much larger and propor- 
tionally more elongated and the elytra far more deeply and strongly 
punctate-striate. The lateral lobes of the mentum are elongate 
and subacute, and the species therefore belongs to the same small 
section as A. erythropus and A, latipes. The four terminal joints 
of the antennse are shorter and more slender than the preceding, 
the eighth being very short and oval, almost globular in shape. 
There is no trace of metallic glimmer on the body, but the whole 
surface is of a fine lustrous dark pitchy-black, the antennae 
dark reddish and the legs rather lighter and clearer pitchy-red, 
witli the knees dusky. The tibiae are compressed, but are not per- 
ceptibly dilated until towards the apex, and the basal joint of each 
tarsus (?) is much broader than the others, with its sides rounded. 
This grand species, of which a single example is in Mr. Saun- 
ders' Collection, is from Peru. 

Agra Saundersii. (PI. XX. fig. 4, $ .) 
A. magna, nigra, nitida, femoribus (apicibus exceptis) flavis; 
capite elongato-quadrato ; thorace angusto, antice attenuato, 
constricto, dorso grosse lineatim punctato, episternis vix con- 
vexis, parce punctatis ; elytris postice ampliatis, oblique trun- 
catis, angulo suturali valde producto, externo mucronato, 
dorso profunde Imeatim foveolatis, foveolis discretis, fundo 
metallicis, interstitiis reticulatis. 
Long. 12 lin. $ 

Closely allied to A. geniculata (Klug) and having a great resem- 
blance to it in shajie and colour, but it is nearly twice the length 
and bulky in proportion. The head is very much prolonged 
behind the eyes and but very slightly narrowed (in straight lines) to 



i7i the Collection of Mr. W. W. Saunders. 387 

the neck, at which point it is strongly constricted on all sides. The 
elytra are proportionally more dilated near the apex than in ^. 
genkidata, and the sutural angle is much more produced, resem- 
bling in this resj)ect A.riifescens ; their surface is marked with im- 
j)ressed rows of distinct regular foveae, the bottoms of which have 
a slight brassy lustre, and the interstices both longitudinal and 
transversal are narrow, so that the surface appears almost reticu- 
lated. The legs are robust and shining black, except the middle 
part of the femora, which is yellow ; the middle and hind tarsi 
are elongated, the basal joints being also elongated and slender. 
The antennae are shining black (apical joints wanting). 

Male. — Middle of metasternum and a space in the middle of 
the hind part of the three basal ventral segments punctured and 
pubescent. Anterior tarsi with tlie basal joint rotundate-dilatate ; 
middle tibiae with a strong tooth within (and hirsute) near the 
apex ; posterior tibiee strongly bent inwardly in the middle and 
thickened and hirsute thence to the apex. 

This large and handsome species is from Peru ; there is a 
single specimen only in Mr. Saunders' CoUecrion. 

Jgra occipitalis, (PI. XX. fig. 1, ^.) 
A. nigra, thorace elytrisque seneis, his certo situ subcupreo-mi- 
cantibus ; caj^ite elliptico, ante oculos modice protenso, pone 
oculos valde elongato, vix attenuato ; thorace angusto, grosse 
lineatim punctato ; elytris flexuoso-truncatis, angulis suturali- 
bus nullomodo, externis breviter, productis, supra lineatim 
foveolatis (baud striato-impressis), foveolis interdum elungatis, 
fundo multipunctatis ; antennis pedibusque nigro-piceis. 
$ tibiis posticis leniter incurvatis, a medio usque ad apicem 

intus dense hirsutis. 
Long. 6 lin. $ 

Allied to A. mcerens, Chaud. (Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1861, p. 119) 
and //. scridatrix {ante, p. 370) ; the head is broader and less 
narrowed behind the eyes than in the $ of A. mcerens, and the 
insect differs from both species in its brighter brassy colour, with 
faint coppery reflexions towards the apex of the elytra. The head 
is of an elliptical shape, and the part behind the eyes is much 
longer than the anterior part. The foveae on the elytra have no 
trace of lying in impressed lines as is the case with the species 
above quoted, and some of the foveae are elongated, with a few 
obscure bluish punctures at their bottoms. 
One exan)ple, from Brazil. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XX. 



Fig. 1. Agra occipitalis, Bates, ^. 

2. ,, 07)/a//s, Chaudoir. $. 

3. ,, cylherea, Thomson. $ 

4. ,, Saundersii, Bates. $. 

5. ,, (?<)m(7n(/a, Bates. ^. 

6. ,, anguinea, Bates. $. 

7. ,, Valeniina, Bates. ^ . 



( 389 ) 



XVI II. Descriptions of some New Species of Hymenop 
terous Insects belonging to the Families Thynnidae, Masa- 
ridae and Apidse. By Frederick Smith, V.P. Ent. Soc. 

[Read 1st May, 1861.] 

The insects described in the present paper, with one or two ex- 
ceptions, are the property of F. Dii Boulay, Esq., who has phiced 
tliem in my hands for examination. Amongst these are some of 
the finest species of the various genera to which they belong, 
particularly, I may point out, those of the rare genus Parayhi, 
three new species of which add greatly to the interest of this 
small collection of Australian Hymenoptera, But the most 
remarkable insect described is a bee, belonging to the section of 
leaf-cutting bees ; this I have characterised as forming a new 
genus (Thaurnatosoma), principally from tlie circumstance of its 
possessing elongated capitate antennae ; I know but of one other 
instance in which a bee has true capitate antennae ; this is in a 
species of Tetralonia from Brazil.* 

Fam. THYNNID^. 
Genus Thynnus. 
T/tynnus ventraUs. 
T. luteus ; antennis abdominisque segmentis apicalibus nigris ; 

alis fuscis. 
Female. — Length 10 lines. 

Pale luteous, the antennae and tips of the mandibles black ; a 
transverse black line on the vertex, from which two angular 
stains emanate, each enclosing one of the posterior ocelli ; the 
pit, in which the anterior ocellus is situated, is also black ; all the 
sutures of the thorax black ; the wings dark brown ; the basal 
joint of the tarsi more or less obscurely ferruginous, the rest of 

• A description of this species is given, post, p. 398. There are three 
genera of " long-horned bees," in which the males have their antennse fre- 
quently as long as, or in some cases even longer than, the body. The first 
genus established, Eucera, is at once known from the others by the species 
having only two submarginal cells in the anterior wings ; the other genera, 
Tetralonia and MeUssodes, have each tliree submarginal cells, but Tetralonia 
has 6-jointed maxillary palpi and 4-jointed labial palpi, whereas MeUssodes 
has both maxillary and labial palpi 4-jointed. 



390 iMi'. F. Smith's Descrijjfions 

the joints black ; abdomen wit!) tlie fourth and following spgrnents 
black ; tlie fourth with two transverse ovate yellow maculae, the 
fifth with two minute spots; beneath black. 
Halj. Swan River. 

Genus jElurus. 
JElurus agilis. 
^. niger ; capite thoraceque ferrugineo-variegatis ; abdomine 
ferrugineo, segmento primo nigro ; alls hyalinis, nervuris 
nigris. 
Male. — Length 6 lines. 

Black ; the clypeus, the scape in front, and the mandibles, fer- 
ruginous ; the cheeks with a long cinereous beard ; the head 
closely and coarsely punctured. The thorax beneath, the legs, a 
large macula beneath the wings, and the pro- and meso-thorax 
ferruginous, the latter with an oblong black patch extending from 
its base to the apex ; the scutellum ferruginous; the post-scutellum 
yellow ; the sides of the metathorax clothed with long cinereous 
pubescence ; the wings hyaline, the nervures black ; the legs 
more or less black or fuscous above; abdomen ferruginous, with 
the basal segment black ; the thorax is coarsely punctured, the 
abdomen with distant shallow punctures, except the basal seg- 
ment, which is closely and finely punctured. 
Hah. Swan River. 

Genus Rhagigaster. 
Rhagigaster simiUlmus. 
R. niger ; macula sub alis abdominisque segmentis duobus api- 

caiibus ferrugineis ; tibiis tarsisque testaceis. 
Male. — Length 8 lines. 

Black; head and thorax rugose and covered with short cinereous 
pubescence ; a large oblong ferruginous macula beneath the 
wines, which are hyaline, their nervures black ; the tibiae and 
tarsi rufo-testaceous, with the claw joint fuscous ; abdomen 
black and shining, the two apical segments ferruginous, the tip of 
the ultimate one black. 
Hab. Swan River. 

Rhagigas!er Jlav'ifrons. 
R. niger; capite antice flavo ; thorace ferrugineo. 
Female. — Length 8 lines. 

Black ; the head distantly and finely punctured ; the anterior 
portion of the head as high as the vertex of the eyes, and the 



of some New Species of Ilymenopterous Insects. 391 

mandibles yellow ; tlie head siibquadrate, slightly narrowed be- 
hind ; thorax ferruginous, finely and closely punctured, with a 
number of larger scattered punctures ; the articulations of the 
legs and the tarsi rufo-testaceous ; abdomen elongate and shining, 
the second segment transversely striated, the apex ferruginous 
and longitudinally striated, 
ilab. Swan River. 

Fam. M AS A RID ^. 
Genus Paragia, Shuck. 
This genus was established in the year 1837, at which time 
only a single example was known ; since that period nine addi- 
tional species have been described. I here add three new and beau- 
tiful species to the list, making the total number thirteen. In 
the generic characters given by Shuckard and drawn from the 
type Paragia decipiens, the trophi are not characterized, but 
Saussure has figured them in his Monograph of the Family Masa- 
riilce/m which this genus is placed — the maxillary palpi being six- 
jointed, the labial four-jointed. That this is not a social genus of 
wasps, I think is proved by an examination of the tarsal claws, 
which are bifid, a character nowhere found hitherto amongst the 
social Vespidce, but characteristic of all the solitary species. The 
type specimen described by Shuckard is now in the British 
Museum, and proves to be in a discoloured, bad condition ; I 
therefore add, in the list of the species of the genus, a inore cor- 
rect description, drawn from specimens obtained from Adelaide 
in the finest state of preservation. Ail the known species are 
from Australia and Tasmania. 

1. Paragia decipiens, Shuck. Trans. Ent. Soc. ii. 82, pi. viii. 
fig. 3, $ . 
Sauss. Mon. Masar. p. 54. 

P. nigra, opaca ; abdomine sulphureo. 

Female. — Length 9 lines. 

Black, opaque; head and thorax shagreened, with two confluent 
yellow spots between the antennae ; a narrow interrupted line on 
the anterior margin of the prothorax and a minute spot beneath 
the wings sulphur-yellow ; wings dark fuscous, palest at their 
posterior margins ; abdomen sulphur-yellow, the base of the first 
segment black, from which a narrow black line emanates and runs 
down the upper surface of the segment to its posterior margin. 

Male. — This sex has the clypeus, an abbreviated line on the 
inner margin of the eyes, two minute spots between the antennae, 

VOL. II. THIRD SERIES, PART V.— SEPT. 1 8C5. F F 



392 Mr. F. Smith's Descriptions 

and tlie scape in front, yellow ; the anterior tibiae are yellow in 
front ; the second segment of the abdomen is produced beneath 
into a large pointed tubercle. 
Hab. Adelaide. 

2. Paragia tricolor, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc. ser. 2, i. 41, pi. v. 

fig. 1, ^. 
„ Smithli, Sauss. Mon. Masar. p. 55, 3, t. 2, fig. 1, $. 
Hab. Adelaide. 

3. Paragia Saussurii, Smith, Cat. Vesp. p. 2, 3, $. 

„ tricolor, Sauss. Mon. Masar. p. 54, 2, $ (nee Smith). 
Hab. Perth, W. Australia. 

4. Paragia odyneroides, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc. ser. 2, i. 42, 

pi. V. fig. 2. 
Sauss. Mon. Masar. p. 5Q, 4. 
Hab. Hunter River, Australia. 

5. Paragia avstralis, Sauss. Mon. Masar. p. 57, 5, $, $. 
Hab. Tasmania. 

6. Paragia hicolor, Sauss. Mon. Masar. p. 58, 6, 
Hab. Australia. 

7. Paragia bidens^ Sauss. Mon. Masar. p. 59, 7, $ , ?. 
Hab. Adelaide. 

8. Paragia predator, Sauss. Mon. Masar. p. 59, 8, $. 
Hab. Australia. 

9. Paragia pictifrons, Smith, Cat. Vesp. p. 2, 9, $ . 
Hab. Swan River. 

10. Paragia deceptor. Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, ser. 3, i. 56, $. 
Hab. Adelaide. 

11. Paragia calida. 
P. nigra ; capite thoraceque profunde punctatis, flavoque varie- 
gatis ; abdomine aurantiaco ; segmentis primo et tertio 
nigris ; alis fuscis. 
Male. —Length 6 lines. 

Black ; the head and thorax thickly covered with deep con- 
fluent punctures; the clypeus, an oblong-shaped macula widest 
at the apex above it, and a line on the inner orbit of the eyes 
not reaching their summit, yellow ; the prothorax bordered with 
orange along its anterior margin ; the tibise and tarsi ferruginous, 
the anterior tibise with a fuscous stain behind, and the intermediate 
and posterior pairs with a similar stain outside ; the wings fuscous, 



of some New Species of Hymenopterous Insects. 393 

the anterior pair very dark along the anterior margin ; abdomen 
bright orange-red, the first and third segments black, the latter 
with its posterior margin narrowly bordered with orange, the 
margin waved anteriorly; the basal segment with a central longi- 
tudinal line, not deeply impressed, and the line is orange towards 
the posterior margin of the segment ; tlie second segment narrowly 
black at its basal margin, most broadly so in the centre. 

Var. — The orange border to the prothorax recurved at the 
lateral angles, and enclosing a triangular black shape on the face 
of the truncation ; the compressed tooth on the lateral margins 
of the metathorax orange-red ; the basal segment of the abdomen 
with only two united bilobed black spots. 

Hab. Adelaide. 

12. Parasr'ia venusta. 

P. nigra, aurantiaca mulcipicta ; abdominis basi et segmento 
tertio aurantiacis ; alis hyalinis, anticis margine anteriori 
fusco. 

Female. — Length 5 lines. 

Black, opaque ; the clypeus, a coronet-shaped spot above and a 
line at the inner and outer orbits of the eyes, not reaching to their 
summit, the prothorax, an epaulet over the tegulje, the scutellum, 
a minute spot on the mesothorax before the scutellum, a spot on 
each side of the inetathorax, another beneath the wings, and the 
legs, all orange-yellow ; the coxae black ; the wings hyaline, with 
the anterior margin of the superior pair dark fuscous j the basal 
segment of the abdomen, an interrupted narrow band at the basal 
margin of the second, t!)e third segment, the apical margin of 
the two following, and the sixth segment entirely, orange-yellow ; 
beneath, the third segment entirely, and the apical margin of the 
first and second segments, orange. 

Hab. Swan River. 

13. Paragia vespiformis. 
P. nigra ; capite thoraceque flavo-variegatis ; abdomine fasciis 

quinque flavis ; alis subhyalinis. 
Female. — Length 7 lines. 

Black and opaque ; the clypeus, base of the mandibles exte- 
riorly, a broad stripe along the inner margin of the eyes extend- 
ing upwards from the base of the mandibles to the insertion of 
the antennae, a shorter narrow stripe above the broad one, and 
also a short thin line above each antenna, yellow ; behind the 
eyes there is also a yellow stripe ; a narrow line on the anterior 

F F ^ 



394 Mr. F. Smitli's Descriptions 

margin oftlie thorax, a minute spot in the middle of the mesothorax, 
the inner margin of the tegiilae, the posterior margin of the scii- 
telliim, and a large ovate spot on each si(ie of the metathorax, 
yellow ; a subtriangular spot beneath the wings, and the legs 
beneath, yellow ; a yellow spot on the intermediate and posterior 
coxae, all the trochanters, the base of the anterior and interme- 
diate coxae, as well as the anterior tibiae, black ; the wings sub- 
liyaline, the nervures black ; a broad yellow fascia, slightly inter- 
rupted in the middle, on the margin of the basal segment of the 
abdomen ; the three following segments have each a narrower 
interrupted fascia ; on the apical margin of the fifth segment an 
entire fascia, emarginate in the middle ; beneath yellow, the second 
segment having a transverse black spot at its basal margin, and 
the three following having each a narrow central black stripe at 
the basal margin ; the sixth segment black, with the tip more or 
less yellow. 

Hab. Swan River. 

Fam. APID^, Leach. 
Genus Thaumatosoma, n. g. 

Labial palpi four-jointed, the two basal joints elongate, their 
length about equal, the third and fourth joints minute and sub- 
clavate, inserted at the apex of the second joint ; the labial palpi 
and the labium of equal length. The maxillary palpi two-jointed, 
minute; the basal joint short, stout and cyiindric, the second 
about the same length as the first, but much more slender and 
pointed at the apex. The basal lobe of the maxillae shorter than 
the apical one, which is elongate, lanceolate and curved. Head 
as wide as the thorax ; eyes large, lateral and elongate-ovate ; 
the ocelli three in a triangle on the vertex, the posterior pair 
placed in a line with the posterior margin of the eyes ; the labrum 
elongate, produced and rounded anteriorly; the antennae capitate 
(in the male), elongate, reaching to the middle of the abdomen, 
the club compound, formed of the two apical joints compressed 
and pyrifortn. The anterior wings have one marginal and two 
submarginal cells, the latter receiving both the recurrent ner- 
vures, the first near the basal, the second near the apical angle of 
the cell. The legs simple. Abdomen oblong, the sides parallel, 
rounded at the base and apex. 

It will be seen that the above characters, with the exception of 
the capitate antennae, are those of the genus Megachile ; but the 
exceptional character is so remarkable when possessed by a mem- 
ber of the great family Apidce, that I have thought it desirable to 
depart from the rigid observance of those laws which usually 



of some New Species of Hymenopterous Insects. 395 

regulate the formation of genera. The insect, for the reception of 
whicli I have estabHshed the present genus, is perliaps strictly 
a species of MegachUe, since in that genus we find an infinite 
variety in the form of some organs in the male sex of different 
sjjccies ; we have one specirs found in this country, Megaclule 
Williighbiella, of which Mr. Kirby observes, " This sex (male) of 
our insect exhibits a peculiarity which none of those that are 
related to it in the form of the anterior tarsus possess ; the last 
joint of its antennae is larger than any of the rest, which gives 
them some resemblance to those of a Papilio." The antenufu 
thus described are, however, exactly like those of the majority 
of the males of MegachUe, with the exception of the apical joint, 
which is compressed, and, when viewed laterally, presents the 
club-shaped form alluded to. In the insect here described the 
antennje are extremely slender and elongate, as in the genus 
Eucera, with the two apical joints forming a knob, or club, as in 
the beautiful Lepidopterous genus Argynnis. 



Thaumalosoma Duboiilaii. (PI. XXI. fig. 1.) 

Male. — Length 5 lines. 

Black, the head and thorax opake, very finely and closely 
punctured; the face with a thin clothing of long silvery pu- 
bescence, tliat on the clypeus is more dense, shorter, and has a yel- 
lowish tinge ; the antennae ferruginous, with the apical knob or 
club black. The sides of the thorax with a thin cinereous pubes- 
cence ; the wings subhyaline, their nervures black ; the tegulae 
rufo-testaceous behind. Abdomen shining and closely punctured ; 
the posterior margins of the segments with a narrow fringe of white 
pubescence ; the fourth segment clothed with fulvous ; the fifth 
and sixth finely rugose, the latter slightly but widely emarginate ; 
the seventh segment concealed beneath the sixth, its margin 
armed on each side with a short acute tooth, and also having two 
longer blunt marginal spines which are equidistant from each 
other and from the lateral spines ; the basal segment produced 
beneath into a blunt projecting node. 

The specimen described is in bad condition ; judging from the 
ragged state of the wings, and the rubbed thorax and abdomen, it 
must have been long disclosed at the time of capture ; the white 
abdominal bands are nearly obliterated. I have named it, as a 
mark of compliment and encouragement to its captor, F. On 
Boulay, Esq. 

Hab. West Australia. 



396 Mr. F. Smith's Descriptions 

Supplementary Paper. 

[Read 7lh August, 1865.] 

In addition to the figure and details of Thaumatosoma Duboulaii, 
I have added to the Plate some remarkable forms of antennae of 
other species of Aculeate Hymenoptera, and herewith append short 
descriptions of the insects themselves. 

There are two or three known species of bees, the males of 
which have the apical joint of the antennae compressed, so that 
when viewed sideways, as Mr. Kirby remarks, " it gives them 
somewhat the appearance of those of a Papilio ;" such is the 
the antenna of Nomia Kirb'u, as will be seen by the figure, but 
this, when viewed from above, appears to be of the ordinary form ; 
in the case of Thaumatosoma it is quite different, and the imitation 
of the antenna of a Papilio is complete ; all the joints of the 
flagellum are attenuated and thread-like, except the two apical, 
which are enlarged, and swollen into a knob. 

Fam. MUTILLID^. 

Genus PsAMMOTHERMA, Latr. 

Psamviotherma Jlahellata. (PI. XXI. fig. 6.) 

Male. — Length 5 lines. 

Black ; strongly punctured ; the prothorax and tegulae ferru- 
ginous; the antennae bipectinate ; the wings brown ; the posterior 
margin of the first and second segments of the abdomen narrowly 
edged with white pubescence, the third segment clothed with 
similar pubescence. 

The female has the pro- and meso-thorax entirely red. 

This species of Mut'dla is from Senegal. 

Fam. POMPILID^, Leach. 

Genus Ctenocerus, Dahlb. 

Ctenocerus ramosus. (PI. XXI. fig. 4.) 

Male. — Length | of an inch. 

Black, the mandibles and labrum ferruginous ; the antennae 
ferruginous, with the scape black and furnished beneath with a 
long dense floccus of black hair ; the wings yellow and subhya- 
line ; the apex of the wings with a dark brown border; the 
neuration pale ferruginous ; the anterior tibiae and tarsi ob- 
scurely ferruginous ; the head very convex in front ; the thorax 



oj some New Species of Hymenopterous Insects. 397 

elongate, longer than the abdomen, and also wider ; the mcta- 
thorax oblong and covered with a dense black pubescence ; the 
abdomen covered with a sericeous reflexion. 

The female closely resembles the male, and is similarly 
coloured ; the antenna; are simple, dusky above, ferruginous 
beneath, two or three of the apical joints being entirely so ; the 
abdomen is very smooth and shining and as long as the head aiid 
thorax. 

Length -^^ of an inch. 

This species was taken by Dr. Kannemeyer, at Burgerdorp, a 
Dutch settlement in South Africa. 

The only character that separates this insect from many species 
of Pompilidce is the pectination of the antennae of the male ; it is 
however, perhaps, desirable to retain Dahlbom's genus for the 
reception of such species as have similar antennae ; the type is the 
Ctenocerus Klugii, Dahlb., subsequently described by Lucas under 
the name Clavelia pompUiformis, Ann. Ent. Soc. Fr. 1852. 



Fam. ANDRENID^, Leach. 
Genus Lamprocolletes, Smith. 
Lamprocolletes cladocerus^ Smith, (PL XXL fig. 3.) 
See Trans. Ent. Soc. ser. 3, i. 57 . 

Black ; the face and cheeks clothed with hoary pubescence, 
the mandibles ferruginous at their apex ; the joints of the antennae 
bipectinate, the pectinations irregularly toothed ; thorax shining, 
finely punctured, thinly clothed with hoary pubescence ; the 
wings hyaline and iridescent; the claw-joint of the tarsi ferru- 
ginous, the calcaria pale testaceous ; abdomen shining, mar- 
gins of the segments depressed ; finely punctured, and with a 
thinly scattered hoary pubescence. 

Male. — Length 4^ lines. 

Taken near Sydney, Australia. 

This remarkable bee is still unique in the British Museum. 
The beautiful ramose antennae of the male present perhaps the 
most remarkable example of those organs known in the entire 
tribe of the Aculeala ; such an extraordinary departure from the 
normal form of antenna could scarcely have been looked for in 
the Apidoe, and if met with at all, might with much greater proba- 
bility have been expected to occur amongst the Tenlhredinidce. 



398 Mr, F. Smith's Descriptions 

Genus Nomia, Latr. 
Nomia Kirhil, Westw. MS. (PI. XXI. fig. 5.) 

Male. — Length 7 lines. 

Black ; the head narrower than the thorax ', the face and pos- 
terior margin of the vertex with a thick sooty-black pubescence ; 
the antennae a little shorter than the thorax, the apical joint com- 
pressed ; the thorax clothed with short sooty pubescence ; the 
wings dark brown ; the anterior tibiae and tarsi fringed behind 
with sooty pubescence ; the intermediate femora incrassate and 
compressed beneath into a semidentate process ; the posterior tibiae 
also much swollen, forming a subtriangular mass which has a tooth 
at its inferior angle ; abdomen ovate and shining, being thinly 
covered with sooty pubescence. 

This species is from Brazil ; it formed part of the Collection of 
the Rev. W. Kirby, and is now in the British Museum. 

Fam. APID^. 
Genus Tetralonia, Spin. 

Telralonia mirahilis. (PI. XXI. fig. 2.) 

Male. — Length \ an inch. 

Head and thorax black ; the clypeus, labrum and mandibles 
yellow, the base of the former black and the apex of the latter fer- 
ruginous; the face, cheeks and hinder margin of the vertex thickly 
clothed with long pale fulvous hair ; the antennae elongate, ex- 
tending to the middle of the abdomen ; the scape, first and base 
of the second joint of the flagellum black, the third to the eighth 
joints, which are cylindric and of about equal length, ferruginous 
and of the usual form, the three following attenuated to the thin- 
ness of a hair, the apical joint being black, flattened and pear- 
shaped ; the thorax clothed above with fulvous pubescence, much 
paler beneath ; the tegulae, base of the nervures of the wings and 
the legs ferruginous; the wings subhyaline, the nervures fusco- 
ferruginous, the costal nervure blackish ; abdomen reddish-brown, 
the basal margins of the segments with broad fasciae of fine short 
pale downy pubescence. 

The species is from Rio. 

Notwithstanding the remarkable form of the antennae of this 
insect, I leave it for the present in the genus Tetralonia ; shotdd 
other species occur with similar antennal peculiarities, they may be 
conveniently separated from Tetralonia, and constitute a new genus. 



of some New Species of Hymenapterous Insects. 399 

Genus CllALICODOMA. 

Chalicodoma cceloccrn. Smith. (PI. XXI. fig. 7.) 
This species was described in tlie Catalogue of Apkice, pub- 
lished by the Trustees of the British Museum ; it was there in- 
cluded in the genus Megach'tle ; subsequently Herr Gueinzius 
forwarded from Port Natal both sexes of the insect and the nest, 
which proved it to belong to the genus C/ialicodornUy which con- 
structs mud nests on walls, 8cc. The sexes are similarly coloured, 
black and pubescent, with the abdomen bright fulvous-red, except 
the basal segment, which is black ; the wings are dark brown ; in 
the male sex, the antennae are clavate and hollowed out beneath, 
and the anterior tarsi are expanded as in the males of MegachUe. 
Length I of an inch. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXL 

(All tlie figures are considerably magnified.) 

Fig. 1. Thaumatosoma Dubnulaii, $ ; In, antenna. 

2. Telraloiiia mirabilis, ^.antenna. 

3. LamprocoUetes cladocerus, $ ; 3a, antenna ; 3/>, underside of antenna. 

4. Cteiiflcerus ramoi,us, ^.antenna; 4a, underside of ditto. 

5. Nomia Kiilni, $ , antenna. 

6. Psammotherma Jiabetlata, antenna ; 6a, underside of a few joints of diUo. 

7. Chalicodoma cat locera, ^ , antenna ; 7a, underside of ditto. 



( 401 ) 



XIX. Descriptions of New Phytophaga from Western 
Australia. By the Rev. Hamlet Clark, M.A., F.L.S. 

[Read 1st May and 5lh June, 1865.] 

In laying before the Society a paper containing descriptions of 
certain new species of Phytophaga from Western Australia, 1 
desire to offer a few remarks gn Entomological papers generally 
— their object, their legitimate scope, and their value. 

I will begin with what is a self-evident proposition ; that papers, 
like those which are honoured by a place in our Transactions, 
may be of the greatest importance to the cause of science ; or 
they may be to its very serious injury — and this latter even when 
the writers have a real aptitude for and are thoroughly conscien- 
tious in their self-imposed studies. 

Papers are really valuable when — and indeed only to the degree 
to which — the information which they supply (its accuracy, its 
completeness) is sufficient to outweigh the labour that will be 
required on the part of future students in order to obtain access 
to them, and to master their contents ; for it is well to remember 
that the author of the most perfect paper in the world is not only 
by writing it undertaking work himself, but he is most certainly 
making future work for others ; the more he can save the time of 
others the more useful is his work — the more his paper taxes 
the time of others the less profitable is his work : this simple fact, 
if we admit it, at once suggests one aspect which gives in part the 
measurement of the value of any paper, as an addition to Ento- 
mological literature : its limit and scope should be clear and well 
defined, and within that limit it should be, as far as its subject 
will permit, exhaustive : it may comprehend a genus, or a group 
of genera; or it may comprehend a country or a continent: but 
it should comprehend something, and be limited to something, 
and within that range it should aim at being as perfect as time and 
material will allow. I will grant that there is a great charm in 
being able to wander at will over a vast domain; to describe from 
one continent a beautiful species ; from another continent to seek 
to fix a striking form as a new genus ; to travel from one grou[) 
to another — from the old world right across to the new — and all 
within the limits of a few pages ! But what infinite labour is all 



402 Rev. 11. Clark's Descri/ti'iGns 

this causing to future students! or rather, I would say, liovv great 
is the risk that some future student, either by accident or indo- 
lence, may ignore part of the contents of such a pajier altogether. 
The husbandman who marks out a small portion of unreclaimed 
land, and then brings the whole of that portion under cultivation, 
is doing far better work than he who fearlessly charges at the 
whole sweep of country up to the very horizon ; the labour of the 
former will bear fruit long after the very name of the latter has 
been forgotten. 

And it is worthy of notice, that that which most permanently 
benefits science is that which also contributes most renown to the 
writer himself. He who has thoroughly mastered one single point 
will certainly stand out among us more clearly than he who has 
ranged over a hundred points and mastered none; to do little, 
and make that little available for others, is far better than to do 
much and to add infinitely to tlie labours of others. It is not 
the happy possessor of a collection — crowded though it may be 
in types, or most ample in material — whose name will be most 
esteemed by our successors ; for collections pass away from hand 
to hand, and leave behind them hardly the name of him to whom 
they have been the care of years : it is not necessarily even the 
irrepressible writer, who has added a hundred papers to our lite- 
rature; it is indeed certain that such a man has been indus- 
trious, but it does not by any means follow that that industry 
has been wisely applied. He rather will be spoken of as ex- 
cellent, who — it may be with small opportunities — it may be with 
less brilliant talent than that of many otliers — has in his studies 
kept always before him a sense of the vastness of the range of 
Natural Science; a desire to benefit others, rather than to amuse 
himself; and hence a resolution to touch nothing that he cannot 
complete. 

I offer these remarks as a preface to a very unpretending 
paper, with no sort of intention of criticizing any papers pub- 
lished by the Society, except my own ; but because 1 desire that 
our literary efforts, which will hereafter give the character to 
ourselves, may not suffer when compared with those of others ; 
and because I am conscious myself of an absolute proneness to the 
failing to which I refer — a tendency to discursiveness in Entomo- 
logical work. 

The following descriptions of insects represent part of a very 
interesting little collection of West Australian Phytophaga, which 
lias been placed in my hands by Mr. Uu Boulay. Mr. Du Boulay's 



of New Phytophaga from We&teni Australia. 403 

method of entoniologiziiig has been this : he rides some score 
miles every day tlirough the bush ; he provides himself with 
a strong canvas bag, which generally in his gallops is drag- 
ging behind him — very much I imagine after the manner of a 
dredging- net at a yacht's stern in a ten-knots' breeze. At oppor- 
tune moments during the day this bag is examined ; its apex is 
found crammed with insect life ; three or four of the largest and 
most striking specimens are selected ; the rest are tossed away, 
and the gallop resumed. I have reason to know that for the 
future our friend, who is really as keen an Entomologist and as 
true a lover of nature as any one I know, will take better care of 
tiie residuum of the contents of his sweeping-net. He excused 
himself to me for his natural-selection tendencies by stating that 
he believed that he was the only one in Australia or Europe who 
was sufficiently advanced to care for such things. Mr. Du Boulay, 
on his return to West Australia, will be envied by many of us 
as having it within his power to explore an almost unknown and 
most interesting Entomological Fauna. 

List of next) Species hereinafter described. 
Chrysomelid^e. Paroj>sis, seventeen species ; see tabular 
analysis below. 
CJialcolampra uiidulntipennis. 

laticollis. 
Australlca ccneonitens. 
Chalcomela siibpuncfnla, 
EuMOLPiD^. Geloptera Duboulaii, 
nodosa, 
T/iaiim ;slonierus viridis. 
Edusa aurcoviridis. 
setosa. 
hisjnduln. 
nigro-ceiiea, 
Ocnus viridis. 

Fam. CHRYSOMELID^. 

Genus Pauopsis, Oliv. 
The species of Paropsis described in this paper may be tabu- 
lated as follows : — 

[1.] Corpore ovato, depresso. 

( 1 ) P. tncdiocittdta. 

(2) P. apicala. 



40'1< Rev. H. Clark's Descriptions 

[II.] Coipore brevi, subrotundato, satis gibboso. 
[A.] Elytris laevibus. 

1. Elytris striato-punctatis. 

(a) Elytris rufo-fulvis, vel testaceis. 

(3) P. amoena. 

(4) P. captiosa. 

(5) P. macuUcollls. 
(h) Elytris maculatis. 

(6) P. purpureo-aurea, 

(7) P. tessellata. 

(8) P. n'igroconspersa. 

(9) P. saiiguineotincta. 

(10) P. transversomaculala. 

(11) P. interthicta. 
(c) Elytris nigris. 

(12) P. lugriUda. 

2. Elytris confuse punctatis, 

(13) P. nigropicta. 

[B.] Elytris rugosis, vel subtuberculatis. 

(a) Elytris concoloribus (punctis ipsis forsitan tinctis). 

(14) P. inciirva. 

(15) P. perparvula, 

(b) Elytris maculatis, vel aliter tinctis. 

(16) P. nervosa. 

(17) P. veriucipennis. 



1. Paropsis mediovittata. 

Elongato-ovalis, depressa, striato-punctata, rufo-flava, sutura 
late fulvo-rufd : caput crebie punctatum, vel rufb-flavum vel 
testaceum ; thorax transversus, basi subsinuata, lateribus 
rotundatis, versus apicem contractis, marginatis, angulis an- 
ticis baud prominentibus ; crebre sed minute punctatus, 
ad latera puncta profundiora ; scutellum subelongatum, 
lateribus subrotundatis, impunctatum, nitidum ; elytra apice 
attenuata, depressa, punctato-striata, punctis minutis aequa- 
Hbus ordinatis, interstitia subtiliter punctata ; rufo-flava, 
vitta media rufo-fulva apud suturam utrinque strias duas 
amplectens, apex ipse quoque rufo-fulvus ; corjncs subtus, 
pedes et antennce flavo-testacei. 

Long. Corp. lin. 4 — 2| ; lat. lin. 2| — 2. 

P. mediovittata belongs to that sub-section of tbis large genus, 
whicb includes those species that have elongated and flattened 



of New Phyto-phagafrom Western Australia. 405 

bodies ; it is closely allied in form to P. scaphoides, Baly (ined.), 
which also I have received from Western Australia. 
In Mr. Baly's Collection as well as in my own. 



2. Paropsis apicata. 

E minutis, depressa, ovalis, punctato-striata, flava, in exemplo 
desiccato ad scutellum et apicem sanguineo-notata : caput 
crebre punctatum, rufo-flavum, labro ad medium fusco-notato; 
thorax vix triplo longitudinem latituditie superans, margine 
antico angulato - emarginato, postico sinuato, transverso, 
angulis anticis breviter rotundatis ; confertim et inaequaliter 
punctatus, punctis versus latera majoribus ; flavus, vel 
rufo-flavus, margine antico tenuiter rufo-fusco, et dorso 
medio obscure rufo ; scutellum triangulare, impunctatum, 
rufo-flavum; elytra lata, depressa, apice rotundata, striato- 
punctata, punctis crebris minutis, interstitiis minute punc- 
tatis et versus apicem elevatis ; margines utrinque minute et 
confuse punctati; quoad colorem (in exemplo unico desiccato) 
flava, apice late et regione sciitellari sanguineis, color autem 
flavus incertus et adumbratus est, interdum fusco ambigue no- 
tatus ; corpus subtus flavum, abdomine fuscato ; pedes flavi, 
genubus et tarsis rufo-flavis : anlennce rufo-fuscse, apice sub- 
incrassatae. 
Long. Corp. lin. 2 ; lat. lin. 1-. 

A single example from which the above description is taken 
suggests, by its appearance, that the living insect may be quite 
different in colour, and probably of singular beauty ; it will be 
recognised from all species of a similar size by the well-pronounced 
coloration of the apex and its somewhat less distinct triangular 
post-scutellary marking. 

3. Paropsis amcena. 

Lata, circularis, depressa, striato-punctata, pallide flava, san- 
guineo-colorata : caput antice sinuato-transverse foveolalum, 
crebre punctatum, flavum, labro rufo-flavo, medio fusco-tincto; 
thorax pcnitus longitudinem latitudine triplo superans, an- 
gulis anticis prominulis et obtusis, posticis rotundatis, latera 
rotundata et tenue marginata, margine anteriori valde ex- 
cavato et marginato ; valde punctatus, crebrius ad latera, 
utrinque ad latera late impressus, rufo-flavus, flavo- 
notatus, notis tribus longitudinalibus, apud apicem medium 



406 Rev. [I. Clark's Descrvptwns 

connexis, media recta, lateralibus valde sinuatis ; margines 
etiam obscure flavi ; sculellum elongato-triangulare, Iseve, 
iiiipunctatum, rufo-flavum, medio flavo ; elytra ampliata, 
satis depressa, apice rotundata, striato-puiictata, punctis 
crebris minutis et ordinatis, interstitia subtilissirae punctata 
et rugosa, margines ampliati et confuse et fortiter punctati ; 
flavo-sanguineo omnino tincta, marginibus exceptis flavis ; 
corpus sublus et pedes pallide flavi ; antennce fuscac, articulis 
1 — 4 flavis. 
liOng. Corp. lin. 3^ ; lat. lin. 3. 

It is possible that the sanguineous coloration of the elytra may 
be in some examples absent. The species may be distinguished 
by its almost circular and depressed form, and the regular even 
and minute punctuation of its elytra. 
Champion Bay. 

4. Paropsis capliosa, 

Lata^ subcircularis, post medium paulum ampliata, vix depressa, 
humeris utrinque subtuberculatis, striato-punctata, pallide 
flava: caput ad labrum transverse et suhcirculariter foveo- 
latum, crebre punctatum, pallide testaceum, labro ad medium 
nigro-tincto, et maculd utrinque nigrd minuta apud basin ; 
thorax longitudinem mediam latitudine plus duplo superans, 
angulis anticis obtusis distinctis, lateribus marginatis et 
rotundatis, angulis posticis rotundatis ; indistincte sed ad 
latera crebrius et fortius punctatus; scutellum elongato- 
triangidare, impunctatum, laeve ; elytra lata, post medium 
ampliata, apice breviter rotundata; juxta humeros utrinque 
oblique visos tuberculum breve apparet; striato-punc- 
tata, punctis ordinatis confertis et minutis, interstitia vix 
Irevia sed minutissime punctata vel rugosa, (striaa ad 
latera et ad apicem paulum profundae videntur, hand ut 
in P. amcend obsoletae et laeves), margines ampliati et for- 
titer punctati ; corpus subtus et pedes flavi ; antennce fuscae, 
articulis basalibus rufo-testaceis. 

Long, Corp. lin. 3| ; lat. lin. 3. 

P. captiosa is nearly allied to P. amcena {ante, p. 405), both in 
general form, size and punctate striation of the elytra ; after a 
careful examination I am persuaded that it represents a separate 
and a new species : when viewed laterally it is decidedly less 
depressed, more globose; when viewed obliquely, a tubercular 
elevation near the shoulders stands out distinctly; and makes the 



of New Phytophaga from Western Australia. 407 

shoulders more prominent than in P. amcena. The outline also, 
from above, is somewhat different ; in P. amcena it is broadly 
subcircular, in P. captlusa it is somewhat dilated behind the 
middle. 

Champion Bay. 

5. Paropsis maculicollis. 
Rotundato-ovalis, punctato-striata, flava vel flavo-testacea : 
caput fovea lineari ad apicem transversa, subsinuata, crebre 
punctatum, flavum, basi et maculis duabus juxta basin (ali- 
quando confluentibus et basi connexis), etiamque interdum 
lined apicali, nigris ; thorax latitudine duplo longitudinem 
superans, angulis posticis rotundatis, anticis baud prominulis, 
margine apicali valde emarginato et sinuato ; punctatus 
(punctis crebris minutis et inaequalibus, latera versus magnis 
et confertis), flavus, maculis quibusdam in forma literae VV 
ordinatis (interdum conjunctis, interdum insulatis, et in nu- 
mero circa decem) ; sculellum subtriangulare, minutissime 
punctatum, nigro-fuscum ; elytra brevia, lata, striato-punc- 
tata, flava vel fusco-flava, punctis minutis raris nigris ordinatis 
sed intervallis inaequalibus dispositis, interstitia etiam evi- 
denter punctata; corj)us siihtus rufo-testaceum ; pedes testacei, 
genubus fuscis ; antennce flavae, apicibus fusco-adumbratis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 2^ ; lat. lin. 2. 
A well-defined little species, notable by its thoracic maculations, 

and the minute black and sparingly-distributed punctures of its 

elytra. 

6. Paropsis purpureo-aiirea. 
Rotundato-ovalis, satis depressa, punctato-striata ; dum viva, 
purpureo-aurea, mortua et desiccata, flavo-testacea, fusco- 
maculata: caput linea antic^ sinuato-transversa, punctatum, 
flavum ; thorax transversus, latitudine baud elytra sed longi- 
tudinem ipsius plus duplo superans, lateribus rotundatis, 
angulis posticis rotundatis, anticis baud prominulis, crebre 
punctatus, punctis in disco minutis inaequalibus, ad latera 
confertis et majoribus; quoad colorem flavus, disco medio 
confuse fusco-ornato ; scutellum subcordiforme, impuncta- 
tum ; elytra satis lata, marginibus ampliatis, striato-punctata, 
punctis minutis confertis et aequaliter ordinatis, interstitia 
etiam pimctis crebris ornata ; quoad colorem obscure notata, 
flavo-testacea, utrinque circulo magno scutellari, altcroque 

VOL. II. THIRD SERIES, PART V. SEPT. 1865. G G 



40S Rev. H. Clark's Descriptions 

apicali subelongato maxivno, macula etiam lateiali ante- 
medid elongata ; corpus subtus flavum ; i^edes et antennce 
pallide flavi. 
Long. Corp. lin. 3\ ; lat. lin. 2|. 

Mr. Du Boulay says that the example from which this descrip- 
tion is taken was, when alive, inconceivably brilliant and lovely ; 
it was one single gem of bright metallic purple and burnished 
gold, and so attractive that he carried it for some days in his 
handkerchief in the bush ; at last it died, he looked for it but 
could not find it, and only saw, to his utter bewilderment, in its 
place an obscure-looking flavous insect, as it presents itself to 
me. According to his description (which accords exactly with 
the present markings), the elytra are golden, with a broad well- 
formed ring of brilliant purple (extending over half the breadth 
of the elytra) on either side near the scutellum, and another 
oblong ring which occupies the whole apical part of the elytra ; 
between the two rings, near the side, is a third longitudinal 
purple marking ; the margins of the elytra are broadly and 
palely golden ; the thorax is golden, with a magnificent centre-piece 
of purple. 

I have had much pleasure in receiving a kind offer from Mr. 
Du Boulay, that on his return to his Australian home he will 
prepare coloured drawings of species of this genus when in a living 
state, and forward them to me, together with the specimens from 
which the drawings were made. In this way, audit appears to me 
in this way only, can we make our descriptions of this genus of 
value to Australian Entomologists. 
Champion Bay. 

7. Paropsis tessellata. 
Ovata, satis rotundata, vix depressa, punctato-striata ; exempli 
mortui et desiccati corpus subtus, pedes, et antennae rufo- 
flavi, elytra pallide testacea, fusco-maculata : cajnU antice 
linea obsoleta juxta epistoma curvata, leviter punctatum, 
rufo-flavum ; thorax longitudine latitudinem vix tripio su- 
perans, lateribus rotundatis et satis ampliatis, margine 
antico lato valde emarginato, angulis anticis subprominulis, 
sparsim punctulatus, riitb-flavus, maculis utrinque in medium 
(vel macula transversa adumbrata indeterminata) fuscis ; scu- 
tellum triangulare, laeve (rarissime punctatum), flavo-fuscum ; 
elytra brevia, longitudine amplitudinera superantia, punctato- 
striata, punctis aequalibus sed inaequaluer distributis, pallide 
fusca, maculis 20 — 30 quadratis in singulo elytro pallide 



of New Phytophaga from Western Australia. 409 

testaccis ; corpus suhtus pallida flavum ; pedes flavi, genubus 
et femoribus supra fusco-adumbratis ; an<eHw<;e rufo-flavae. 

Long. Corp. lin. 3^ ; lat, lin. 2\. 

P. tessellala is conspicuous among other species by the peculiar 
tessellated pattern of its elytra; frequently the closely arranged 
order of punctures is interrupted, in each interruption appears a 
rectangular flavous marking, in the centre of which is a single 
puncture ; the ordinary punctures are black on a fuscous ground, 
the isolated punctures are fulvous on a flavous ground. 

I have received two examples of this species from Mr. Du 
Boulay, one of which is in Mr. Baly's cabinet, the other in my 
own. 

8. Paropsis n'lgroconspersa. 

Late ovata, subrotundata, vix depressa, rufo-testacea, nigro- 
maculata et conspersa : caput sparsim punctatum ; thorax 
transversus, margine posteriori subrotundato in medio am- 
pliato, lateribus paulum rotundatis et caput versus com- 
pressis, anguhs anticis obtusis, posticis modice rotundatis ; 
sparsim punctatus, lateribus punctis crebrius ornatis ; scutel- 
lum triangulare, impunctatum, nitidum ; elytra satis brevia 
et rotundata, striato-punctata, punctis profundis modicis 
ordinatis, versus latera media autem confusis, plerumque 
nigris ; maculae etiam nigrs post-mediae longitudinales 
suturales elytra ornant ; macula inter strias 1 et 2 post 
scutellum, elongata ; inter strias 3 et 4 major, interstitium 
totum ad medium elytri occupans ; inter strias 4 et 5 series 
macularum minorum, et inde ad latera minores inordinatae 
plus minus distributee ; apicem versus majores et plus con- 
fertse, ad humeros quoque (ad strias 7 et 8) macula major 
insulata ; corpus subtus, pedes et anlennce rufo-flavi. 
Long. Corp. lin. 3 — 2£ ; lat. lin. 2. 

Two specimens are before me, which differ but slightly the 
one from the other. The species may be recognized among its 
punctate-striate congeners by the double lines of elongate mark- 
ings near the suture, and the lateral more irregular and insular 
markings. 

I received both specimens, $ and $, from Mr. Du Boulay, 
from Champion Bay. 

9. Paropsis sanguineotincta. 

E minoribus, ovalis, subparallela, ad apicem attenuata, striato- 
punctata, rufo-testacea, nigro-vittata, medio sanguineo-tincta : 
G G 2 



410 Rev. H. Clark's Descriptions 

caput supra labrum transversa arcuate foveolatum, crebre 
punctatum, ad basin nigro-marginatum ; thorax transversus, 
lateribus rotundatis juxta angulos anticos vix rotundatos 
subcompressis, angulis posticis obtusis ; crebre et minut^ 
punctatus, punctis ad latera fortioribus ; scutellum sub- 
cordiforme, impunctatum, rufo-testaceum ; elytra satis par- 
allela, thorace paulum latiora, apicem versus attenuatiora, 
utrinque striis 10 punctorum ornata, punctis confertis et 
ordinatis, interstitia rainutissime punctata ; in elytro singulo 
sutura et vittae quatuor interruptae nigrae ; prima scutel- 
laris, brevis, inter strias 2 et 3 ; secunda inter strias 4 et 5, 
apicem attingens, sed in medium interrupta ; tertia brevis, 
juxta apicem apud striara 7 ; quarta marginalis, sed longo 
intervallo a margine separata, apud striam 9, et humeros et 
apicem penitus attingens, sed in medio interrupta ; striae 2, S 
et 4 juxta apicem sese attingunt ; in medio elytrorum 
utrinque macula magna roseo- vel sanguineo-tincta ; pedes, 
corpus suhtus et antennce rufo-flavi. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2^ ; lat. lin. 1|. 

A lovely little species, marked with four interrupted but bold 
vittae of black, and having in the middle of each elytron an in- 
determinate marking of bright rufous. 

Champion Bay. 

10. Parop>sis transversomaculaia. 
E minoribus, depressa, late ovalis, marginata, striato-punctata, 
flava, maculis nigris ornata : caput inaequaliter punctatum, 
flavum, labro rufo-tincto, basi maculis duabus magnis nigro- 
rufis ornata; thorax latitudine plus duplo longitudinem 
excellens, angulis posticis et aniicis obtusis, emargina- 
tione anteriori profundi, baud circulai-i sed utrinque ob- 
tuse angulata ; crebre confuse et inaequaliter punctatus, 
punctis ad latera confertis et majoribus, flavus, macula 
utrinque insulata magna diluta rufo-fusca, marginibusque 
tenuiter rufo-coloratis ; scutellum elongato-triangulare, im- 
punctatum, rufo-fuscum ; elytra lata, ovata, post medium 
latiora, apice rotundata, depressa, late marginata, striato- 
punctata, punctis aequalibus ordinatis nigris, interstitiis etiam 
subtiliter punctatis ; margo latus, planus, punctis sparsis con- 
fusis ad latera ornatus ; elytra flava, macularum serie lunata 
transversa mediant, aheraque apicali ; mediana e maculis 
tribus penitus confluentibus vix striam lateralem attingentibus 
constat, series postica ad striam 9 extendit ; macula utrin- 



of New Phytophaya from Western Australia. 411 

que exterior major et latior, et apud liumeros qiioqne ma- 
cula insulata nigra ; corpus subtus nigrum ; pedes et antenna; 
rufo-flavi. 
Long. Corp. lin. 2^ ; lat. lin. If. 

This species may be recognized by its depressed and broadly 
ovate form, the markings on its head and thorax, and the two sub- 
circular transverse rows of fuscous markings on the elytra. 
A single example in my collection is from Champion Bay. 



11. Paropsis hilertincta. 
Late ovalis, subdepressa, punctato-striata, rufo-flava, maculis 
nigris ornata : caput minute punctatum, labro ad medium 
nigro-notato, basi nigrum ; thorax transversus, latitudine 
longitudinis duplum aequante, angulis anticis rotundatis, 
posticis obtusis ; crebre et minute punctatus, punctis apud 
latera majoribus et confertis ; scutellum triangulare, impunc- 
tatum, fuscum ; elytra rotundata, subdepressa, post medium 
latiora, punctato-striata, punctis minutis confertis, interstitiis 
minute punctatis ; rufo-flava, maculis nigris ornata, serie 
subcirculari circa scutellum, alterdque post medium circa 
apicem (interdum penitus obliterata), macula etiam longi- 
tudinali laterali ante medium : antennce, corpus subtus, et 
pedes rufo-flavi. 
Long. Corp. lin, 2^ ; lat. lin. If. 

P. intertincta is allied to P. transversomaculata, but abundantly 
distinct; the punctures of the elytra are much more minute, and 
the maculation of the elytra is entirely different In the species 
before us the medial subtransverse row of maculations is inflected 
towards the apex; in P. transversomaculata it is inflected towards 
the base. 

Champion Bay. 

12. Paropsis nigritula. 
E minimis, depressa, late ovalis, striato-punctata, rufo-flava, 
elytris nigris : caput sparsim punctatum, flavum, labro ad 
medium fuscato ; thorax transversus, latitudine longitudinem 
plus duplo superante, lateribus subrotundatis et marginatis, 
angulis anticis obtusis, posticis subrotundatis ; minute punc- 
tatus, fortius ad latera, flavus, margine antico fuscato ; 
scutellum subtriangulare, Ueve, nigrum ; elytra lata, depressa, 
striato-punctata, interstitiis subtilissime punctatis ; antennce 



412 "Rev. H. Clark's Descriptions 

flavo-testacese ; pedes testacei ; co7-pus subtus nigrum, ab- 

domine fuscato. 
Long. Corp. lin. 1;^ ; lat. lin. 1. 

Notable by its minute size, its depressed form, and its black 
punctate-striate elytra. 

13. Paropsis nigropicta. 
Rotundato-ovalis, subtiliter punctata, rufo-sanguinea, nigro- 
maculata : caput punctatum, rufum, labro et basi (oculos ad 
latera amplectenti) nigris ; thorax transversus, valde declivis, 
basi superne visa transversa, lateribus subrotundatis, angulis 
vix acutis, margine anterior! valde sinuato-emarginato ; 
punctatus, punctis inaequalibus minutis crebris, rufo- 
sanguineus, macula utrinque nigra circulari insulata magnd 
ornatus ; scutellum magnum, triangulare, laeve, nigrum ; 
elytra rotundata, brevia, pone medium sub-ampliata, punctata, 
punctis confertis inaequalibus vix ordine dispositis, rufo- 
sanguinea nigro-maculata, maculis quatuor, P ante-laterali 
subtriangulari vel subcirculari plerumque insulata, 2'^^ scu- 
tellari circulari magnd margines basalem et suturalem 
attingenti et maculam rufam intra sese amplectenti, 3^ post- 
media transversa inaequali interdum in maculis duabus 
divisa, 4*^ apicali ad suturam etiamque ad marginem hemi- 
elytrorum extendenti ; antennce rufae ; corpus subtus nigrum, 
abdomine rufo-marginato; pedes rufi, femoribus nigro-ornatis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 2^ ; lat. lin. If. 
The four examples before me vary but little from each other 

either in size or degree of coloration ; the insect is quite distinct 

from other known species of the group. 

14. Paropsis incurva. 
Late ovalis, globosa, elytris transverse visis subgibbosis, 
fusco-rufa : caput antice utrinque transverse foveolatum, 
crebr^ et leviler punctatum; thorax longitudinem latitudine 
triplo superans, angulis anticis breviter rotundatis, posticis 
late rotundatis, punctatus, punctis sat minutis et crebris, 
apud latera fortioribus ; scutellum triangulare, levissime 
punctatum ; elytra lata, globosa, marginibus paulum ampli- 
atis, striato-punctata, punctis brevibus inaequalibus, inaequa- 
liter subordinatis, interdum etiam confusis interdum obso- 
letis, ad margines paulum majoribus et rarius distributis, 



of New PJiyto2)haga from Western Australia. 413 

elytra quoque leviter et crebrc verrucosa et transversim 
riigosa, rugis omni parte dispartitis; corpus subtus rufo-ferru- 
gineum, metasterno medio fusco-adumbrato; pedes et antennce 
rufo-flavi. 
Long. Corp. lin. 3| ; lat. lin. 3. 

This species may be recognized from other species with ver- 
rucose elytra, by the gibbous form of the medial elytra when seen 
sideways, and by the comparatively undeveloped and generally 
distributed rugosities on the surface of the elytra. 

Champion Bay. 

15. Paropsis pcrparvula. 

Late ovnlis, subcircularis, convexa, subtuberculata, confuse 
punctata, rubiginosa : caput crebre punctatum, spatio basali 
brevi laevi ; ^//orax transversus, latitudine longitudinem triplo 
superans, crebre et satis fortiter punctatus, angulis anticis 
distinctis, posticis rotundatis, lateribus etiam rotundatis ; 
scutellum late triangulare, loeve, rufo-flavum, marginibus 
rufo-fuscis ; eli/lra satis convexa, rotundata, confuse et cre- 
bre punctata, punctis versus suturam et apicem seriebus or- 
dinatis ; tubercula etiam rarius apparent, inaequalia ple- 
rumque insulata juxta suturam apicalem penitus ordinata ; 
corpus subius et antenncs flavo-fuscae ; pedes flavo-rufi. 

Long. corp. lin. 2^ ; lat. lin. 2. 

P. perparvula, though belonging to the very difficult and ex- 
tensive sub-group of tuberculated species, is, I believe, easily to 
be recognized — at all events it abundantly differs from all Western 
Australian species with which I am acquainted. I have several 
species in my Collection, received for the most part from M. 
Darnel, from the North and North- West districts : the species 
before us may be recognized easily aqtiong them all by its small 
size, the close irregular punctuation of the elytra, which beconrcs 
near the apical suture arranged in strise, and by the absence of 
any dark fuscous spots on the elytra. 

Champion Bay. 

16. Paropsis nervosa. 

Late ovalis, vix gibbosa, vibicibus transversis apud elytra or- 

nata, punctata, rufo-castanea : caput apud labrum foved 

lineari subtransversa ornatum, insequaliter rugosum, plaga 

circulari utrinque media subdepressa nigra, labro etiam ad 



414 Rev. H. Clark's Descriptions 

medium nigro ; thorax longltudinem latitudine triplo supe- 
rans, angulis anticis rotundato-obtusis et prominulis, posticis 
rotundatis, lateribus rotundatis et tenuiter marginatis, margine 
anteriore late emarginato ; ad medium carina obsoleta longi- 
tudinalis ; punctatus et vermiculariter subrugosus, macula 
utrinque magna nigra penitus quadrata inter medium et 
marginem, et in his maculis rugis fortioribus et distinctis ; 
scutellmn triangulare, punctatum ; elytra satis gibbosa, post 
medium paulum ampliata, marginibus extensis, apice vix 
rotundato sed paululum producto ; fortiter et crebr^ punc- 
tata, punctis nigro-fuscis, apud humeros utrinque tuberculo 
unico paulum elevata, ad latera et ad medium vibicibus 
interruptis 2 vel 3 ornata, etiamque tuberculis vix crebris 
apud apicem sed juxta suturam post-mediam crebrioribus 
et seriebus 2 ordinatis ; quoad colorem rufo-castanea, ma- 
cula fusc4 magna indeterminata ad scutellum, altera in 
tuberculum humerale, iterumque vitta subobsoleta rufo- 
fused a humeris ad apicem continuata ; corporis suhtus pro- 
thorax flavus, metathorax rufo-flavus nigro-tinctus, abdo- 
men crebre punctatum, rufum ; antennce rufo-flavae; pedes 
flavo-testacei. 
Long. Corp. lin. 2f ; lat. lin. 2^. 

P. nervosa may be distinguished by its strongly punctate elytra, 
which are marked by a single medial transverse raised band, and 
one or two others, smaller and more interrupted, nearer the apex ; 
the almost quadrate (not circular) markings of the thorax, and 
the rufo-flavous markings on the elytra, amply distinguish it from 
allied species. 

17. Paropsis verrucipennis. 

Late ovalis, gibbosa, yerrucis et quasi vibicibus transversis 
ornata, rufo-castanea, nigro-maculata : caput crebre puncta- 
tum, rufo-castaneum, labro ad medium nigro-notato ; thorax 
triplo longitudinem latitudine superans, angulis posticis ro- 
tundatis, anticis obtusis, lateribus rotundatis; crebre punc- 
tatus, punctis confusis ingequalibus ad latera magnis ; 
rufo-castaneus, utrinque ad latus macula circulari magna ; 
scutellum subcordiforme, ad medium subdepressum, minute 
punctatum ; elytra gibbosa, infra scutellum rotundato-elevata, 
marginibus post medium paulum ampliatis, apice rotundato ; 
verrucis inaequalibus post medium seriebus ordinatis tecta, 



of New Phytophaga from Western Australia. 415 

ad latera notis transversis elevatis inaequalibus 1 vel 2 vel 3 
ornata ; pedes rufo-flavi ; corpus subtus et antennae rufo-fuscae. 
Long. Corp. lin. 3 ; lat. lin. 2^. 

The group of species of this genus that has the elytra of a rufo- 
ferruginous colour and adorned with tubercular elevations, either 
in the form of isolated warts or transverse weals, is very nume- 
rous, and the species in some instances are both closely allied and 
subject to variation of sculpture. The species before us however 
presents no difficulty of definition ; it is in form very gibbous ; 
behind the scutellum the whole of the elytra, when viewed 
laterally, is raised into a hump-like elevation ; their surface 
is covered with warty elevations, arranged near the apex in 
irregular striae, and near the sides interrupted by and changed 
into transverse elevated ridges, more or less clearly defined ; 
the broad circular lateral markings of the thorax also render this 
species conspicuous among its congeners. 

Genus Chalcolampra, Blanch. 
1. C/ialcolampra undulatipenn'is, 

Oblongo-ovalis, subparallela, aeneo-metallescens, elytris punctis 
etiamque tuberculis obsoletis ornatis: caput inter oculos 
transverse subdepressum, ad margines oculorum crebre et 
fortiter punctatum, juxta labrum utrinque oblique et brevi- 
ter foveolatum (foveae margine impunctato), versus basin 
leviter et sparsim punctatum ; thorax magnus, transversus, 
latitudine elytra sequans, declivis, lateribus leviter rotundatis, 
margine anteriori fortiter emarginato, basali transverso recto ; 
utrinque leviter apud margines depressus, et sparsim sed 
fortiter punctatus, apud discum rarissime punctis magnis 
sed crebre minutissimis ornatus ; scutellum transverso- 
triangulare, impunctatum, heve, nitidum ; elytra parallela, 
versus apicem subattenuata, etiamque declivia, punctis raris 
satis magnis ordinatis, etiam quasi tuberculis suhelevatis 
ornata, ordinibtis quinque dispositis ; corpus subtus rufo- 
aeneum, abdomen autem nigrum, segmento apicali in medio 
fortiter impresso ; pedes nigro-aeneo metallici, genubus tarsis- 
que rufo-metallescentibus ; antennae rufo-fuscae. 

Long. corp. lin. 4 ; lat. lin. 2^. 

Very nearly allied to Chalcolampra verrucosa, Clark (Journ. 
Entom. ii. 250), but broader, of a more decided green metallic 



416 Rev. H. Clark's Descriptions 

colour, and with the elevations on the elytra much less distinctly 
expressed. 

I have received a single specimen of this species from Swan 
River. 

2. Chalcolampra laticolUs. 

Oblongo-ovata, subparallela, aeneo-nigra, striato-punctata : 
caput leviter et sparsim punctatum, punctis ad apicem et 
juxta oculos crebrius instructis, labro rufo-ferrugineo ; 
thorax latitudine longitudinem duplo superans et elytra 
aequans, lateribus ampliatis et rotundatis, sparsim punctatus, 
punctis apud latera majoribus et crebris ; scutetlum triangu- 
lare, impunctatum ; elytra parallela, apice declivia, striato- 
punctata, punctis minutis confertis et plerumque ordinatis, 
striis ipsis versus medium obsoletis ; corpus sublus rufo-fus- 
cum ; pedes rufo-flavi ; antennce pallide rufae. 

Long. corp. lin. 4 ; lat. lin. 2. 

This species resembles AustraUca irrorata, Baly ; the thorax 
has its sides more rounded in front ; the head and thorax are 
much more punctate ; and the stripe-like punctures of the elytra 
are more evenly arranged and less crowded. 

Champion Bay. 

Genus Australica, Chevr. 
1. Australica ceneonitens. 
Elongato-ovalis, satis parallela, crebre punctata, thorace fusco- 
aeneo vel viridi-aeneo, elytris viridi-seneis : caput fortiter et 
crebre punctatum, fusco-nigrum, labro rufo-flavo ; thorax 
transversus, lateribus ampliato-rotundatis, punctatus, punctis 
satis crebris juxta latera confertis ; sculellum subtriangulare, 
impunctatum, laeve; e/z/^ra parallela, punctata, punctis crebris 
et satis magnis juxta suturam seriebus 2 vel 3 inordinatis 
dispositis, alibi confusis ; corpus subtus aeneo-nigrum ; pedes 
rufi, genubus fuscis ; antennce rufae. 
Long. corp. lin. 2| ; lat. lin. 1. 

This pretty little species is quite distinct from its congeners, 
and may at once be recognized by its bright blue colour : it 
will by reason of its parallel form be placed near to A. IVater- 
housii, Baly, (Trans. Ent. Soc. 3rd ser. i. 620.) 
Champion -Bay. 
In Mr. Baly's collection, and also in my own. 



of New Phytophaga from Western Australia. 417 

Genus Chalcomela, Baly. 
1. Chalcomela subpituctata. 

C. pdulce (Clark, Joiirn. Entom. ii. 2o\) affinis ; fere rotundata, 
aeneo-nigra, subtiliter punctata : caput foved linear! minuta 
subtransversa alteraque longitudinali versus apicem, sub- 
tiliter et creberrime punctatum, labro rufo-flavo; thorax 
ut in C. p'lluld sed crebrius subpunctatus ; scutellum late 
triangulare, inipunctatum, nitidum ; elytra rotundata, striato- 
punctata, punctis baud ut in C. piluld magnis et inaequalibus 
sed minutis confertis et ordinatis, interstitia subtiliter punc- 
tata etiamque subtilissime rugosa ; corpus subtus, pedes et 
antennce nigro-aenei. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2^ ; lat. lin. 2^. 

This species may readily be separated from C. pdula by its more 
regular stripe-like punctures on the elytra ; the punctures are 
smaller and more closely arranged : it differs also in the minute 
thread-like fovea on the head. 

Champion Bay. 

Fam. EUMOLPID^. 

Genus Geloptera, Baly, Journ. Entom. i. 283. 

1. Geloptera Duboula'ii. 

Oblonga, convexa, parallela, punctata vel reticulata, plerumque 
metallico-violacea : caput in medio foveolatum, fortiter punc- 
tatum, violaceum ; thorax transversus, lateribus antice 
constrictis et depressis, marginatis et dentibus obsoleus 
3 vel 4 armatis, margine basali subsinuato et in medium 
marginato ; confuse confertim et inaequaliter punctatus ; 
scutellum subcirculare, impunctatum, viride ; elytra versus 
apicem striis 2 vel 3 utrinque brevibus ornata, interstitiis 
eievatis, disco transverse et fortiter reticulato ; metallico- 
violacea, marginibus tenuiter viridibus ; corpus subtus viride, 
abdomine fusco ; pedes rufo-metallici ; antennce rufae. 
Long. Corp. lin. 4; lat. lin. 2|. 

This species, which I name in honour of its captor, is entirely 
different from the other two species of the genus, G. tubcrculala 
and G, geniculata, both of which, found at Swan River, are com- 
mon in collections. 

In the collection of Mr. Baly, as well as in my own. 



418 Rev. H. Clark's DescripfJons 

2. Gcloptera nodosa. 
Subelongata, obscure cuprea, confuse punctata, nodis ornata : 
caput labro nigro, punctatissimum, vel nigro-cupreum vel 
nigrum ; thorax vix transversus, angulis anticis compressis, 
fortiter et rugose punctatus, nodis 4 in medio instructus ; 
scidellum transverse subcirculare ; elytra satis elongata, 
apice attenuata, fortiter et confertim punctata, obsolete 
tuberculata, tuberculis plerumque insulatis ; corpus subtus 
nigro-fuscum, abdomine pube adpressa pallida obtecto ; 
pedes rufo-fusci ; antennce nigro-fuscse. 
Long. corp. lin. 3 — 2i; lat. lin. 1| — 1|. 

In appearance this species approaches G. tuberculata, but is 
much smaller and more parallel : it is more elongate than G. 
geniculala. 

In the collection of Mr. Baly, and also in my own. 

Genus Thaumastomerus. 

Genus novum ex Eumolpidis, late ovatum. Caput verticale, 
antice subproductum. Palpi articulo ultimo turgido, incras- 
sato, baud ut plerumque in genere Edusd subelongato. 
Antennce filiformes, elongatse, tenues. Thorax transversus, 
angulis anticis valde depressis et acutis, marginibus lateralibus 
subrotundatis, anteriori emarginato, posteriori sinuato. Scu- 
tellum quadratum, apice obtuso. Elytra lata, thorace paulum 
latiora, postice subattenuata, punctata, nitida. Abdomen 
segmento penultimo tertio latiore. Femora antica robusta, 
niargine inferiori ad medium angulato ; media valde incras- 
sata, brevia, arcuata (latitudo media penitus tertiam partem 
longitudinis aequat) ; postica attenuata, ad medium subglo- 
bosa. Tibice anticae ad basin leviter incurvatse, versus 
apicem latiores, margine juxta apicem obtuse angulato ; 
mediae breves, robustas, inflects?, subcylindricae ; posticae 
elongatae, graciles. Tarsi antici et postici articulo basali 
lato et magno, secundo minuto triangulari, penultimo pro- 
funde bilobato, ultimo curvato ; medii articulo basali secun- 
dum vix superante. Unguiculi limbi ambo robusti, hamis 
ipsis minutis valde incurvatis et brevibus. 

The above diagnosis is taken from a single example of a most 
abnormal form of Eumolpidce. Generally it resembles the species 
of Edusa, but is somewhat broader and less parallel ; its striking 
peculiarity consists in the strange incrassation of its medial fe- 



of New Phylophaga from Western Australia. 419 

mora. I am told by its captor that the species jumps with 
strength and quickness. 

I have, from the same collection, a single example of what I 
take to be the female of the same species, resembling the typical 
form in every particular except the incrassation of the femora. 

1. Thaumastomerus viridis. 

Late ovatus, postice subattenuatus, punctatus, viridi-metalH- 
cus, nitidus : caput verticale, ad medium subdepressum, 
punctatum, labro rufo-fusco ; thorenc crebre et inaequa- 
liter punctatus ; scutellum impunctatum ; elytra lata, subde- 
pressa, punctata, punctis apud latera penitus veluti in rugis 
transverse ordinatis ; corpus subtus nigro-viride ; peeves rufi ; 
antennce graciles, rufae, articulis ultimis fuscatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 3 ; lat. lin. 2. 

Champion Bay. Taken by Mr. Du Boulay. 

Genus Edusa, Chevr. 
1. Edusa aureoviridis. 

Brevis, lata ; elytra striato-punctata et transverse rugosa ; 
sparsim albo-pubescens, aureo-virid